Indian J Exp Biol

AUGUST 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(8)  861-976  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscom.res.in; http : // www.bioline.org.br/

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2002

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 40(8) 861-976 (2002)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

 

 

In quest of thyroid hormone function in mature mammalian brain

Pradip K Sarkar

865

 

 

 

 

Retinoic acid ¾ A player that rules the game of life and death in neutrophils

Kapil Mehta

874

 

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Role of adenosine in drug-induced catatonia in mice

Amanpreet Singh & S K Kulkarni

882

 

 

 

 

Expression of adenosine deaminase and  5'-nucleotidase in artificially induced deciduoma in rat and hamster

Shabana Farheen, V M L Srivastava & P K Mehrotra

 

889

 

 

 

 

Protective effect of Gingko biloba extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice

M U R Naidu, K Vijay Kumar, I Krishna Mohan, C Sundaram & Shashi Singh

 

894

 

 

 

 

Antioxidant and hypolipidaemic activity of a herbal formulation ¾ Liposem

N K Mary, B S Shylesh, B H Babu & J Padikkala

901

 

 

 

 

Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential

K Regi Raphael, M C Sabu & Ramadasan Kuttan

 

905

 

 

 

 

Immunopotentiating activity of abrin, a lectin from Abrus precatorius Linn

V Ramnath, Girija Kuttan & Ramadasan Kuttan

910

 

 

 

 

Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver

K R Anilakumar, Farhath Khanum, K R Sudarshana Krishna &

K R Viswanathan

914

 

 

 

 

Hormonal implication in Bracon-venom-induced paralysation of the host larva of
Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Sudipta Chanda, R N Panda & Sanjib Chakravorty

 

918

 

 

 

 

A rapid hypochlorite method for extraction of polyhydroxy alkanoates from bacterial cells

T Rawte & S Mavinkurve

 

924

 

 

 

 

Solid state cultivation of Curvularia lunata for transformation of rifamycin B to S

A A Rasalkar, B K Salunke, R Z Sayyed, A B Chaudhari & S B Chincholkar

930

 

 

 

 

Pigment analysis and ammonia excretion in herbicide tolerant cyanobacteria

G Selvakumar, G Gopalaswamy & S Kannaiyan

934

 

 

 

 

Bioassay of three sulphur containing compounds as rat attractant admixed in cereal-based bait against Rattus rattus Linn.

Vijay Veer, N Gopalan, Santosh Kumar & Shri Prakash

 

941

 

 

 

 

Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum

Soumen Chattopadhyay, Kajari Lahiri & Bharati Ghosh

 

945

 

 

 

 

Micropropagation of Terminalia arjuna Roxb.from cotyledonary nodes

Seema Pandey & V S Jaiswal

950

 

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

Effect of zinc on antioxidant response in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves

N Pandey, A K Singh, G C Pathak & C P Sharma

954

 

 

 

 

Effect of external electrical field on mobile water fraction and physiological processes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves

K B Hebbar & S K Sinha

 

957

 

 

 

 

Fishmeal extract agar ¾ A new antibiotic sensitivity test medium

K Subbannayya, P Raghunath, V Arjuna Rao & B S Nayak

960

 

 

 

 

Acephate induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes

Aarti Thapar, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran

963

 

 

 

 

Photobiodegradation of pyridine by Rhodopseudomonas palustris JA1

Ch V Ramana, K Arunasri & Ch Sasikala

967

 

 

 

 

Book Reviews

 

 

Advances in Photosynthesis, volume X ¾ Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and
Photophysics: Reviewed by Prasanna Mohanty

 

971

 

 

 

 

Sensory Biology of Jawed Fishes ¾ New Insights: Reviewed by R Mathur

973

 

 

 

 

Vertebrate Functional Morphology ¾ Horizon of Research in the 21st Century

Reviewed by R Mathur

974

 

 

 

 

Announcements

 

 

Essay Competition  2002 : Genomics and Proteomics : Treasure for Drug Discovery

862

 

Dr I C Chopra Memorial Award 2002

862

 

Symposium on the Current Excitement in Biology

975

 

National Seminar on Bio-diversity, Biomass and Management

976

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 865-873

 

 

Review Articles

 

In quest of thyroid hormone function in mature mammalian brain

Pradip K Sarkar

 

Thyroid hormones (TH) have important functions in maturation, differentiation and metabolism during developmental periods in almost all types of tissues including brain of vertebrate animals. In humans’ thyroid malfunction in early developmental stages cause severe neuropsychological abnormalities due to defective gene expression via nuclear receptor activation. However, role of TH in adult mammalian brain is lacking and unclear mainly because it was considered for a long time as a TH unresponsive tissue. Although adult brain contains a substantial number of TH nuclear receptors, no functional properties could be attributed. Recent findings suggest that T3 is distributed, concentrated, metabolized and binds to specific membrane sites within adult brain. In mature humans TH also reversibly regulates various neuropsychological symptoms produced in mature condition. This review discusses development of recent concepts and literature on role of TH and its importance in neuronal function in adult mammalian brain.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 874-881

 

Retinoic acid ¾ A player that rules the game of life and death in neutrophils

Kapil Mehta

 

Neutrophils are the most prevalent white blood cells in the circulation. They represent the first line of defense against invading microorganisms and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases. In response to various factors, the pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow differentiate into mature neutrophils, enter the blood stream, and die within 24 hr via apoptosis. Numerous defects can occur during the process of neutrophils’ differentiation that can manifest in the form of a variety of clinical disorders. Retinoids (Vitamin A and analogues), in general, and all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), in particular, play a critical role during differentiation of neutrophils. tRA can directly modulate gene expression via binding to its nuclear receptors, which in turn, can activate transcription of genes that are essential for differentiation of immature cells to neutrophils. Involvement of retinoic acid receptor in pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), reflects an important role played by this receptor in differentiation of immature myeloid cells to neutrophils. This review summarizes evidence on involvement of retinoic acid-mediated events in differentiation process of neutrophils and their subsequent apoptosis.]

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 882-888

 

Papers

 

Role of adenosine in drug-induced catatonia in mice

Amanpreet Singh & S K Kulkarni*

 

Received 11 June 2001; revised 21 August 2001

Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting large majority of population who are older than age of 65. Apart from dopamine, acetylcholine and glutamate, adenosine has also been identified in the basal ganglia. Adenosine modulates the release of a variety of neurotransmitters including dopamine. In order to establish adenosine-dopamine interactions in drug-induced catatonia we studied the effect of adenosine in drug-induced catatonia in mice. In the present study adenosine dose dependently produced catatonia when assessed on rota-rod and bar tests in mice. Adenosine also potentiated the catatonic effect of perphenazine. L-dopa plus carbidopa or OR-486 (a potent centrally acting COMT inhibitor) completely reversed adenosine-induced catatonia. Since reversal by scopolamine of adenosine-induced catatonia was not to the same extent as with l-dopa and OR-486 it appears that catecholamines particularly dopamine rather than cholinergic modulation is more important in adenosine induced catatonia. The motor dysfunction (catatonia) could be easily assessed using rota-rod test apparatus in mice.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 889-893

 

 

Expression of adenosine deaminase and  5'-nucleotidase in artificially induced
deciduoma in rat and hamster

Shabana Farheen, V M L Srivastava & P K Mehrotra

 

Received 10 May 2001; revised 11 April 2002

Enzymes adenosine deaminase (ADA) and 5-nucleotidase (5-‘NT) are known to play active role in tissue/cell proliferation and differentiation. To validate this the two enzymes were studied in artificially induced deciduoma of rat and hamster. The deciduoma was induced by traumatizing one of the uterine horns of progesterone primed animals .Non traumatized horn served as control. The animals were later maintained on progesterone, given alone (Gr.I) or conjointly with estrogen (Gr.II). The weight of each uterine horn was recorded to determine the formation of deciduoma. There was no marked difference between the weights of traumatized and control horn on day 2 post- traumatization (PT), but a progressive rise was noticed after this day in both species. The ADA activity however differed, day and species wise. While in the rats of Gr.I it was low in the traumatized horn on all the days, in the hamsters it was remarkably high from day 2 to 6 PT. In the rats of Gr.II also the activity though was low in the traumatized horn, but on day 2 and 4 only; on day 6 and 7 PT it increased markedly. In hamster, on the contrary, again the enzyme activity was remarkably high on all the three days. The 5'-NT activity, however, did not show any marked difference between the two horns under Gr.I and II in both species. It was rather high in the control horn of each group. The results suggest: (1) the progesterone alone though produces a significant rise in the uterine weight of traumatized horn in both species, the ADA activity increases only in hamster, (2) under the conjoint treatment also the enzyme activity remains high in hamster; and (3) the activity of enzyme 5'-NT does not alter during the deciduoma formation in both the species.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 894-900

 

 

Protective effect of Gingko biloba extract against doxorubicin-induced
cardiotoxicity in mice

M U R Naidu, K Vijay Kumar, I Krishna Mohan, C Sundaram & Shashi Singh

 

Received 10 May 2001; revised 29 April 2002

Doxorubicin (DXR) causes dose dependent cardiotoxicity in experimental animals and in humans. In chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity model mice, the role of G. biloba extract (Gbe) which has an antioxidant property, was investigated. Doxorubicin treated animals showed higher mortality (68%), increased ascites, marked bradycardia, prolongation of ST and QT intervals and widening of QRS complex. Myocardial SOD and glutathione peroxidase activity were decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased. Ultrastructure of heart of DXR treated animals showed loss of myofibrils, swelling of mitochondria, vacuolization of mitochondria. G. biloba extract significantly protected the mice from cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin as evidenced by lowered mortality, ascites, myocardial lipid peroxidation, normalization of antioxidant enzymes, reversal of ECG changes and minimal ultrastructural damage of the heart. The results indicate that administration of G. biloba extract protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 901-904

 

Antioxidant and hypolipidaemic activity of a herbal formulation ¾ Liposem

N K Mary, B S Shylesh, B H Babu & J Padikkala

 

Received 11 December 2001; revised 8 March 2002

The efficacy of Liposem, a polyherbal formulation, as an antioxidant and hypolipidaemic drug was evaluated in diet induced hyperlipidaemia in rats. The methanolic extract of Liposem was found to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide free radicals, the IC50 required being 70.5 and 45.0 mg respectively. The lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by Fe2+ ascorbate system was also found inhibited (50%) by 273.5 mg of the extract. The hypolipidaemic effect was assessed by serum lipid profile in dietary hyperlipidaemic rats and found to have decreased dose dependently in all the four different concentrations of administration (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body wt). Liposem significantly raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the HDL/low density lipoprotein + very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) ratio. The atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant, indicating the effectiveness against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. These results reveal the therapeutic potential of Liposem against the vascular intimal damage and diet induced hyperlipidaemia leading to the various types of cardio vascular diseases.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 905-909

 

 

Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus
Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus
in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential

K Regi Raphael, M C Sabu & Ramadasan Kuttan

.

Received 21 August 2001; revised 14 March 2002

Methanolic extract of P.  amarus was found to have potential anti-oxidant activity as it could inhibit lipid peroxidation, and scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The amount required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxide formation was 104 µg/ml and the concentrations needed to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were 117 and 19 µg/ml respectively. The extract was found to reduce the blood sugar in alloxan diabetic rats at 4th hr by 6% at a dose level of 200 mg/kg body wt and 18.7% at a concentration of 1000 mg/kg body wt. Continued administration of the extract for 15 days produced significant (P < 0.001) reduction in blood sugar . On 18th day after alloxan administration values were almost similar to normal in the group taking 1000 mg/kg body wt.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 910-913

 

 

Immunopotentiating activity of abrin, a lectin from Abrus precatorius Linn

V Ramnath, Girija Kuttan & Ramadasan Kuttan

 

Received 22 October 2001; revised 1 May 2002

A non-toxic dose of abrin, (1.25mg/kg body wt) consecutively for five days in normal mice stimulated specific humoral responses. A noticeable increase was observed in total leucocyte count, lymphocytosis, weights of spleen and thymus, circulating antibody titre, antibody forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and µ-esterase positive bone marrow cells. The results suggest that abrin can potentiate the humoral immune response of the host.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 914-917

 

 

Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver

K R Anilakumar, Farhath Khanum*, K R Sudarshana Krishna & K R Viswanathan

 

Received 15 May 2000; revised 29 April 2002

Short-term feeding studies were carried out to investigate the effect of ingestion of salted dried fish on alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and modulation of the activities of detoxification enzymes in liver in order to study the induction of oxidative stress. Rats were fed diets with either 5, 10 and 20% dried mackerel for 4 weeks and levels of antioxidants in liver were estimated. The results showed that the fish intake at 10 and 20% dietary level reduced glutathione with a reciprocal increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a concomitant decrease in antioxidant vitamins A and C contents in liver. A significant decline in the activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also observed at these levels of fish consumption. Kidney g- glutamyl transpeptidase activity on the other hand was increased abnormally at 20% fish intake. The results suggested that the dried fish consumption at higher concentrations (at 10 and 20%) for a short period caused lowering of the activities of antioxidative enzymes thereby inducing oxidative stress in rat liver.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 918-923

 

 

Hormonal implication in Bracon-venom-induced paralysation of the host larva of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Sudipta Chanda, R N Panda & Sanjib Chakravorty

 

Received 26 November 2001; revised 19 February 2002

To facilitate oviposition, the ectoparasite Bracon hebetor, injects its venom, a paralysing toxin, to the host Corcyra larva that ultimately dies without showing any metamorphic change, even if allowed to remain unparasitised. At the initial stage of venom injection the rate of heartbeat of the host becomes abruptly high. This has been explained from the synergistic action of the substances of poison gland and calyx. The paralysed larvae subsequent to envenomization die within 240 hr. Application of hydroprene as single dose or with a booster dose after paralysation mostly increases the survival period considering heart beat as the index. The predicted value of survival period (714.4 hr), determined from a fitted equation obtained from the relationship between heart beat and survival period, indicates that a 100 mg treatment / larva with a booster dose of 50 mg / larva most effectively lengthens the period. It is concluded that the venom-induced physiological dysfunction of the immobilised larvae, as indicated in the rate of heart beat and survival period, though can be recovered to some extent after the application of juvenoids, there cannot occur any metamorphic change of these larvae. The parasitoid, therefore, succeeds in completing its development and metamorphosis by arresting the development of its host through an indirect hormonal suppression. The findings indicate an endocrine implication in host-parasite relationship in insect.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 924-929

 

 

A rapid hypochlorite method for extraction of polyhydroxy alkanoates
from bacterial cells

T Rawte & S Mavinkurve

 

Received 19 August 2001; revised 7 March 2002

A new method has been standardized for extraction of polyhydroxy alkanoates from the bacteria, using sodium hypochlorite. This method is simple and quick as compared to the existing methods. Statistical analysis has proved the method to be reliable and reproducible.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 930-933

 

 

Solid state cultivation of Curvularia lunata for transformation
of rifamycin B to S

A A Rasalkar, B K Salunke, R Z Sayyed, A B Chaudhari & S B Chincholkar

 

Received 22 August 2001; revised 6 May 2002

Biotransformation of rifamycin B to rifamycin S using two strains of C. lunata namely NCIM 716 and NMU grown on various solid substrates viz., grass, paper, jowar/wheat straw, bran and bagasse was studied. Almost complete biotransformation efficiency of rifamycin B at 0. 06 mM concentration was observed within 24 hr. Among these two strains, C. lunata NMU showed 90% of biotransformation and higher rate of cellulose utilization on solid substrates vis-ą-vis reference strain. Cellulase activity of both strains was also studied for exoglucanase, endoglucanase and b-glucosidase. Column bioreactor studies with bagasse revealed further improvement in biotransformation efficiency of C. lunata NMU.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 934-940

 

 

Pigment analysis and ammonia excretion in herbicide tolerant cyanobacteria

G Selvakumar, G Gopalaswamy & S Kannaiyan

 

Received 22 February 2001;revised 11 April 2002

Isolation of cyanobacteria was attempted from herbicide applied rice soils. The predominant genera were Westiellopsis followed by Anabaena, Nostoc and Oscillatoria. The herbicide tolerance was further tested by growing the cyanobacterial cultures in BG-11 medium supplemented with varying concentrations of the commonly used rice herbicide, viz butachlor under in vitro condition. The chlorophyll-a, phycobiliproteins and ammonia excretion were assessed at periodic intervals. Westiellopsis showed the maximum tolerance followed by Anabaena, Nostoc and Oscillatoria.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 941-944

 

 

Bioassay of three sulphur containing compounds as rat attractant
admixed in cereal-based bait against Rattus rattus Linn.

Vijay Veer, N Gopalan, Santosh Kumar & Shri Prakash

 

Received 6 June 2001; revised 16 April 2002

Three sulphur containing compounds, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were bioassayed for preference after admixing them in cereal base as ready bait block for use against commensal rat, R. rattus (wild type) in four way choice chamber system. Rat preference for different baits was also studied with automatic recording animal activity meter. Rats exhibited attractancy to the baits at 0.005% concentration of all the three compounds while at 0.01% concentration they have showed repellency. Dimethyl sulphide at 0.005% concentration showed better attractancy towards both sexes of rat.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 945-949

 

 

Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall

development in Pisum sativum

Soumen Chattopadhyay, Kajari Lahiri & Bharati Ghosh

 

Received 4 July 2001; revised 3 April 2002

Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 950-953

 

Micropropagation of Terminalia arjuna Roxb.from cotyledonary nodes

Seema Pandey & V S Jaiswal

 

Received 20 November 2001; revised 19 March 2002

Cotyledonary node explants excised from 21 day old seedlings of T. arjuna produced multiple shoots when cultured on full strength MS or modified MS (1/2 strength major salts and Fe-EDTA) medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 mg/l) of BAP. Maximum 8.9 shoots/explant could be recorded after 30 days of inoculation on modified MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.5mg/l). A proliferating shoot culture was established by reculturing the original cotyledonary nodes (2-3 times) on shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. shoots (each having 2-3 nodes/shoot) thus obtained were also used as a source of nodal explant that gave rise to 1-2 shoots when cultured on modified MS+BAP (0.5mg/l) medium. Thus, 45-55 shoots could be obtained after 60 days of culture initiation from a single cotyledonary node. About 88% shoots rooted well after 15 hr pulse treatment with IBA (1 mg/l) in liquid MS medium followed by transfer to modified MS medium without IBA. About 80% of these plantlets were successfully acclimatized in plastic pots containing sand and soil mixture and 70% plantlets transferred in the field those survived even after 6 months of transplantation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 954-956

 

Notes

Effect of zinc on antioxidant response in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves

N Pandey, A K Singh, G C Pathak & C P Sharma

 

Received 6 July 2001; revised 2 May 2002

Maize (Zea mays L. cv kanaujia) plants grown with Zn [10 (control), 0.1 (low) and 20 µM (high)], were investigated for concentration of antioxidants and activities of antioxidative enzymes in leaves. Young leaves of low Zn plants developed whitish-necrotic spots. Leaves of both low and high Zn plants showed decrease in chlorophyll concentration and accumulation of lipid peroxides, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, associated with a decrease in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low and high Zn, however, showed diverse effect on glutathione reductase. While low Zn increased the activity of glutathione reductase, high Zn decreased its activity. Zinc effect on antioxidative constituents suggested Zn involvement in sustaining the antioxidative defense system in maize leaves.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 957-959

 

Effect of external electrical field on mobile water fraction and physiological
processes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves

K B Hebbar & S K Sinha

 

Received 30 October 2001; revised 20 March 2002

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of external electric field on physiological processes, moisture content and mobile water fraction in wheat leaves. Application of electric field increased the stomatal resistance immediately and it continued to increase upto 10 min. Photosynthesis and respiration of leaves decreased with the application of external electric field. Leaf moisture content and mobile fraction of water measured as relaxation times were marginally increased with electric field. Closure of stomata, in spite of maintaining higher leaf moisture content of the leaf with external electric field, suggested that electric field might have regulated stomatal movement through hormones or ion flux across the cells.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 960-962

 

Fishmeal extract agar ¾ A new antibiotic sensitivity test medium

K Subbannayya, P Raghunath & V Arjuna Rao

 

and

B S Nayak

 

Received 23 November 2001; revised 9 April 2002

Fishmeal extract agar is a new antibiotic sensitivity test medium. It is simpler and cheaper than Mueller-Hinton agar and comparable in its efficacy to the latter. It can also be used for isolation of moderately fastidious and non-fastidious bacteria from clinical specimens. Fishmeal extract broth can be used as a base for biochemical tests used for the identification of bacterial isolates.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 963-966

 

 

Acephate induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes

Aarti Thapar, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran*

 

Received 8 October 2001; revised 13 May 2002

The effect of oral administration of acephate (360 mg/kg body weight), for 15 days, daily, was investigated on the erythrocytes of male rats. Activities of acetyl cholinesterase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased, while those of glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione reductase increased. Decreased glutathione content and increased lipid peroxidation suggest that there was increased oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of treated animals. Increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in the erythrocyte membranes and morphological changes in RBCs (scanning electron microscopy studies) were observed in acephate treated animals. The results clearly suggest that acephate induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes leads to morphological changes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 967-970

 

Photobiodegradation of pyridine by Rhodopseudomonas palustris JA1

Ch. V Ramana

 

and

K Arunasri & Ch. Sasikala

 

Received 19 October 2001; revised 29 April 2002

A purple non-sulfur bacterium isolated from dairy effluent was identified as Rps. palustris JA1. This organism was able to grow on pyridine as sole source of carbon in a light dependent anaerobic process with a doubling time of 30 h. Intermediates of pyridine photobiodegradation were identified as glycine and malonate, produced in stoichiometric molar ratios with simultaneous utilization, yielding biomass.

 

 

Book Reviews

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 971-972

 

Advances in Photosynthesis, volume X ¾ Photo­synthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photophysics: Reviewed by Prasanna Mohanty

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp973

 

Sensory Biology of Jawed Fishes—New Insights: Reviewed by R Mathur

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 974

 

Vertebrate Functional Morphology—Horizon of Research in the 21st Centuary: Reviewed by R Mathur

Announcements

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, August 2002, pp. 975-976

 

Announcements