Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47(3) 151-224(2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189


 

CONTENTS

Papers

 

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider)

157

      Jayshree Banot, Garima Lata, O P Jangir, Manshi Sharma, Vijay Singh Rathore, S K Saini & Amit Nagal

 

 

 

Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula offcinalis L. flower extract

163

      Korengath Chandran Preethi & Ramadasan Kuttan

 

 

 

169

      C R Rajasree, T Rajmohan & K T Augusti

 

 

 

Effect of conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypolipidemic action of garlic in rats

176

      Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Mohammed Naseeruddin Inamdar & Mohammed Asad

 

 

 

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

182

      C Vijaya, M Ramanathan & B Suresh

 

 

 

Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats

186

      Mariyamma Thomas, K S Sujatha & Sisilamma George

 

 

 

Anti-nociceptive effect of duloxetine in mouse model of diabetic neuropathic pain

193

      Anurag Kuhad, Mahendra Bishsoi & Kanawaljit Chopra

 

 

 

Role of PGRs and inhibitors in induction and control of somatic embryogenesis in Themeda quadrivalvis

198

      N Habibi, R K Suthar & S D Purohit

 

 

 

In vitro and shoot multiplication in Terminalia bellerica Roxb. under controlled carbon dioxide environment

204

      R K Suthar, P Rathore & S D Purohit

 

Distribution and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sites of Hisar (India)

210

      Kiran Bishnoi, Umashanker Sain, Rajender Kumar, Rajesh Singh & Narsi R Bishnoi

 

Notes

 

Antimicrobial activity of endemic Digitalis lamarckii Ivan from Turkey

218

      Mehlika Benli, Nazife Yiğit, Fatmagül Gevenv, Kerim Güney & Ümit Bingöl

 

 

 

Shelf life and colonization of soil by clay based cyanobacterial inocula

222

      Vineeta Dubey & R C Verma

 

 

 

——————

 

Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

Author Index

Asad Mohammed

176

Asdaq Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

176

Augusti K T

169

 

 

Banot Jayshree

157

Benli Mehlika

218

Bingöl Ümit

218

Bishnoi Kiran

210

Bishnoi Mahendra

193

Bishnoi R Narsi

210

 

 

Chopra Kanwaljit

193

 

 

Dubey Vineeta

222

 

 

George Sisilamma

186

Gevenv Fatmagül

218

Güney Kerim

218

 

 

Habibi N

198

 

 

Inamdar Mohammed Naseeruddin

176

 

 

Jangir O P

157

Kuhad Anurag

193

Kumar Rajender

210

Kuttan Ramadasan

163

Lata Garima

157

 

 

Nagal Amit

157

 

 

Preethi Korengath Chandran

163

Purohit S D

198,204

 

 

Rajmohan T

169

Rajsree C R

169

Ramanathan M

182

Rathore P

204

Rathore Vijay Singh

157

 

 

Sain Umashanker

210

Saini K S

157

Sharma Manshi

157

Singh Rajesh

210

Sujatha K S

186

Suresh B

182

Suthar R K

198,204

 

 

Thomas Mariyamma

186

 

 

Verma R C

222

Vijaya C

182

 

 

Yiğit Nazife

218

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Adenosine

193

Aegle marmelos

182

Alcohol

169

Antibacterial

218

Antihyperlipidaemic activity

182

Antimicrobial

218

Antioxidant

163

Atrovastatin

182

 

 

Biodegradation

210

Biofertilizer

222

 

 

Calendula officinalis

163

Captopril

176

Carbon dioxide enrichment

204

CCl4

163

Cholesterol

169

Cisplatin

163

Clay based inocula

222

Colonization

222

Cyanobacteria

222

 

 

Diabetes

193

Digitalis lamarckii

218

Duloxetine

193

Emblica officinalis

157

Enzymes

169

 

 

FFA

169

Frog

157

 

 

Garlic homogenate

176

Garlic protein

169

Gemfibrozil

182

 

 

HDL-C

182

Hepatoprotection

163

High fat-diet

182

Hydrochlorothiazide

176

 

 

Lens regeneration

157

Lipid peroxidation

169

Lipid profile

176

 

 

Medicinal plant

204

Monosodium glutamate

186

Multiplication

204

 

 

Nephroprotection

163

Neuropathy

193

Phenanthrene

210

Photoautotrophic

204

Piper longum

186

Plant growth regulators

198

Plant inhibitors

198

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

210

Propranolol

176

Pseudomonas paucimobilis

210

Pseudomonas putida

210

Pyrene

210

 

 

Rats

186

 

 

Shelf life

222

Somatic embryogenesis

198

Soy protein

169

 

 

Tadpole

157

TAG

169

Themeda quadrivalvis

198

Toxicity

186

Triglycerides

182

Triton WR 1339

182

 

 

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 157-162

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider)

Jayshree Banot, Garima Lata, O P Jangir*, Manshi Sharma, Vijay Singh Rathore, S K Saini & Amit Nagal

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner 334 001, India

Received 13 May 2008, revised 27 November 2008

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R.cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 163-168.

 

 

 

Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract

Korengath Chandran Preethi & Ramadasan Kuttan*

Department of Biochemistry Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, India, 680 555

Received 3 July 2008; revised 9 January 2009

Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes — superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 169-175

 

 

 

Antiatherogenic and antiperoxidative effects of garlic and soy proteins in alcohol fed rats

C R Rajasree, T Rajmohan & K T Augusti*

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India

Received 3 June 2008; revised 29 October 2008

Rats fed with alcohol (18%) at 3.76 g/day for 45 days showed significant reduction in body weight, glutathione (GSH) content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma, levels of HDL cholesterol in serum, hepatic bile acid production and fecal excretion of neutral sterols also showed significant reduction. Simultaneous feeding of garlic protein (GP) or soy protein (SP) (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 45 days) to alcohol fed groups increased each of above parameters significantly towards normal values. Increase in GSH content and catalase activity in liver, was significantly higher for SP treated group than for GP treated group. However, increase in plasma LCAT was significantly higher for GP treated group than for SP treated group. Alcohol fed rats showed significant increase in liver weight, serum and tissue cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids (PL) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels and activity of HMGCoA reductase in liver and intestine. Lipid peroxidation, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver and incorporation of labeled acetate into liver cholesterol also showed significant increase. GP and SP treated rats showed decrease in these values towards normal. GP feeding showed a better effect than SP in lowering serum and heart total cholesterol, and in maintaining GPx at near normal level, while SP feeding showed a better effect in lowering serum FFA level and maintaining GR activity at near normal level. In suppressing incorporation of labeled acetate into serum cholesterol, GP feeding showed a better effect than SP. Antiatherogenic and antiperoxidative effects of these proteins may be due to lower lysine/arginine ratio.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 176-181

 

 

 

Effect of conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypolipidemic
action of garlic in rats

Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaqa*, Mohammed Naseeruddin Inamdarb, & Mohammed Asada

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, # 5, Sarjapur Road,
Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India

bDepartment of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 027, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised 13 January 2009

The present study was undertaken to determine the possible alteration in hypolipidemic actions of garlic homogenate (GH) in presence of conventional antihypertensive drugs, propranolol (PRO), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD) and captopril (CAP). Albino rats fed with normal fat diet (NFD) or high fat diet (HFD) were treated with GH at three different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally for 30 days or in combination with PRO (10 mg/kg, po), HYD (10 mg/kg, po) and CAP (30 mg/kg, po) during last 7 days of GH treatment. After the treatment, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and HDL-cholesterol were measured in serum and antiatherogenic index was calculated. The result showed that moderate and high doses of GH possessed potential antiatherosclerotic property that was significantly attenuated by PRO and HYD. However, GH antihyperlipidemic activity was augmented by CAP. It was concluded that administration of PRO and HYD decrease the hypolipidemic effect of GH and administration of GH along with CAP augmented the hypolipidemic effect of GH in rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 182-185

 

 

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

C Vijaya1*, M Ramanathan2 & B Suresh

Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, India 643 001

Received 25 April 2008; revised 8 December 2008

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidaemic rats. The standard drugs atorvastatin in the former and gemfibrozil in the latter studies showed slightly better effects.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 186-192

 

 

Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats

Mariyamma Thomas, K S Sujatha# & Sisilamma George*

Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, # Department of Statistics,  Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy,
Thrissur 680 651, India

Received 24 October 2008; revised 5 January 2009

Protective effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced toxicity was studied. Rats, orally administered with MSG at a dose of 8 mg/g body weight for 20 consecutive days, showed an increase in liver weight and rate of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH) in serum, liver and kidney showed decreased concentration. Significant increase was noticed in activities of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and urea. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed central venous congestion, diffuse degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes in para cortical and midzonal areas of liver and diffuse cortical tubular degeneration of kidney. Oral administration of ethanol extract of P. longum fruits at 300 mg/kg body weight along with MSG significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxides in serum, liver and kidney, serum AST activity, serum levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. Though, there was an increase in the level of GSH in tissues it was not significant. However, the treatment failed to reduce the levels of ALT and urea. Examination of tissue sections also exhibited normal histological architecture of both the organs. The present study revealed that administration of P. longum provided significant protection to liver and kidney from the oxidative stress of MSG, though the dose rate was not sufficient to provide a complete protection.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 193-197

 

 

 

Anti-nociceptive effect of duloxetine in mouse model of diabetic neuropathic pain

Anurag Kuhad, Mahendra Bishnoi & Kanwaljit Chopra*

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Center of Advanced Study,
Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 17 October 2008; revised 10 December 2008

The involvement of adenosinergic pathway in the anti-nociceptive effect of duloxetine, a balanced 5-HT/NE reuptake inhibitor, was evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino mice of Laca strain. After four weeks of single injection of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, ip), mice were tested in the tail immersion and hot-plate assays. Cerebral adenosine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PDA detector). Diabetic mice exhibited significant hyperalgesia along with increased plasma glucose, decreased body weights and reduced cerebral adenosine levels. Administration of duloxetine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) to diabetic mice produced dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effect in both tail-immersion and hot-plate assays. Adenosine levels were also significantly and dose-dependently increased by different doses of duloxetine. The results demonstrated the involvement of adenosinergic pathway in duloxetine mediated anti-hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathic pain.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 198-203

 

 

 

Role of PGRs and inhibitors in induction and control of somatic embryogenesis in Themeda quadrivalvis

N Habibi, R K Suthar & S D Purohit*

Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College of Science,
Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 001, India

Received 27 August 2008; revised 5 January 2009

Somatic embryogenesis could be achieved in Themeda quadrivalvis (Linn.) O. Ktze -fodder grass species on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D. Incorporation of putrescine in the medium stimulated embryogenesis, however its lower concentration stimulated production of non-regenerative callus. Other polyamines such as spermine and spermidine could not evoke similar response. Ascorbic acid used as antioxidant could not prevent browning in embryogenic cultures, however it stimulated embryogenesis. Inhibition of auxin polar transport by use of TIBA and HFCA reduced the embryogenic response significantly and produced distorted or abnormal embryos. Antiethylene substances such as AgNO3 and CoCl2 added in the medium adversely affected the process of embryogenesis and counteracting the stimulatory role of ethylene.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 204-209

 

 

 

In vitro growth and shoot multiplication in Terminalia bellerica Roxb. under controlled carbon dioxide environment

R K Suthar, P Rathore & S D Purohit*

Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 001, India

Received 27 August 2008; revised 5 January 2009

The shoot cultures of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. were grown on Murashige and Skoog’s medium containing 1.5 mg l -1 BAP (6- benzyl aminopurine), and supplemented with or without sucrose (3 %). A range of CO2 concentrations (0.0, 0.6, 10, 40 g-3) was provided in small acrylic chambers by using different concentrations and combinations of NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate), Na2CO3 (sodium carbonate), KHCO3 (potassium bicarbonate) and K2CO3 (potassium carbonate). To obtain a CO2-free environment, a saturated solution of 10 % of KOH (potassium hydroxide) was kept in the chamber. Complete absence of carbon source caused death of shoots within 20 days. Under controlled and enriched CO2, the shoots grew fully photoautotropically on sucrose-free medium. The growth of cultures was better with carbon dioxide (40 g-3) than sucrose (3%) in the medium. Maximum number of shoots, number of leaves per cluster, fresh and dry weight and chlorophyll contents were recorded when both sucrose and CO2 (40 g-3) were provided to the culture.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 210-217

 

 

 

Distribution and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sites of Hisar (India)

Kiran Bishnoi, Umashanker Sain, Rajender Kumar, Rajesh Singh & Narsi R Bishnoi*

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

Received 31 March 2008; revised 9 January 2009

Fifty-two soil samples were collected from various location of the Hisar city. These samples were analysed for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Total mean concentration of six PAHs varied from 51.79 to 148.82 mg kg-1 dry weight of the soil, PAH concentration was higher in soil samples from local auto market while lower concentration was recorded in agricultural soil. Effect of pH (5.0 to 9.0), temperature (20° to 40°C), and concentration of PAHs (5 to 20 mg kg-1) on biodegradation were optimized. Biodegradation of phenanthrene (3-ring) and pyrene (4-ring) was evaluated using two acclimatized microbial strains Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Biodegradation was maximum in sterilized artificial spiked soil with phenanthrene (5 mg kg-1) and pyrene (5 mg kg-1) at
pH 7.0 and at 30
°C (optimized conditions) than the native unsterilized contaminated soil (without optimized conditions) in 42 days of incubation period with Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Phenanthrene was completely disappeared after
28 days with P. putida and after 35 days with P. paucimobilis. Whereas, pyrene was disappeared up to 97.40% with P. putida and 95.5% with P. paucimobilis after 42 days incubation period at optimum conditions. Under unoptimized conditions, disappearance of phenanthrene was 65.89% with P. putida and 57.81% with P. paucimobilis after 42 days, whereas the % disappearance of pyrene was 59.80% with P. putida and 52.07% with P. paucimobilis.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 218-221

 

 

Notes

 

Antimicrobial activity of endemic Digitalis lamarckii Ivan from Turkey

Mehlika Benli1*, Nazife Yiğit2, Fatmagü Geven1, Kerim Güney3, & Ümit Bingöl1

1Ankara University, Faculty of Science,
Department of Biology, 06100, Ankara, Turkey

2Kirikkale University, Faculty of Science and Arts,
Department of Biology, Kirikkale, Turkey

3Kastamonu University, Faculty of Forestry, Kastamonu, Turkey

Received 25 April 2008

Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of D. lamarckii Ivan, (Scophulariaceae), an endemic plant species of Turkey, was tested on ten bacterial and four yeast strains. Effective antibacterial activity was observed in four bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated by use of liquid culture tests and in all the four effective bacterial strains, the MIC was found to be ≥199.5 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of B. subtilis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes was calculated to be ≥199.5 mg/ml, and MBC value for Shigella was calculated as ≥399 mg/ml.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, March 2009, pp. 222-224

 

 

 

Shelf life and colonization of soil by clay based cyanobacterial inocula

Vineeta Dubey & R C Verma*

Institute of Environment Management and Plant Sciences, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India.

Received 2 June 2008, revised 12 January 2009

Four heterocystous cyanobacteria, isolated from grasslands of Ujjain were selected to prepare the clay based inoculants. Inoculants were evaluated for shelf life in terms of the titer value at 6 month intervals for 24 months. For colonization by inoculants in natural grasslands, the clay based inocula were applied to the field at: 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha and their survival was estimated at different time interval. Fuller’s earth based inoculants had showed 50-65% survival after two year storage. After showing an initial decline, the population of the inoculated cyanobacteria became stable after 3 months. The inoculated strains persisted in the soil for longer duration, even after four months, their population was about 10-70 times higher than that of the uninoculated plots.