Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

 

VOLUME47

NUMBER5

MAY2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47(5) 305-384(2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

                                                                  CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Influence of conformational antibodies on dissociation of fibrillar amyloid b (Ab1-42) in vitro

309

      Sarada Subramanian, Sowmya Madhavadas & Preetha Balasubramanian

 

 

 

Lipid profile changes in mouse gastrocnemius muscle after denervation and
beta-adrenoceptor stimulation

314

      Rakesh Kumar & Sushma Sharma

 

 

 

Effect of excessive cholesterol and lipopolysaccharide on cerebellar neuronal cells in in vitro and protective role of anti-inflammatory drugs

320

      M Ramanathan & D Deshmuk

 

 

 

Mouse acquired HPV tumor using dorsal skin-fold window chamber

327

      Monthon Lertworapreecha, Suthiluk Patumraj, Somchai Niruthisard,
Pokrath Hansasuta & Parvapan Bhattarakosol

 

 

 

Biochemical effects of feeding soft drink and ethanol

333

      Arun Raj, Praveen K V, Sheeba Varghese, J K Mukkadan & P K Joseph

 

 

 

Protective effects of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A. W. Hill leaf extract on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain

338

      Shreya R Vora, Rahul B Patil & Meena M Pillai

 

 

 

Anti-tumor studies with extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. root employing Hep2 cells and their possible mechanism of action

343

      Rajani Mathur, Suresh K Gupta, Sandeep R Mathur & Thirumurthy Velpandian

 

 

 

Ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum violaceum Gürke leaves enhances kidney function in mouse model of malaria

349

     Ahmed H Zailani, Elizabeth A Balogun & Joseph O Adebayo

 

 

 

Luteolin ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetic acid induced renal toxicity and tumor promotional response in rat

355

      Sarwat Sultana, Lakshmi Prasad & Tamanna Jahangir

 

Effects of microinjection of angiotensin II and captopril into nucleus accumbens on morphine self-administration in rats

361

      Mahmoud Hosseini, Hojjat Allah Alaei, Rahelah Headari &
Mohammad Javad Eslamizadeh

 

 

 

Ethosomes: A novel delivery system for antifungal drugs in the treatment of topical fungal diseases

368

      M K Bhalaria, Sachin Naik & A N Misra

 

 

 

An improved method for staining kinetochores of human chromosomes

376

      Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Yubin Ding, Chao Yu, Yaguang Weng, Xuemei Chen, Rufei Gao & Yingxiong Wang

 

 

 

Notes

 

Comparative potential of modified indigenous, indigenous and commercial ELISA kits for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in goat and sheep

379

      A V Singh, S V Singh, J S Sohal & P K Singh

 

 

 

Information for Authors

383

 

 

 

 

                                                             Editor’s Note

 

 

 The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

 

 Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

 PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)

 MEDLINE

 BIOSIS

 Chemical Abstracts Service

 Excerpta Medica

 Informascience

 Refrativnyi Zhurnal

 Zoological Records

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Adebayo Joseph O

349

Alaei Hojjat Allah

361

 

 

Balasubramanian Preetha

309

Balogun Elizabeth A

349

Bhalaria M K

368

Bhattarakosol Parvapan

327

 

 

Chen Xuemei

376

 

 

Deshmuk D

320

Ding Yubin

376

 

 

Eslamizadeh Mohammad Javad

361

 

 

Gao Rufei

376

Gupta Suresh K

343

 

 

Hansasuta Pokrath

327

He Junlin

376

Headari Rahelah

361

Hosseini Mahmoud

361

 

 

Jahangir Tamanna

355

Joseph P K

333

 

 

Kumar Rakesh

314

 

 

Lertworapreecha Monthon           

327

Liu Xueqing

376

 

 

Madhavadas Sowmya                  

309

Mathur Rajani

343

Mathur Sandeep R

343

Misra A N

368

Mukkadan J K

333

 

 

Naik Sachin

368

Niruthisard Somchai

327

 

 

Patil Rahul B

338

Patumraj Suthiluk

327

Pillai Meena M

338

Prasad Lakshmi

355

Praveen K V

333

 

 

Raj Arun

333

Ramanathan M

320

 

 

Sharma Sushma

314

Singh A V

379

Singh P K

379

Singh S V

379

Sohal J S

379

Subramanian Sarada

309

Sultana Sarwat

355

 

 

Varghese Sheeba

333

Velpandian Thirumurthy        

 343

Vora Shreya R

338

 

 

Wang Yingxiong

376

Weng Yaguang

376

 

 

Yu Chao

376

 

 

Zailani Ahmed H

349

 

 

 

 

                           Keyword Index

 

Aggregation

309

b-agonist

314

Absorbed ELISA

379

Amyloid b

309

Angiotensin II

361

Antibodies

309

Antimalarial

349

Anti-tumor

343

Apoptosis

343

 

 

Calotropis procera

343

Captopril

361

Catalase

338

Cell Cycle

343

Cell proliferation response

355

Cerebellar cells

320

Chemoprevention

355

Cholesterol

320

Chromosomal segregation

376

Clerodendrum violaceum

349

Commercial ELISA

379

 

 

Delivery system

368

Denervation

314

D-galactose

338

Dorsal skin-fold window
chamber

327

 

 

ELISA

309

Ethosomes

368

 

 

Ferric nitrilotriacetate

355

Fluconazole

368

Fluorescence

309

 

 

Gastrocnemius

314

Glutathione peroxidase

338

 

 

Hep2

343

HPV Tumor

327

Hydroethanolic solution

368

 

 

Isoproterenol hydrochloride

314

 

 

Johne’s disease

379

 

 

Kidney function indices

349

Kinetochore

376

 

 

Leaf extract

349

Lipid peroxidation

338

Lipids

314

Lipopolysaccharide

320

Liposome

368

 

 

Luteolin

355

 

 

Morphine

361

Mouse model

327

Mycobacterium avium

379

 

 

NAC

361

NSAIDs

320

Nucleolar organizer regions

376

 

 

Paratuberculosis

379

Petroselinum crispum

338

Phospholipids

368

Pioglitazone

320

 

 

Root

343

Rum

333

 

 

Self-administration

361

Serum

333

Silver nitrate staining

376

S-methyl isothiourea

320

Soft drinks

333

Superoxide dismutase

338

 

 

Thioflavin T

309

Tissue changes

333

 

 

 

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 309-313

 

 

Influence of conformational antibodies on dissociation of fibrillar amyloid ß
(Aß1-42) in vitro

Sarada Subramanian*, Sowmya Madhavadas & Preetha Balasubramanian

Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore 560 029, India

Receipt 5 December 2008

Many neurodegenerative diseases result due to the accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid fibrils. Although the protein components of these fibrils from different disease states differ considerably, they appear to share common structure. Among these conformational disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prion diseases exhibit significant overlap in their mechanism of pathogenesis. The present report demonstrates that antibodies directed against the prion protein repeat motif, Tyr-Tyr-Arg motif, recognize recombinantly expressed human amyloid ß (Aß) aggregates in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, these antibodies dissociate the preformed aggregates of Aß in vitro. These findings illustrate an important property of conformation dependent antibodies viz., they specifically recognize the protein deposits associated with pathology and not the protein in normal tissue. These antibodies may benefit the development of approaches towards prevention and treatment of protein misfolding diseases.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 314-319

 

 

 

Lipid profile changes in mouse gastrocnemius muscle after denervation and
beta-adrenoceptor stimulation

Rakesh Kumar & Sushma Sharma*

Department of Biosciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005 India.

Received 18 March 2008; revised 3 February 2009

Denervation results in the accumulation of total lipids (94.68%), phospholipids (190.94%), cholesterol (31.82%) and triglycerides (30.86%) within 30 days in gastrocnemius muscle of adult mice. The treatment of denervated mice with
β-agonist isoproterenol (60 mg kg-1 day-1 for 30 days, orally) does not inhibit the increased lipid biosynthesis induced by the loss of neural supply to gastrocnemius muscle. The denervated gastrocnemius muscle shows 61.87, 133.14, 40.27 and 16.46% more total lipids, phospholipid, cholesterol and triglyceride contents respectively as compared to normal innervated muscles even after the drug administration but it maintains significantly low levels of lipids as compared to untreated denervated mice.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 320-326

 

 

 

Effect of excessive cholesterol and lipopolysaccharide on cerebellar neuronal cells in in vitro and protective role of  anti-inflammatory drugs

M Ramanathan1* & D Deshmuk

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Rocklands, Ootacamund 643 001, India

Received 4 November 2008; revised 28 January 2009

The present work was carried out to elucidate the role of NSAIDs, PPARg agonist and HMG CoA inhibitor on cholesterol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced neurodegeneration. The cerebellar neuronal cells were exposed to cholesterol (10 and 50 µg/ml), LPS (1 ng/ml) or both. Neuroprotective effect of ibuprofen, rofecoxib, simvastatin and pioglitazone was assessed by measuring the neuronal loss, MTT dye assay, nitric oxide, LDH and lipid peroxide measurement. The results indicated that incubation of cholesterol and LPS showed less synaptic connections, neurite outgrowth and cell shrinkage as compared to normal cerebellar cells. Significantly decreased survival cells count along with increased LDH, lipid peroxide and nitrite levels were observed in the cells that confirmed neurodegeneration with cholesterol and LPS challenge. In comparison to individual toxins (LPS or cholesterol), combination of LPS and cholesterol produced more deleterious effect indicated synergistic effect of toxins. Interestingly, in comparison to LPS, cholesterol produced significantly low level of nitrites, LDH and lipid peroxides which indicated excessive cholesterol might not influence radical generation directly and might be a secondary effect. Among the drugs studied, NSAIDs showed better effect indicated inflammatory mediator response played vital role in cholesterol and LPS induced neurodegeneration. Simvastatin demonstrated moderate neuroprotective effect. It could be concluded that excessive cholesterol might produce cell death and led to release of nitrites and other cytokines. NSAIDs had better neuroprotective activity than simvastatin that produced moderate effect.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 327-332

 

 

 

Mouse acquired HPV tumor using dorsal skin-fold window chamber

Monthon Lertworapreecha1, Suthiluk Patumraj2 , Somchai Niruthisard3,

Pokrath Hansasuta4 & Parvapan Bhattarakosol4*

1 Inter-Department of Medical Microbiology, Graduate School, Departments of 2Physiology, 3Gynaecology and 4Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama 4 road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Received 27 November 2008; revised 24 February 2009

Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays important role in developing several types of cancer especially cervical cancer. In order to understand the viral pathogenesis, the animal model of HPV infection is very necessary. This communication reports establishment of an animal model carrying implanted HeLa cells, a human cervical cancer cell line via dorsal skin-fold window chambers. Nude mice were divided into 4 groups; each group contained different amount of HeLa cells, 2.5×105, 5×105, and 1×106 cells, and cell free medium (control), respectively. The results showed that even using the low number of HeLa cells (2.5×105), the tumor microvasculature was developed at 2 weeks after implantation with the enlarged tumor margin which then progressed to tumor mass in the following week. The existing tumor was confirmed to be HeLa-cell type by PCR, in situ hybridization, and HPV genotyping. By using linear regression analysis, it indicated that means of tumor size from each group significantly increased in relation to number of HeLa cells used (R2 = 0.98, y = 0.1171x+4.35). This mouse model will be useful for the further HPV studies particularly anti-cancer drugs efficacy.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 333-337

 

 

 

Biochemical effects of feeding soft drink and ethanol

Arun Raj1, Praveen K V2, Sheeba Varghese2, J K Mukkadan2 & P K Joseph2*

1St.Xaviers Institute of Science and Technology, Peechanicadu, Angamaly 683 572, India

2Little Flower Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Angamaly 683 572, India

Received 17 October 2008; revised 3 February 2009

This work was undertaken to study whether consumption of alcoholic beverage mixed with soft drinks could reduce the metabolic effect caused by ethanol. When 24 hr fasted rats were intragastrically fed rum (with 40% ethanol) diluted (1:1) with water, 3.0 ml (0.5 g ethanol) per 100 g body weight and sacrificed 12 hr later in fasting condition, exhibited higher levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, higher levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both liver and kidneys, and lower levels of serum albumin. When fasted rats were fed 3.0 ml soft drink (0.31 mg caffeine), they showed increased levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, ALT and ALP in the serum, TBARS in liver and kidneys, triacyl glycerol and total cholesterol in kidneys and lower levels of serum albumin. Soft drink feeding did not reduce serum total cholesterol but reduced HDL levels. Also soft drink did not alter liver lipids. When a mixture of 1.5 ml diluted rum (0.25 g ethanol) and 1.5 ml soft drink (0.154 mg caffeine) were fed to the fasted rats, the serum parameters increased similar to rats fed rum only except that total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were unaltered. TBARS in kidneys and liver were also increased but triacyl glycerol levels were not altered. Thus feeding ethanol with soft drink does not reduce the metabolic effects of ethanol but it will prevent ethanol induced serum HDL cholesterol rise.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 338-342

 

 

 

Protective effects of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A. W. Hill leaf extract on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain

Shreya R Vora*, Rahul B Patil† & Meena M Pillai††

Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur. 416 004 India

Received 2 June 2008; revised 2 March 2009

With an aim to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of P. crispum (Parsley) leaves on the D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in the brain of mouse, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) involved in oxygen radical (OR)-detoxification and antiperoxidative defense were measured in conjunction with an index of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fraction of various regions of the mouse brain. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in D-galactose-stressed mice, while catalase activity was increased. Treatment of D-galactose-stressed mice with the ethanolic extract of P. crispum showed protection against the induced oxidative stress in brain regions. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive product was greatly elevated in D-galactose stress-induced mice and was significantly reduced in the brain regions of these mice upon treatment with
P. crispum. It is postulated that parsley shows a protective effect against mitochondrial oxidative damage in the
mouse brain.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 343-348

 

 

 

Anti-tumor studies with extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. root employing Hep2 cells and their possible mechanism of action

Rajani Mathura*, Suresh K Guptaa, Sandeep R Mathurb & Thirumurthy Velpandianc

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110 017, India

bDepartment of Pathology, and cDepartment of Ocular Pharmacology, RP Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,
Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India

Received 20 October 2008; revised 20 February 2009

Anti-tumor potential of root extracts of Calotropis procera : methanolic extract (CM), hexane extract (CH), aqueous extract (CW) and ethylacetate extract (CE) and its possible mechanism against Hep2 cancer cells has been investigated. Cellular proliferation activities were assayed by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Morphological changes of cancer cells were observed under inverted microscope and cell cycle parameters were determined by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining. Treatment with the extracts at various doses of 1, 5, 10 and 25 µg/ml revealed that CM, CH and CE possessed cytotoxicity, whereas CW did not have cytotoxic effect. CE (10 µg/ml) showed strongest cytotoxic effect (96.3%) on Hep2 at 48 hr following treatment, whereas CM and CH showed cytotoxicity of 72.7 and 60.5%, respectively. Extract-treated cells exhibited typical morphological changes of apoptosis. Results of flow cytometric analysis clearly demonstrated that root extracts initiated apoptosis of Hep2 cells through cell cycle arrest at S phase, thus preventing cells from entering G2/M phase. Results of the study indicate that the root extracts of C. procera inhibit the proliferation of Hep2 cells via apoptotic and cell cycle disruption based mechanisms.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 349-354

 

 

Ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum violaceum Gürke leaves enhances kidney function in mouse model of malaria

Ahmed H Zailani, Elizabeth A Balogun & Joseph O Adebayo*

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Received 10 October 2008; revised 10 February 2009

Evaluation of the effects of daily oral administration of ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves (13 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days on some kidney function indices of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was done on days 3, 8 and 14 post-infection. The indices studied include serum urea and creatinine concentrations with the specific activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the kidney. Treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves (13 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days was able to ameliorate significantly the alterations in the various parameters observed in infected untreated mice, comparing favourably with chloroquine treatment in most cases. Administration of extract to uninfected mice had no significant effect on both serum and kidney parameters compared to the uninfected control. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves does not adversely affect kidney function at the dose used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria but rather enhances it.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 355-360

 

 

 

Luteolin ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetic acid induced renal toxicity and tumor promotional response in rat

Sarwat Sultana*, Lakshmi Prasad & Tamanna Jahangir

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology
Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110 062, India

Received 17 July 2008; revised 25 February 2009

Ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe-NTA) (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, ip) caused significant depletion in the detoxification and antioxidant enzyme armory with concomitant elevation in renal lipidperoxidation, serum toxicity markers viz. creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide generation, ornithine decarboxylase activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into renal DNA in wistar rats. However, pretreatment of animals with luteolin (10 and 20 µmol/kg body weight) for 7 consecutive days resulted in significant decrease in above parameters level. Renal glutathione content, glutathione metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. The enhanced reduced glutathione level and enzyme activities involved in xenobiotic metabolism and maintaining antioxidant status of cells is suggestive of a chemopreventive efficacy of luteolin against Fe-NTA mediated oxidative stress, toxicity and cell proliferation response in rats

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 361-367

 

 

Efects of microinjection of angiotensin II and captopril into nucleus accumbens on morphine self-administration in rats

Mahmoud Hosseini1*, Hojjat Allah Alaei2, Rahelah Headari3 & Mohammad Javad Eslamizadeh1

1Department of Physiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3Department of Biology, Tarbiat Moallem University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Received 5 September 2008; revised 18 February 2009

With an aim to investigate the effects of injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) and captopril into the nucleus accumbens (NAC) on morphine self-administration, male Wistar rats were first trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. The animals, divided into 4 groups (saline, morphine, captopril and Ang II) were placed in self-administration apparatus and were allowed to self-administer morphine (0.5 mg per infusion all test groups) or saline (saline group) during consecutive days, for 2 h/sessions. Captopril (30 µg) and Ang II (0.25 nM) were injected into NAC in the corresponding groups before each session. In morphine group, the number of active lever pressing was significantly higher than passive during all 5 days and was also significantly higher than saline group. In captopril group, there were no significant differences between the number of active and passive lever pressings. However, the number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than morphine group. The results highlight the interaction between captopril and opioid system in NAC.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 368-375

 

 

Ethosomes: A novel delivery system for antifungal drugs in the treatment of topical fungal diseases

M.K.Bhalaria, Sachin Naik & A.N.Misra*

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering,
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 001, India

Received 8 June 2008; revised 19 February 2009

Aim of this work was to prepare and characterize fluconazole (FLZ) encapsulated ethosomes, incorporate it in suitable dermatological base, and asses its comparative clinical efficacy in the treatment of Candidiasis patients against liposomal gel, marketed product and hydroethanolic solution of the drug. Drug encapsulated ethosomes and liposomes were prepared and optimized by “Hot” method technique and lipid film hydration technique. Vesicular carriers were characterized for % entrapment efficiency, particle size and shape, in vitro drug diffusion study, mean % reduction in dimension of Candidiasis lesion and stability study by using suitable analytical technique. Vesicle size and drug entrapment efficiency of the optimized ethosomes and liposomes were found to be 144±6.8nm and 82.68% and 216±9.2 nm and 68.22% respectively. Microscopic examinations suggest ethosomes to be multilamellar spherical vesicles with a smooth surface. The differential scanning calorimetry results suggest high fluidity of the ethosomes than liposomes. In vitro drug diffusion studies demonstrated that % drug diffused from ethosomes was nearly twice than liposomes and three times higher than the hydroethanolic solution across rat skin. From the clinical evaluation, the developed novel delivery system demonstrated enhanced antifungal activity compared to liposomal formulation, marketed formulation and hydroethanolic solution of the drug.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 376-378

 

 

 

An improved method for staining kinetochores of human chromosomes

Junlin He1, Xueqing Liu1, Yubin Ding1, Chao Yu2, Yaguang Weng1, Xuemei Chen1, Rufei Gao1 & Yingxiong Wang1,2,*

1Department of Genetics, and 2Institute of Life Science, No.1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong Street, Chongqing 400016,
People`s Republic of China

Received 21 November 2008; revised 20 February 2009

An improved method, which exhibited simultaneously clearly kinetochores and the nucleolar organizer regions of human chromosomes by pretreating of human metaphase chromosomes with HCl and NaOH, followed by staining with silver nitrate and visualizing using ammoniacal silver, is described in the present communication. It has important role for analysis of kinetochore variation, mechanism of chromosomal non-disjunction as well as identification of fuctional active centromeres.

 

 

 

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, May 2009, pp 379-382

 

 

Comparative potential of modified indigenous, indigenous and commercial ELISA kits for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in goat and sheep

A V Singh, S V Singh*, J S Sohal & P K Singh

Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom,
Mathura 281 122, India.

Received 10 October 2008; revised 21 January 2009

In the present study, modified indigenous ELISA kit (kit 1) was compared with indigenous ELISA kit (kit 2) and commercial ELISA kit (kit 3) for its sensitivity and specificity with respect to faecal culture for diagnosis of Johne’s disease in goats and sheep under natural conditions. Of the 64 positive animals, serum of 42.1, 48.4 and 18.7% animals yielded positive infection in kit 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Specificity of kit 1 (95.1%) was maximum followed by kit 3 (93.7%) and kit 2 (83.4%). Kit 1 showed superior diagnostic potential than the other two kits. Kit 1 may be used as single screening test regimen for diagnosis of MAP infection in the population of goats and sheep in India.