Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47 (9) - (2009) 695-774

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

                                                                            CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Particulate antigen induced immune activation influences steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid organs with parallel increase in circulating IL-6

 

699

        Rupanjan Mukhopadhyay & Biswadev Bishayi

 

 

 

Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice

706

        Raghav Kumar Mishra & Shio Kumar Singh

 

 

 

Protective role of sertraline against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction and redox ratio in striatum, cortex and hippocampus of rat brain

 

715

        Puneet Kumar & Anil Kumar

 

 

 

Protective effects of different antioxidants against endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in albino rats

 

723

        Rishi Pal, Tanzeel Ahmed, Vivek Kumar, Sanvidhan G Suke, Arunabha Ray & B D Banerjee

 

 

 

Influence of betel quid on effect of calcium channel blockers on isoprenaline induced myocardial necrosis in mice

 

730

        Vinod Kumar, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq & Mohammed Asad

 

 

 

Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats

 

737

        N Prem Kumar, A R Annamalai & R S Thakur

 

 

 

Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of saponin isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in mice

 

743

        Dilipkumar Pal, Santanu Sannigrahi & Upal Kanti Mazumder

 

 

 

Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle

748

        Jyothsna Karanth & K Jeevaratnam

 

 

 

Effect of dietary Spirulina on reduction of copper toxicity and improvement of growth, blood parameters and phosphatases activities in carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822)

 

754

        R James, K Sampath, R Nagarajan, P Vellaisamy & M Maripandi Manikandan

 

 

 

Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil spills

760

        Anupama Mittal & Padma Singh

 

 

 

Laboratory scale bioremediation of diesel hydrocarbon in soil by indigenous bacterial consortium

766

        Anjana Sharma & Meenal Budholia Rehman

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

 

Ascorbate defense system and response of steroid producing glands under reserpine treatment in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)

 

770

        Priyanka Mehta & Kunwar Bahadur Singh

 

 

 

Book Review

 

 

 

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, (vol. 28) — The Purple Phototrophic Bacteria

773

        Prasanna Mohanty & Sujata R Mishra

 

 

 

 

————————

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in
Open Access Mode

 

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2008 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

 

 

 

Author Index

Ahmed Tanzeel

723

Annamalai A R

737

Asad Mohammed

730

Asdaq Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

730

 

 

Banerjee B D

723

Bishayi Biswadev

699

 

 

James R

754

Jeevaratnam K

748

 

 

Karanth Jyothsna

748

Kumar Anil

715

Kumar N Prem

737

Kumar Puneet

715

Kumar Vinod

730

Kumar Vivek

723

 

 

Manikandan M Maripandi

754

Mazumder Upal Kanti

743

Mehta Priyanka

770

Mishra Raghav Kumar

706

Mishra Sujata R

773

Mittal Anupama

760

Mohanty Prasanna

773

Mukhopadhyay Rupanjan

699

 

 

Nagarajan R

754

 

 

Pal Dilipkumar

743

Pal Rishi

723

Ray Arunabha

723

 

 

Rehman Meenal Budholia

766

 

 

Sampath K

754

Sannigrahi Santanu

743

Sharma Anjana

766

Singh Kunwar Bahadur

770

Singh Padma

760

Singh Shio Kumar

706

Suke Sanvidhan G

723

 

 

Thakur R S

737

 

 

Vellaisamy P

754

 

 

Keyword Index

a-tocopherol

723

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

760

Amlodipine

730

Analgesic and anticonvulsant activity

743

Antioxidant

737

Ascorbate

770

Aspirin

743

Attenuation

723

 

 

Betel quid

730

Bioremediation

760

Blood parameters

754

 

 

Calcium channel blockers

730

Carnitine

748

Cholesterol

770

Cirrhinus mrigala

754

Clerodendrum infortunatum

743

Corticosterone

699

Cytokine

699

 

 

Defense system

770

Diabetic neuropathy

737

Diltiazem

730

 

 

Emblica officinalis

737

Exercise

748

 

 

Fruit powder

706

Glutathione

715

Growth

754

 

 

Huntington’s disease

715

Hydrogenated fat

748

 

 

Immunotoxicity

723

 

 

L-ascorbic acid

723

Litter size

706

Lymphoid organ

699

 

 

Memory

715

Metal elimination

754

Mice

706

 

 

N-acetylcystein

723

Nociception

737

 

 

Oxidative

715

Oxidative Stress

723

Oxidative stress

737

 

 

Particulate antigen

699

Peanut oil

748

Pentazocine

743

Phosphatases activity

754

Piper nigrum

706

Pseudomonas

760

 

 

Rats

748

Reserpine

770

 

 

Saponin

743

Seminiferous tubules

706

Sertraline

715

Spermatozoa

706

Spirulina

754

Steroidogenic enzyme

699

Stress

715

 

 

Testes

706

Tissue lipids

748

Tobacco

730

 

 

Verapamil

730

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.699-705

 

 

Particulate antigen induced immune activation influences steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid organs with parallel increase in circulating IL-6

Rupanjan Mukhopadhyay & Biswadev Bishayi*

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta,
University Colleges of Science and Technology, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised 1 June 2009

The effect of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), live Escherichia coli cells administration and interleukin-6 (IL-6) treatment on steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid organs with concomitant changes in serum IL-6 levels were studied in the male Swiss albino mice. From the lymphoid tissue homogenate, the activities of 3βHSD, 17βHSD, corticosterone, testosterone and IL-6 levels of serum were estimated. The 3βHSD activity in murine lymphoid organs, as well as the IL-6 levels in serum increased after administration of SRBC and live E. coli cells, as compared to control. Whereas the 17βHSD activity was decreased in the murine lymphoid organs with a concomitant reduced serum testosterone level was found after particulate antigen administration or IL-6 treatment. The serum corticosterone and serum IL-6 level were also elevated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.706-714

 

 

Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice

Raghav Kumar Mishra & Shio Kumar Singh*

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India

Received 29 September 2008; revised 26 May 2009

Effect of oral administration (25 and 100 mg/kg body wt/day, for 20 and 90 days) of fruit powder of Piper nigrum L. on the male reproductive organs of mice, Parkes strain, was investigated. Various reproductive end points such as organs weight, histopathology, sperm parameters, sialic acid and fructose contents, and fertility indices were assessed. Histologically, testes in treated mice, except in those treated with 100 mg of dose for 90 days, showed non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, as both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same section. In mice treated with 100 mg dose for 90 days, degenerative changes were observed in all the tubules. Affected seminiferous tubules showed intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, occurrence of giant cells, and mixing of spermatids of different stages of spermatogenesis; in severe cases, the tubules were lined by mainly a layer of Sertoli cells. Percentage of affected tubules in testes of Piper-treated mice was dose-and duration-related. Further, Piper nigrum treatment for 20 days did not cause appreciable alterations in histological appearance of the epididymis, while the treatment for 90 days caused detectable alterations in the duct. The treatment also had adverse effects on sperm parameters, levels of sialic acid and fructose, and on litter size. Fifty six days after cessation of treatment, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs recovered to control levels, though the litter size in females impregnated by Piper-treated males remained significantly decreased compared to controls.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.715-722

 

 

Protective role of sertraline against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction and redox ratio in striatum, cortex and hippocampus of rat brain

Puneet Kumar & Anil Kumar*

Pharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, chandigarh 160014, India

Received 10 October 2008; revised 16 June 2009

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder in human characterized by progressive loss of movement and cognitive disturbances. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; a mitochondrial toxin) produces age-dependent oxidative linked striatal damage, responsible for HD like symptoms. In the present study protective effect of sertraline in 3-NP induced HD like symptoms was evaluated in rats. Systemic administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg for 14 days) resulted in impairment of memory as assessed in Morris water maze and elevated plus paradigm tasks. Biochemical analysis revealed that systemic 3-NP administration significantly impaired reduced glutathione, total glutathione, oxidized glutathione and glutathione–S-transferase levels, whereas the level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme increased in striatum, cortex and hippocampus regions of rat brain. Sertraline (5 and 10 mg/kg po) treatment once daily for 14 days significantly improved cognitive performance tasks and glutathione levels in 3-NP treated group. However, combination of yohimbine (2 mg/kg) (non selective serotonin receptors antagonist) with the higher dose of sertraline (10 mg/kg) did not influence the protective action of sertraline. Result shows that neuroprotective and antioxidant like effect of sertraline is independent of its conventional action on 5-HT receptor.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.723-729

 

 

Protective effects of different antioxidants against endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in albino rats

Rishi Pal, Tanzeel Ahmed, Vivek Kumar, Sanvidhan G Suke, Arunabha Ray &    B D Banerjee*

Environmental Biochemistry and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital (University of Delhi), Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110 095, India  Department of Pharmacology, V. B. Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

Received 4 November 2008; revised 8 May 2009

Endosulfan exposure (8 and 16mg/kg) to rats significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, level of reduced glutathione and increased lipid peroxidation. The primary and secondary antiSRBC antibody titers, plaque forming cells counts and delayed hypersensivity reaction, and the TH1 or TH2 cytokines levels were significantly suppressed in a dose dependent manner. L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol produced a synergistic reversal of oxidative stress parameters following endosulfan exposure. N-acetylcysteine produced significant reversal of altered oxidative stress parameters and immune response after endosulfan exposure. A significant attenuation of the oxidative stress markers and immunotoxicity with a combined therapy of L-ascorbic acid plus ά-tocopherol and with N-acetylcysteine was clearly demonstrated by the present results.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.730-736

 

 

Influence of betel quid on effect of calcium channel blockers on isoprenaline induced myocardial necrosis in mice

Vinod Kumar, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq* & Mohammed Asad

Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, # 5, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India

Received 18 August 2008; revised 11 May 2009

It is known that chewing Betel quid with tobacco (BQT) or without tobacco (BQ) is a major etiological factor for cardiovascular complications and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are the major class of drugs prescribed widely for myocardial disturbances. The possible pharmacodynamic interaction between CCBs (verapamil, amlodipine and diltiazem) and BQ/BQT was studied on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis in mice. Influence of (CCBs) therapy on pretreated animals at times of myocardial stress were determined by estimating diagnostic marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) in serum and heart tissue homogenate (HTH). Administration of CCBs to mice pretreated with BQ produced a significant decrease and increase in biomarker enzyme levels in serum and HTH respectively. Further, incorporation of diltiazem and amlodipine in BQT pretreated mice significantly elevated enzyme levels in HTH, whereas, amlodipine administration during BQT treatment showed significant fall in enzyme levels in serum. The results indicated that BQT is cardiotoxic and its effect cannot be reversed using CCBs while BQ is cardioprotective, whose activity was further augmented by amlodipine. Histopathological studies confirmed the biochemical findings.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.737-742

 

 

Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats

N Prem Kumar1*, A R Annamalai2 & R S Thakur1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, # 5, Sarjapur road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India

2 Department of Pharmacology, Annamalai University, Annmalainagar 608002, India

Received 16 January 2009; revised 23 April 2009

Diabetic neuropathic pain is an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress plays a vital role in associated neural and vascular complications. The present study investigated flavonoid rich fruit extract (ethyl acetate:methanol fraction) of E.officinalis (10 mg/kg), in type II diabetes (high fat diet fed/low dose streptozotocin) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant hyperalgesia (nociception) as compared to control rats. Treatment with E.officinalis extract (EOE) and quercetin in diabetic rats showed significant increase in tail flick latency in hot immersion test and pain threshold level in hot plate test compared to control rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels observed in diabetic rats were significantly restored by E.officinalis extract and quercetin treatment. Both, E.officinalis extract and quercetin attenuated diabetic induced axonal degeneration. The study provides experimental evidence of the preventive and curative effect of E.officinalis on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Since, E.officinalis fruit is already in clinical use for diabetic patients it may be evaluated for preventive therapy in diabetic patients at risk of developing neuropathy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.743-747

 

 

Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of saponin isolated from the leaves
of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in mice

Dilipkumar Pal*, Santanu Sannigrahi & Upal Kanti Mazumder#

Natural Products Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jharpokharia, Mayurbhanj 757 086, Orissa, India

#Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India

Received 21 November 2008; revised 12 June 2009

Saponin (SN1) isolated from C. infortunatum leaves in doses of 30, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, ip provided 36.28, 60.47, 90.71, 100% protection respectively from writhing induced by 1.2% v/v acetic acid. In hot plate method, SN1 not only produced analgesia in mice but also potentiated the analgesic action of pentazocine and aspirin. The anticonvulsant activity was tested by leptazol-induced seizures. SN1 decreased the duration of seizures and gave protection in a dose dependent manner against leptazol-induced convulsions. The results suggest that saponin has significant analgesic and anticonvulsant effects.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.748-753

 

 

Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood,
liver and muscle

Jyothsna Karanth & K Jeevaratnam1*

Biochemistry and Nutrition Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore 570 011, India

Received 27 August 2008; revised 26 May 2009

Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.754-759

 

 

Effect of dietary Spirulina on reduction of copper toxicity and improvement of growth, blood parameters and phosphatases activities in carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822)

R James*, K Sampath, R Nagarajan, P. Vellaisamy & M Maripandi Manikandan

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, V.O. Chidambaram College,

Tuticorin 628 008, India

Received 2 June 2008; revised 1 June 2009.

The effect of Spirulina supplementation on reduction of copper toxicity based on food utilization, phosphatases activities and selected haematological parameters was studied in a freshwater cultivable fish C. mrigala. Metal concentration in medium, body tissues and fecal matter was also analysed. Sublethal exposure of C. mrigala fed Spirulina – free diet significantly reduced the consumption and growth rates, phosphatases activities and haematological parameters. However, the above parameters enhanced in the copper exposed fish fed with Spirulina supplemented diets. A significant positive correlation was obtained for the relationship between supplementation of dietary Spirulina and copper defecation through feces. Among the doses of Spirulina supplementation, 6% addition has been considered optimum for C. mrigala since this dose produces maximum elimination of copper from the body and feces and better improvement on growth, phosphatases activities and haematological parameters.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.760-765

 

 

Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soils contaminated with
crude oil spills

Anupama Mittal* & Padma Singh

Department of Microbiology, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya (Gurukul Kangri University),
Jwalapur, Haridwar 249 407, India

Received 24 December 2008; revised 19 May 2009

A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the capability of bacterial strains to degrade crude oil under in vitro conditions. Pseudomonas strain PS-I could degrade alkanes (70.69%) and aromatics (45.37%). Alkanes and aromatic fractions separated by column chromatography were analyzed by gas chromatography. In case of Pseudomonas strain PS-I, nC17/Pr, nC18/Ph ratios decreased from 2.5100 to 0.1232 and from 7.2886 to 0.3853, respectively. It was concluded that out of the isolated strains, Pseudomonas strain PS-I, PS-II and PS-III were comparatively better and potent hydrocarbon degraders. Pseudomonas strain PS-I was almost comparable with standard strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in crude oil biodegradation potency.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.766-769

 

 

Laboratory scale bioremediation of diesel hydrocarbon in soil by
indigenous bacterial consortium

Anjana Sharma* & Meenal Budholia Rehman**

*Bacteriology lab, Department of Biological Sciences, RDVV, Jabalpur, 482001, India

Received 13 January 2009; revised 5 May 2009

In vitro experiment was performed by taking petrol pump soils and diesel in flasks with the micronutrients and macronutrients supplements. Cemented bioreactors having sterilized soil and diesel was used for in vivo analysis of diesel hydrocarbon degradation. There were two sets of experiments, first having three bioreactors (1) inoculated by Kl. pneumoniae subsp. aerogenes with soil and diesel; (2) with addition of NH4NO3; and (3) served as control. In second set, one bioreactor was inoculated by bacterial consortium containing Moraxella saccharolytica, Alteromonas putrefaciens, Kl. pneumoniae subsp. aerogenes and Pseudomonas fragi along with soil and diesel. The remaining two bioreactors (having NH4NO3 and control) were similar to the first set. The experiments were incubated for 30 days. Ability of bacterial inoculum to degrade diesel was analyzed through GC-MS. Smaller chain compounds were obtained after experimental period of 30 days. Rate of diesel degradation was better with the present bacterial consortium than individual bacteria. Present bacterial consortium can be a better choice for faster and complete remediation of contaminated hydrocarbon soils.

 

 

Notes

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp.770-772

 

 

Ascorbate defense system and response of steroid producing glands under reserpine treatment in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Priyanka Mehta* & Kunwar Bahadur Singh

Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science

M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly 243 006, India

Received 2 June 2008; revised 17 June 2009

Reserpine functions as an anti-stress agent providing relaxation to animals under stressful conditions. An attempt was made to find out functions of reserpine in unstressed albino rats and its role in steroidogenesis. The effects of the drug (25 and 35µg, im daily for 3-5 days) were observed by recording the changes in body weights, concentration of ascorbate (liver and adrenals) and cholesterol (liver, adrenal and testes) of the animals. A dose of 25 µg reserpine 3-5 days was ineffective as there were no significant changes after the treatment. On the other hand 35 µg reserpine was found to be effective because there was significant increase in body weights, levels of ascorbate and cholesterol in respective tissues after 3-5 days administration. Therefore it is clear that in unstressed animals reserpine is stimulatory for liver but inhibitory for adrenal and testes under high doses.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, September 2009, pp. 773-774

 

 

Book Review

 

 

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, (vol. 28)ľThe Purple Phototrophic Bacteria

Prasanna Mohanty & Sujata R Mishra