Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47 (10) - (2009) 775-842

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Comparative genomic hybridization array study and its utility in detection of constitutional and acquired anomalies

779

Joris Andrieux & Frenny Sheth

 

 

 

Papers

 

Interaction of tapasin related protein with cell surface MHC class 1 heavy chain molecules

792

Mercy Devasahayam

 

 

 

Cloning, expression and characterization of a promising mosquitocidal gene

799

Lingling Zhang, Enjiong Huang, Ivan Gelbic, Chunyu Guan, Yi Guan & Xiong Guan

 

 

 

Inhibitory effect of Glimepiride on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced nuclear damages and sperm abnormality in diabetic Wistar rats

804

Syed Imam Rabbani, Kshama Devi & Salma Khanam

 

 

 

Kinetic characteristics of brush border sucrase activation by Na+ ions in mice intestine

811

Shiffalli Gupta, Safrun Mahmood & Akhtar Mahmood

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.)

816

Wahid A Mulla, Vijay R Salunkhe & Satish B Bhise

 

 

 

Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa Linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats

822

H Kirana, S S Agrawal & B P Srinivasan

 

 

 

Comparative expression of two abscisic acid-inducible genes and proteins in seeds of aromatic indica rice cultivar with that of non-aromatic indica rice cultivars

827

Aryadeep Roychoudhury, Supratim Basu & Dibyendu N Sengupta

 

 

 

Hypersensitive response of Sesamum prostratum Retz. elicitated by
Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame (Schelt) Jacz Butler.

834

Reeja Rajab, S Sajitha Rajan, L Shilpa Satheesh, S R Harish, S S Sunukumar,
B S Sandeep, T C Kishor Mohan & K Murugan

 

 

 

Note

 

Impact of in vivo electrical stimulation during denervation dis-use muscle atrophy

839

M Sendhilvadivu

 

(Contd)

Announcements

 

Critical Perspective on Research Methodology in Biological Sciences; National Symposium on Comparative Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology: Current Advances

778

 

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Announcements

 

Critical Perspective on Research Methodology in Biological Sciences

7 and 8 October 2009, Coimbatore

 

Sponsored by the ICMR, New Delhi and organized by the Department of Biotechnology, Karunya University, Coimbatore, the Workshop will focus on Reseach methodology: Strategies, planning and analysis, Literature search and database reference, Applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering tools in research, Strategies and methods of basic clinical research, Scientific communication, journal writing, ethics in clinical and animal studies, Significance of statistical tools and computer software in biological research, Teaching and effective presentation of research findings, Intellectual property rights in biological research and Guide to grant aid proposals. For details, please contact Dr S Murugan, Organising Secretary, or Dr S Kalidass, Convener, Department of Biotechnology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114. Telephone: 0422-2614301,
Mobile: 09842053851, 09443022508, Fax: 0422-2615615. E-mail; micromurugans@gmail.com; kallidass@gmail.com. Website: www.karunya.edu

 

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National Symposium on Comparative Endocrinology
and Reproductive Physiology: Current Advances

17-19 December 2009, Mumbai

 

To be held under the auspices of the Indian Society for Comparative Endocrinology (ISCE), the Symposium will be held at the Department of Zoology, The Institute of Science, Mumbai. The scientific sessions will be grouped under following heads: Molecular endocrinology; Growth, metabolism and reproductive physiology; Reproductive endocrinology; Neuroendocrinology; Genomics and endocrine disruption; Immunoendocrinology; Invertebrate endocrinology; Chronobiology and behavioural endocrinology & Development and conservation endocrinology.
For details, please contact: Dr. A. P. Manekar, Organizing Secretary, NSCERP-2009, Department of Zoology, The Institute of Science, 15, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, India.
Telephone: 022-22844219 (O), 022-22047962, Ext. 172; Mobile: 09892093872. Fax: 022-22624316 / 22816750. E-mail: ashok.manekar@rediffmail.com; isce_2009@rediffmail.com. Website: www.isce@rediffmail.com

 

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Erratum

 

Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats, N Prem Kumar, A R Annamalai & R S Thakur, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 47, September 2009, pp. 737-742.

Page 738, second column, 5th and 10th line from top, and page 740, Table 2: the dose of quercetin may be read as 10 mg kg-1, po, in place of 100 mg kg-1, po

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 779-791

 

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Comparative genomic hybridization array study and its utility in detection of constitutional and acquired anomalies

Joris Andrieux & Frenny Sheth*

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital CHRU de Lille, Lille Cedex, France

The last decade has witnessed an upsurge in the knowledge of cytogenetic disorders and putting the old technology in a new basket with molecular genetics. As conventional cytogenetic can detect the genetic alteration of 10-15 Mb, many of the micro-deletions and micro-duplications are missed. However, with the advent of technology of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the resolution of genetic aberrations can reach to 3-5 Mb, nonetheless the anomalies smaller than the above, need further precision which has been achieved using comparative genomic hybridization array (CGH-array). Introduction of array-CGH has brought higher sensitivity with automated DNA fragment analyzer and DNA chip for submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies that are missed till date in many of the acquired and constitutional genetic disorders. The resolution of the technology varies from several Kb to 1 Mb depending upon the type of array selected. With the recent improvement in the array-CGH technology, a link between cytogenetic and molecular biology has been established without replacing conventional cytogenetic technique. The wider accessibility of the technology shall certainly provide a clue to the many unidentified/unexplained genetic disorders which shall prove to be a boon to the clinicians.

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 792-798

 

 

 

Interaction of tapasin related protein with cell surface MHC class 1
heavy chain molecules

Mercy Devasahayam*

INSERM U580, Necker Institute, 161, rue de Sevres, Paris 75015, France

Received 5 November 2008; revised 7 July 2009

Tapasin related (TR) protein shares similarity (27%) with tapasin and is present in endoplasmic reticulam (ER) and on the cell surface of Hela cells. In the present article, TR protein was found localized in ER, but not in the lysosomes or late endosomes as studied by confocal colocalization. TR protein was associated with cell surface MHC class 1 HLA A2 heavy chain (HC) molecules and might be involved in chaperoning of cell surface HC MHC class 1 molecule. The results indicated that MHC class 1 cell surface molecules involved in antigen presentation of exogenous antigens, interact with cell surface chaperons.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 799-803

 

 

 

Cloning, expression and characterisation of a promising mosquitocidal gene

Lingling Zhang1, Enjiong Huang2, Ivan Gelbič3, Chunyu Guan1, Yi Guan1 & Xiong Guan1*

1 Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002 Fuzhou, Fujian, People痴 Republic of China,2 Fujian International Travel Health Care Center, 350001 Fuzhou, Fujian, People痴 Republic of China,3 Biological Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,
Institute of Entomology, Brani嗤vsk 31, 37005 Česk Budějovice, Czech Republic

Received 23 January 2009: revised 16 June 2009

A new mosquitocidal gene, cyt1Aa6, was isolated and cloned from the novel Bacillus thuringiensis strain LLP29, previously isolated from the phylloplane of Magnolia denudata. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cyt1Aa6 indicated that the open reading frame consisted of 750 base pairs, encoding 249 amino acid sequences with a calculated molecular weight of 27.3681 kDa and a PI value of 4.77. An homological comparison revealed that the cyt1Aa6 amino acid sequence was 99% identical with those of known Cyt1Aa proteins. In addition, the cyt1Aa6 gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Bioassays on Aedes albopictus showed that Bt LLP29 and the expressed BL21 were both toxic to 3rd-instar mosquito larvae. The isolation of cyt1Aa6 provides new opportunities for selecting new strains and to obtain novel B. thuringiensis products based on its toxins.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 804-810

 

 

 

Inhibitory effect of Glimepiride on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced nuclear damages and sperm abnormality in diabetic Wistar rats

Syed Imam Rabbani1, Kshama Devi1* & Salma Khanam2

Department of Pharmacology1and Pharmacognosy2Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Opp. Lalbagh Main Gate, Hosur Road,
Bangalore
560 027, India

Received 20 April 2009;revised 15 July 2009

The generation of reactive oxygen species in diabetes is considered to be the major cause for the mutation related defects such as cancer, infertility etc. Glimepiride (Gmp) is a third generation antidiabetic sulphonylurea known to possess the antioxidant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. In this study, the anti-mutagenic activity of Gmp (0.175, 17.5 and 175 mg/kg, po daily for 4 weeks) was evaluated against the nicotinamide (NA-230 mg/kg) and STZ (65 mg/kg) induced somatic and germinal cells defect using bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test and sperm abnormality test respectively in male Wistar rats. Administration of Gmp at 175 mg prevented the NA-STZ induced increased frequency of MN in polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes. The treatment with Gmp also decreased the sperm shape abnormality and enhanced the sperm count besides improving the antioxidant status in the diabetic rats. However, the other doses of Gmp (0.175 and 17.5 mg) did not produce significant change in the MN frequency and sperm abnormality although Gmp at 17.5 mg showed significant antidiabetic effect in the hyperglycemic animals. The results indicated that Gmp inhibited the NA-STZ mediated changes in the MN frequency and sperm abnormality and enhanced the antioxidant defense. The observations suggest that the antioxidant property of Gmp could have contributed for its ability to decrease the NA-STZ mediated defects in somatic and germinal cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 811-815

 

 

 

Kinetic characteristics of brush border sucrase activation by Na+ ions in mice intestine

Shiffalli Gupta1, Safrun Mahmood2 & Akhtar Mahmood1*

1Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

2Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India

Received 2 February 2009; revised 2 July 2009

The kinetics of Na+ activation of brush border sucrase (sucrose D-glucosidase E.C. 3.2.1.48) has been studied in mice intestine. At pH 5.0, 50 mM Na+ ions stimulated sucrase activity by 84%. At pH 7.2, enzyme stimulation was reduced to 16%, whereas, at pH 8.5, 10-100 mM Na+ ions produced 18-45% inhibition of enzyme activity. Kinetic studies revealed that at pH 5.0, the enzyme activation by Na+ ions was V-type, which changed to K-type at pH 7.2, whereas at alkaline pH (8.5), Na+ ions inhibited the enzyme activity non-competitively. Using the non-compulsory model of Na+ ion stimulation of brush border sucrase [Mahmood & Alvarado, Arch Bioch Biophys, 168 (1975) 585] various kinetic constants involved in activation of sucrase by Na+ ions were determined. It is apparent that Na+ stimulation of brush border sucrase is pH dependent, which is similar to that described for rat, rabbit and other mammalian species and conform to identical mechanisms, at least with reference to the affinity type effects, as observed in mice intestine.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 816-821

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves
of Alocasia indica (Linn.)

Wahid A Mulla*, Vijay R Salunkhe & Satish B Bhise

Government College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad 415 124, India

Received 14 March 2008; revised 22 June 2009

Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 822-826

 

 

 

Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa Linn. reduces oxidative stress in
experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats

 

H Kirana, S S Agrawal & B P Srinivasan*

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), Sector-III, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110 017, India

Received 24 March 2009; revised 8 June 2009

One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 827-833

 

 

 

Comparative expression of two abscisic acid-inducible genes and proteins
in seeds of aromatic indica rice cultivar with that of non-aromatic
indica rice cultivars

Aryadeep Roychoudhury*, Supratim Basu & Dibyendu N Sengupta

Department of Botany, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009, India

Received 10 February 2009; revised 14 July 2009

As an integral part of stress signal transduction, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates important cellular reactions, including up-regulation of stress-associated genes, the products of which are involved directly or indirectly in plant protection. Being accompanied by an increased endogenous ABA level, the matured seeds, embryo and aleurone tissues of cereals accumulate several genes and proteins, associated with desiccation. The present study was aimed at investigating how the contrasting rice genotypes, varying in their salt-stress sensitivity, differ with respect to the expression pattern of two abiotic stress-inducible genes, Rab16A and SamDC, and corresponding proteins, in the seeds, at the background level (dry or water-imbibed state) and ABA-imbibed conditions, which could be related to the varietal differences in tolerance. The rice genotypes selected were M-1-48 (salt-sensitive), Nonabokra (salt-tolerant) and Gobindobhog (aromatic). An extremely low abundance of Rab16A or practically undetectable SamDC transcripts were observed in M-1-48 and Gobindobhog seeds under control conditions, induced only after exogenous ABA treatment, whereas they were expressed at a much higher level even in dry and water-imbibed seeds of Nonabokra, and lesser induced by ABA. The RAB16A (= dehydrin) and SAMDC protein expression in the three varieties were also identical to the gene expression patterns. Thus, the expression was stress-inducible in M-1-48 and Gobindobhog, while constitutive in Nonabokra. Our study reflected the similarity of the molecular responses to exogenous ABA of the seeds of the aromatic rice Gobindobhog to that of the salt-sensitive M-1-48, in exhibiting lower expression of stress-tolerant proteins only after stress. This work also proved that variation in gene/protein expression in seeds could be highly correlated with the variation in the tolerance mechanism of rice varieties.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 834-838

 

 

 

Hypersensitive response of Sesamum prostratum Retz. elicitated by Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame (Schelt) Jacz Butler.

Reeja Rajab, S Sajitha Rajan, L Shilpa Satheesh, S R Harish, S S Sunukumar,
B S Sandeep, T C Kishor Mohan & K Murugan*

Plant Molecular and Biochemistry Lab, Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 034, India.

Received 9 February 2009; revised 15 May 2009

Aim of this study was to investigate the intensity and timing of the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and expression of antioxidant enzymes as initial responses of calli of Sesamum prostratum (SP) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame crude toxin metabolite of varying concentrations. 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) / coconut milk combinations were found to be more efficient among different hormonal regimes (2,4 -D, 2,4-D/casein hydrosylate and 2,4-D/ coconut milk). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were higher (13.2 and 5.7-folds, respectively) after 6 h in the treated callus confirmed the oxidative stress. An increase in total phenolics was also detected in inoculated callus. Increased activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) corroborate with the high level of ROSs, such as O2.- and H2O2. The poor activity of catalase confirmed the oxidative burst in the callus leading to necrosis. Activity of peroxidase was at par with total phenolics. Similarly, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) also showed high activity revealing the active phase in the synthesis of secondary metabolites in the plant. The oxidative burst generated in the interaction between Sesamum and F. oxysporum f. sesame toxin might be the first line of defense by the host mounted against the invading necrotrophic pathogen. The results suggested that the rapid production of reactive oxygen species in the callus in response to fungal toxin had been proposed to orchestrate the establishment of different defensive barriers against the pathogens.

 

Note

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 839-842

 

 

 

Impact of in vivo electrical stimulation during denervation dis-use muscle atrophy

M Sendhilvadivu

Department of Zoology, Auxillium College, Gandhi Nagar
Vellore 632 006, India

Received 24 October 2008; revised 17 July 2009

Male albino rats were sciatectomized and kept for 30 days to assess the induced oxidative damage due to dis-use gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. An enhanced lipid peroxidation was recorded with elevated activity levels of conjugated diens, malondialdehyde and other thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in denervated muscle. The activity levels of antioxidant defense enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathioneperoxidase (selenium, non-selenium), glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase were depleted in the denervated muscle. The denervated muscle was subjected to a programme of in vivo electrical stimulations, revealed a depleted lipid peroxidation and increased activity levels of antioxidant defense enzymes. The results, suggest that the programme of in vivo electrical stimulation could prevent the oxidative damage in gastrocnemius muscle despite denervation.