Indian J Exp Biol

DECEMBER 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(12)  1325-1438  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

 

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 2002

 

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 40(12) 1325-1438 (2002)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

 

 

A new physiological phenomenon of mammalian body for organ and tissue neo-regeneration in vivo: Adult stem cell technology in the perspective of literature

B G Matapurkar

 

1331

 

Serotonin/dopamine interaction ¾ Focus on 5-HT2C receptor, a new target of psychotropic drugs

G Di Giovanni, V Di Matteo & E Esposito

 

1344

 

Snake venom as therapeutic agents: From toxin to drug development

Sanjoy Kumar Pal, Aparna Gomes, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

1353

 

Papers

 

 

A lethal neurotoxic protein from Indian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom

Pallabi De, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

1359

 

Inhibitory effect of curcumin and its natural analogues on genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked food

Shishu, A K Singla & I P Kaur

 

1365

 

Potentiation of spermicidal activity of 2',4'-dichlorobenzamil by lidocaine

P Moudgil, A Gupta, A Sharma, S Gupta, & A K Tiwary

1373

 

Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding calli of Bixa orellana L.

Marie-Claire Castello, Anita Phatak, Naresh Chandra & Madhuri Sharon

 

1378

 

In vitro regeneration of roots of Phyla nodiflora and Leptadenia reticulata, and comparison of roots from cultured and natural plants for secondary metabolites

Trupti Bhatt, Vandana Jain, M G Jayathirtha, G Banerjee & S H Mishra

 

1382

 

Evaluation of parameters for high efficiency gene transfer via particle bombardment in Indian mulberry

Somika Bhatnagar, Anita Kapur & Paramjit Khurana

 

1387

 

Purification and some important characters of extracellular inulinase of Alternaria
alternata
(Fr.) Keissler

Hossam S Hamdy

 

1393

 

Note

 

 

In vivo and in vitro evaluation for immunomodulatory activity of three marine animal extracts with reference to phagocytosis

C A Ponkshe & Madhavi M Indap

 

1399

 

 

(Contd)

 

Announcements

 

 

4th Asian Buffalo Congress for Food Security and Rural Development

 

International Workshop on Nanotechnology & Health Care; National Conference on Recent Advances in Reproductive Health; National Workshop on Herbarium Techniques

1328

 

1330

 

 

 

 

Annual Index

1403

 

 

 

 

 

Announcements

4th Asian Buffalo Congress on Buffalo For Food Security and Rural Development

25-28 February, 2003, New Delhi

Sponsored by the National Academy of Veterinary Sciences, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and oganised by the Asian Buffalo Association and the Indian Society for Buffalo Development, the congress will cover the following topics: (i) Production Systems, (ii) Breeding and Genetics, (iii) Nutrition and Feed Resources, (iv) Physiology and Reproduction, (v) Health and Management, (vi) Biotechnology in Improving Production, (vii) Socio-economic aspects, and (viii) Interactive sessions on milk and meat products. For further details please contact Dr. O P Dhanda, College of Animal Sciences, C C S Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 1250 04, India. Phone: 091-1662-31278 (R); Fax: 091-1662-34952; E-Mail: abc@hau.nic.in

 

______________________

 

International Workshop on Nanotechnology & Health Care

SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India

11-12 January, 2003

International workshop on Nanotechnology & Health Care, organized by the Department of Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India, will focus on the synergy developing between nanotechnology and health care. It will cover topics on  (1) Nanoscale science: A global prospective; (2) Nanotechnology and health care; (3) Smart materials for health care; (4) Drug design and delivery; (5) Tissue engineering; and (6) Nanoscale science: The future. Participation of Nobel Laureates, Eminent Scientists/Researchers, Medical Professionals, and Industrial Professionals is expected in the workshop. For further details, please contact Mr S Swaminathan, Convenor, Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology & Research Academy (SASTRA), Deemed University, Thanjavur 613 402, India. Phone: 91-4362 366248, 366502, 366586; Fax: 91-4362 366399; E.mail: intws@sastra.edu.URL: www.sastra.edu/intws2003.

 

National Conference on Recent Advances in Reproductive Health

6-8 February 2003, Jaipur

Organised by the Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur under the auspices of the Indian Society for the Study of Reproduction and Fertility, and Special Assistance Programme of the Department of Zoology, the conference would provide a forum for researchers, policy makers, programme managers, service providers and NGOs in the field of reproductive health and would include the following topics: (i) Reproduction, (ii) Contraception and strategies for population control, (iii) Pregnancy and safe motherhood, (iv) Unwanted pregnancy and abortion, (v) Adolescent reproductive health, (vi) AIDS, (vii) RTI and STDs, (viii) Diagnosis and management of infertility, (ix) Andropause, menopause and HRT, and (x) Live stock reproduction technologies. For further details please contact Professor N K Lohia, Organising Secretary, NCRAH–2003, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004. Phone: 0141-2701809, 2703552 (O) 2710071 (R); Fax: 0141-2710880; E-mail: lohiyank@hotmail.com

National Workshop on Herbarium Techniques

5–14 May 2003, NISCAIR, New Delhi

The Raw Materials Herbarium & Museum (RHM) of the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR is organizing a National Workshop on Herbarium Techniques during 5–14 May 2003. The training will be imparted to the University/College/School teaching staff, Herbarium Curators, Staff of the Drug & Pharmaceutical Companies, Research Institutes, Researchers and others. Last date for receiving application is 31 January 2003. For first circular and further details contact: Dr. H. B. Singh, Convenor, National Workshop on Herbarium Techniques, Raw Materials Herbarium & Museum, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012. Phone: 5786301, Ext. 263, Fax: 5787062, E mail-hbsingh@niscair.res.in. For Application Form visit the Institute’s website: www.niscair.res.in

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1331-1343

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

A new physiological phenomenon of mammalian body for organ and tissue
neo-regeneration in vivo:
Adult stem cell technology in the perspective of
literature

B G Matapurkar

 

A new phenomenon by which adult developed mammalian and human body, can neo-regenerate its own tissue / organ in vivo, is recognized as “Desired Metaplasia”. Reserve stem cells present in the tissues of adult developed body, are responsible for repair and replacement of lost tissues and cells during life, is plasia. Chronic tissue damage, due to long-standing causative factor, is taken care of and protected by forming resistant tissues, is metaplasia. Both these changes take place at the anatomical abode of the tissues. When stem cells of one tissue are colonized with another tissue/organ system, away from its anatomical abode, the neo-organo-histogenesis takes place by a phenomenon of desired metaplasia. This being new is critically, analytically and scientifically studied and discussed with reference to the available literature. An attempt has been made to establish the scientific account of the phenomenon. The laws of nature and embryology, as well as the basic philosophy responsible for neo-regeneration of tissues and organs in vivo, are discussed. In conclusion, the mammalian and human bodies can neo-regenerate their tissues and organs in vivo by desired metaplasia, provided certain criteria of embryological organogenesis are strictly observed.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1344-1352

 

 

Serotonin/dopamine interaction ¾ Focus on 5-HT2C receptor, a new target of

psychotropic drugs

G Di Giovanni, V Di Matteo & E Esposito

 

 

Several hypotheses regarding physiopathology of major psychiatric diseases exist. Attention has been focused on cerebral monoaminergic systems, the dysfunction of which is thought to underlie various aspects of their symptomatology. There are reports describing the involvement of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs. This article reviews current knowledge on interaction between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acting at 5-HT2C receptors in the central dopamine (DA) systems. Since 90s, a growing body of behavioural, neurochemical and electrophysiological evidence from animal studies have demonstrated a clear role for 5-HT2C receptors in modulation of activity of dopamine neurones. This evidence has led to the suggestion that drugs acting on 5-HT2C receptors have potential as novel antipsychotic and antidepressant agents and may also be used in the treatment of other neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and psychoactive substance abuse.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1353-1358

 

 

 

Snake venom as therapeutic agents: From toxin to drug development

Sanjoy Kumar Pal, Aparna Gomes, S C Dasgupta & Antony Gomes



Snake bite injuries and death are socio-medical problems of considerable magnitude. In India a large number of people suffer and die every year due to snake venom poisoning. Snake venom, though greatly feared, is a natural biological
resource, containing several components that could be of potential therapeutic value. Use of snake venom in different pathophysiological conditions has been mentioned in Ayurveda, homeopathy and folk medicine. It is well known that snake venom is complex mixture of enzymes, peptides and proteins of low molecular mass with specific chemical and biological activities. Snake venom contains several neurotoxic, cardiotoxic, cytotoxic, nerve growth factor, lectins, disintrigrins,
haemorrhagins and many other different enzymes. These proteins not only inflict death to animals and humans, but can also be used for the treatment of thrombosis, arthritis, cancer and many other diseases. An overview of various snake venom components that have prospects in health and diseases are discussed in this review.

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1359-1364

 

 

 

A lethal neurotoxic protein from Indian king cobra
(Ophiophagus hannah) venom

Pallabi De, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

Received 27 June 2001; revised 9 September 2002

A lethal neurotoxin protein (Toxin CM36) was isolated and purified from the Indian King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom by CM-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and HPLC. The purified toxin had a SDS- molecular weight of 15 ± 0.5 kD. The UV absorption spectra of Toxin CM36 showed a peak at 280 nm and an Emax at 343.8 nm, when excited at 280nm fluorescence. Toxin CM36 had an LD50 of 3.5 μg/20 g (iv) in male albino mice. It exhibited neurotoxicity and produced irreversible blockade of isolated chick biventer cervicis and rat phrenic nerve diaphragm. The neurotoxicity was found to be Ca2+ dependent. Toxin CM36 had no significant effect on isolated guineapig heart and auricle. It also had no effect on blood pressure of cat and rat but produced respiratory apnoea in rat and guineapig. Toxin CM36 lacked phospholipase activity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1365-1372

 

 

Inhibitory effect of curcumin and its natural analogues on genotoxicity of
heterocyclic amines from cooked food

Shishu*, A K Singla & I P Kaur

 

Received 9 August 2002; revised 18 September 2002

Curcumin (C) and its natural analogues demethoxycurcumin (dmC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (bdmC), known for their potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects, were tested for their possible inhibitory effects against seven cooked food mutagens (heterocyclic amines): 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3’,2’-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), in both TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium using Ames Salmonella/reversion assay in the presence of Aroclor induced rat liver S9 homogenate. In the present investigations, curcumin as well as its two natural analogues i.e., dmC and bdmC were found to be highly effective in suppressing genotoxicity of all the tested cooked food mutagens in a dose-dependent manner, in both the frame shift (TA98) as well as base pair mutation sensitive (TA100) strains of S. typhimurium. However, bdmC appeared to be a relatively less active antimutagen compared to C and dmC. More than 80% inhibition of mutagenicity was observed at 200 mg/plate in case of C and dmC in both TA98 and TA100 against all tested cooked food mutagens. Where as, bdmC showed 39-79% inhibition in TA100 and 60-80% inhibition in TA98, at a dose of 200 mg/plate. These findings warrant further biochemical, enzymatic and in vivo investigations in animal models as well as in humans to establish the chemoprotective effect of these agents against mutagenic heterocyclic amines found in cooked food.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1373-1377

 

Potentiation of spermicidal activity of 2',4'-dichlorobenzamil by lidocaine

P Moudgil, A Gupta, A Sharma, S Gupta, & A K Tiwary*

 

Received 16 May 2002; revised 12 September 2002

The present investigation was designed to study the spermicidal activity of lidocaine, a membrane stabilizer, and its combination with 2',4'-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride, a Na+-Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, on human semen and spermatozoa separated from semen. Both drugs per se produced dose- and time-dependent reduction in motility of ejaculated human sperm. Lidocaine was found to potentiate the spermicidal activity of benzamil resulting in significant decrease in time for producing complete loss of ejaculated sperm motility. Sperm revival test revealed irreversible loss of sperm viability indicating a spermicidal rather than spermiostatic action by both the drugs. Furthermore, both benzamil (10-40 mM) per se and benzamil-lidocaine combination (0.5 and 16 mM) produced contraception in rabbit model.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1378-1381

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding
calli of Bixa orellana L.

Marie-Claire Castello, Anita Phatak, Naresh Chandra & Madhuri Sharon

 

Received 20 June 2002; revised 25 September 2002

Ethanol extracts from the different parts of B. orellana showed differential antimicrobial activity. It was found that the extracts of in vitro leaves showed maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus followed by the extracts from the roots and hypocotyls. The callus derived from different explants too showed antimicrobial activity. The leaf callus showed maximum activity. The zone of inhibition for the diluted extracts of in vitro hypocotyls and roots and their corresponding calli showed minimum zone of inhibition at concentration 24mg/ml, whereas the diluted extract of in vitro leaves and leaf derived callus showed minimum zone of inhibition at 16 mg/ml.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1382-1386

 

In vitro regeneration of roots of Phyla nodiflora and Leptadenia reticulata, and comparison of roots from cultured and natural plants for secondary metabolites

Trupti Bhatt, Vandana Jain, M G Jayathirtha, G Banerjee & S H Mishra

 

Received 27 May 2002; revised 3 October 2002

Adventitious roots, generated using leaf explants of P. nodiflora, and meristem explants of L. reticulata, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with napthylacetic acid (2 mM) and indole butyric acid (3mM) respectively. After 30 days, subculturing of roots in liquid MS medium with napthylacetic acid (1.5 mM) for P. nodiflora and indole butyric acid (3 mM) for L. reticulata afforded considerable increase in root mass. HPTLC profiles and microscopic examination of transverse sections of in vitro and naturally grown roots provided information on secondary metabolite accumulation vis-à-vis developmental stages of the root.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1387-1392

 

 

Evaluation of parameters for high efficiency gene transfer via particle

bombardment in Indian mulberry

Somika Bhatnagar, Anita Kapur & Paramjit Khurana

 

Received 24 April 2002; revised 16 October 2002 

Particle bombardment is a popular method of direct gene delivery into cell, tissue and organs since it requires minimum pre- and post-bombardment manipulation. In addition, this technique is much easier and fast to perform with intact tissue/organ and reduces the period of in vitro culture. Genetic transformation of mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2 was attempted by particle bombardment using hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and leaf callus explants. The effect of various physical and biological parameters during bombardment were studied by the histochemical localization of GUS reporter gene following two days of bombardment and by assessing the number of blue spots per explant. p35SGUSINT was used for optimization of different parameters. The percentage of GUS positive explants was very low with tungsten (20%) as compared to gold particles (36%) indicating tungsten toxicity to the tissue. Maximum GUS activity was observed at 1100 psi helium pressure and 9 cm target distance for hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf. Double bombardment of explants with 10 mg of DNA loaded on macrocarriers clearly yielded a better (up to 56%) result as compared to a single bombardment (30%). Amongst the various plasmids tested, pBI221 gave the highest (100%) GUS positive explants in the leaf callus.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1393-1398

 

 

 

Purification and some important characters of extracellular inulinase of
Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler

Hossam S Hamdy

 

E-mail: hossamhamdy@yahoo.com

Received 28 May 2001; revised 9 September 2002

Protein precipitate of cell-free dialysate of extracellular inulinase (2,1-b-fructan fructanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.7) of A. alternata was maximally obtained by methanol. Such protein was fractionated by using 2-step column chromatography on Sephadex G150 and DEAE-cellulose. The partially purified enzyme had activity of 81 ´ 103 U/mg protein, with a yield of 69% of the original activity and the fold of purification was 62. Optimum temperature and pH for the activity of the purified enzyme were found to be 55°C and 4.5, respectively. The enzyme was found to be stable up to 55°C and in pH range of 4 to 5. Ba2+ and Ca2+ were found to stimulate the enzyme activity while Cu2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, and iodoacetate were recorded as strong inhibitors. T1/2 of the enzyme was estimated to be two weeks and its apparent Km was calculated to be 0.066 M. The enzyme recorded hydrolyzing activity against sucrose and raffinose recording I/S ratio of 0.50. Molecular mass of the enzyme preparation was estimated by gel filtration and found to be 115 ± 5 kDa.

 

Note

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1399-1402

 

 

 

In vivo and in vitro evaluation for immunomodulatory activity of three marine animal extracts with reference to phagocytosis

C A Ponkshe & Madhavi M Indap

 

Received 9 October 2001; revised August 2002

The whole body ether extracts of a marine prawn Nematopaleamon tenuipes and two gastropods viz. Euchelus asper and Hemifusus pugilinus, obtained by Soxhlet extraction and cold percolation were tested for their effects on phagocytosis by in vitro (slide method) and by in vivo (carbon clearance) methods. Extract of E. asper exhibits immunostimulatory activity in vitro and immunosuppressant activity in vivo. The in vitro test for N. tenuipes and H. pugilinus shows biphasic activity, but the former shows immunostimulatory while the latter shows immunosuppresant activity in vivo test.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, December 2002, pp. 1403-1438

 

 

Annual Index