Indian J Exp Biol

MARCH 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(3)  239-376  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscom.res.in; http : // www.bioline.org.br/

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2002

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Chemopreventive effect of orange oil on the development of hepatic preneoplastic
lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats: An ultrastructural study

H B Bodake, K N S Panicker, V V Kailaje & K V K Rao

 

245

 

 

Photodynamic action of merocyanine 540 on carcinoma of cervix cells

Mrinalini Sharma, Harsha Bansal & Pradeep Kumar Gupta

252

 

 

In vivo inhibition of selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in rats by diethyldithiocarbamate

H Ramachandra Prabhu

 

258

 

 

Immunotoxicity of soluble and insoluble salts of cadmium instilled intratracheally

Shashi Dogra, Mohd Waseem , Ashok Kumar Khanna & Jawahir Lal Kaw

262

 

 

Effect of fish oil on mitochondrial respiration in isoproterenol induced myocardial
infarction in rats

V Vijaya Padma & C S Shyamala Devi

 

268

 

 

Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucurna pruriens and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts

J K Grover, S S Rathi & V Vats

 

 

273

 

 

Effect of co-administration of piperine on pharmacokinetics of b-lactam antibiotics in rats

A R Hiwale, J N Dhuley & S R Naik

 

277

 

 

Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 in mice

Kumar V S Nemmani, G B Jena, C S Dey, C L Kaul & P Ramarao

282

 

 

Immunological identification of two female-specific proteins from the plasma of Indian freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

Neeta Sehgal & S V Goswami

 

288

 

 

Evaluation of guinea pig model for experimental Salmonella serovar Abortusequi
infection in reference to infertility

B R Singh, Javed Alam, D Hansda, J C Verma, V P Singh & M P Yadav

 

296

 

 

Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats

W D Ratnasooriya & J R A C Jayakody

304

 

 

Marker assisted detection of gene (1Dx5) and translocation (1B/1R) in wheat genotypes

Ratan Tiwari, Priyamvada, Rajender Singh, H S Nainawatee, Rajendra Kumar,

B S Tyagi, R K Gupta & S Nagarajan

309

 

Contd

 


Fungistatic activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f nut extract

Kanika Sharma, Sunil Dutt Shukla, Pooja Mehta & Maheep Bhatnagar

314

 

 

Bioleaching of copper from chalcopyrite ore by fungi

D Venkateshwara Rao, Channappa T Shivannavar & Subhaschandra M Gaddad

319

 

 

Fermentation of starch to ethanol by an amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus SM-10

S Sharma, M Pandey & B Saharan

 

325

 

 

In vitro organogenesis and genetic transformation in popular Cucumis sativus L. through Agrobacterium tumefaciens

E V Soniya & M R Das

 

329

 

 

Host plant nodule parameters associated with nitrogen fixation efficiency in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) cultivars

Amarjit K Nath, Tarannum Ahmed, Neerja S Rana & D R Sharma

 

334

 

 

Notes

 

Anti-angiogenic activity of BIM (bio-immunomodulator)

Debasis Ghoshal

341

 

 

Effect of enrofloxacin on AgNOR counts in chick bone marrow nuclei

Asha Khanna & Joydeep Dutta

345

 

 

Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on experimental pre-eclampsia induced by prolonged blockade of nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant rats

P Pandhi, L Saha & S Malhotra

 

349

 

 

Measurement of creatinine by Jaffe’s reaction¾ Determination of concentration of sodium hydroxide required for maximum color development in standard, urine and protein free filtrate of serum

B D Toora & G Rajagopal

 

 

352

 

 

Effect of dietary protein on vitamin A levels in plasma and liver of hypervitaminotic-A rats

P K Karar, R Manavalan & G Rajagopal

 

355

 

 

Male accessory gland secretions in hybrids of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and

D. n. albomicans neither show luxuriance nor breakdown

K Ravi Ram & S R Ramesh

 

359

 

 

Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of Annona squamosa leaves against filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say

A Jaswanth, P Ramanathan & K Ruckmani

 

363

 

 

Effect of a non-hormonal feed additive, Cholymbi on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activity of common carp, Cyprinus carpio

H Hanumanthappa, P Keshavanath, A T Ramachandra Naik & B Gangadhar

 

366

 

 

Influence of cell wall degrading enzymes on colonization of N2 fixing bacterium, Azorhizobium caulinodans in rice

R Buvana & S Kannaiyan

 

369

 

 

News Scan

 

Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); Towards therapeutic angiogenesis

M K Singhal

373

 

 


Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 245-251

 

 

 

Chemopreventive effect of orange oil on the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions induced by
N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats: An ultrastructural study

H B Bodake, K N S Panickera, V V Kailaje & K V K Rao

Orange peel oil is used extensively as an approved flavour enhancer in fruit drinks, carbonated beverages and as a scenting agent in soaps and cosmetics. Limonene, which is a monocyclic monoterpene is present in orange peel oil from 90 to 95% (w/w). Monoterpenes have been shown to be very effective chemopreventive agents against several rodent tumors and are currently in clinical trials. However, not much information is available regarding the ultrastructural changes associated with the chemopreventive effects of the monoterpenes. The effect of orange oil on the suppression of preneoplastic hepatic lesions during N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis was studied electron microscopically. Rats were administered 200 ppm DEN through drinking water for a period of 1 month. After an interval of 2 weeks, the animals were administered orange oil by gavage for a period of 5 ½ months. The chemopreventive effect of orange oil was monitored on the basis of liver weight profile, histological pattern by light microscopy and ultrastructural alterations by electronmicroscopy. Orange oil administration following DEN treatment showed decreased   liver weights, increased intercellular gap junctional complexes, cell density and polarity when compared with only the DEN treated rats. In the present study chemopreventive effect of orange oil on DEN-induced hepatic preneoplasia in rats which is associated with the restoration of the normal phenotype and upregulation of junctional complexes has been demonstrated.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 252-257

 

 

Photodynamic action of merocyanine 540 on carcinoma of cervix cells

Mrinalini Sharma, Harsha Bansal & Pradeep Kumar Gupta

 

Results of the studies carried out on localization and photodynamic action of merocyanine 540 (MC540) on carcinoma of cervix (HeLa) cells are presented. Fluorescence microscopic study showed that when HeLa cells were incubated with MC540 in dark, the dye localized in plasma membrane of cells. Photoirradiation of cells in presence of MC540 led to enhancement of dye uptake, intracellular localization of dye and a dose dependent decrease in cell survival. Clonogenic assay showed 96% cell killing at a light dose of 42kJ/m2. Photosensitization of cells resulted in loss of membrane integrity, decrease in plasma membrane fluidity and reduction in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity as measured by tetrazolium reduction (MTT) assay. At a given light dose, the relative change in plasma membrane properties was higher than the reduction in activity of mitochondrial enzyme. These results suggest plasma membrane is a primary target of photosensitization of HeLa cells by MC540.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 258-261

 

 

In vivo inhibition of selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in rats by diethyldithiocarbamate

H Ramachandra Prabhu

 

Intraperitoneal injection of rats with diethyldithiocarbamate (1.2g/kg body wt) led to maximum diminution of superoxide dismutase activity at 1hr by 86 and 84% in liver and red blood cell respectively with a gradual return to the normal level at 48 hr after administration of injection. Significant inhibition of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase was also observed, which returned to normal at 48 hr after administration of injection. However, maximum decline in its activity was at 12 hr by 52 and 73% in liver and red blood cells respectively. No significant difference in tissue level of selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase was observed during time course study after diethyldithiocarbamate administration. It is possible that inhibition of superoxide dismutase by diethyldithiocarbamate leads to accumulation of superoxide anion which in turn inactivates selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase by its reaction with selenium at the active site of the enzyme.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 262-267

 

 

Immunotoxicity of soluble and insoluble salts of cadmium instilled
intratracheally*

Shashi Dogra, Mohd Waseem , Ashok Kumar Khanna & Jawahir Lal Kaw

Rats were intratracheally (it) exposed to 36.5 or 27.5 mg of cadmium (Cd) as soluble cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and insoluble cadmium oxide (CdO) salts. The retention of metal in lungs, liver and kidney was assessed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The animals were intraperitoneally (ip) primed with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and assessed for the number of antibody forming cells in lung associated lymph nodes (LALN) and spleen. Both the compounds had similar retention of metal in lungs but CdO induced more pulmonary inflammatory and degradative changes than CdCl2. The larger influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNS) following CdO exposure appears to be due to the absence of protection afforded by Cd induced metallothionein cytoplasmic protein while the Cd metallothionein complex formed in the case of CdCl2 is more protective. However both forms of Cd had similar local immunosuppressive potential but CdO had more prolonged suppressive effect.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 268-272

 

 

Effect of fish oil on mitochondrial respiration in isoproterenol induced
myocardial infarction in rats

V Vijaya Padma & C S Shyamala Devi

Following isoproterenol treatment mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, phosphoslipase activity, lactate and calcium increased significantly, while activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, enzymes of respiratory chain and ATP production showed decline. Oxidative phosphorylation was also affected on isoproterenol treatment with significant reduction in all the variables. Fish oil pretreatment in isoproterenol treated rats showed improved mitochondrial energy metabolism. The results suggest cardioprotective effect of fish oil.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 273-276

 

 

Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats
following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucurna pruriens
and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts

J K Grover, S S Rathi & V Vats

Extract of M. charantia (200mg/kg), E. jambolana (200mg/kg), M. pruriens (200mg/kg) and T. cordifolia (400 mg/kg) was administered for 50 days in STZ induced diabetic mice, the plasma glucose concentration was reduced by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07 % respectively. Tail flick latency (TFL) and gastric transit percentage were significantly higher in diabetic controls versus normal controls. M. charantia and E. jambolana modified it favorably while M. pruriens and T. cordifolia did not exert any favorable change.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 277-281

 

 

Effect of co-administration of piperine on pharmacokinetics of b-lactam
antibiotics in rats

A R Hiwale, J N Dhuley & S R Naik

 

Co-administration of piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum L. enhanced bioavailability of beta lactam antibiotics, amoxycillin trihydrate and cefotaxime sodium significantly in rats. The improved bioavailability is reflected in various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. tmax, Cmax, t ½ and AUC, of these antibiotics. The increased bioavailability could be attributed to the effect of piperine on microsomal metabolising enzymes or enzymes system.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 282-287

 

 

Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation,
Immu-21 in mice*

Kumar V S Nemmani, G B Jena, C S Dey, C L Kaul & P Ramarao

 

Immunomodulatory activity of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 containing extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia was studied on proliferative response of splenic leukocytes to T cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)-A and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by [3H]-thymidine uptake assay in mice. The cytotoxic activity of Immu-21 was tested by measuring the splenic leukocyte natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 cells. Intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with Immu-21 (30 mg/kg) once a day for 14 and 21 days did not cause change in body weight and spleen weight, where as splenocytes/spleen count was increased. Treatment of Immu-21 (30 mg/kg, ip) for 14 days and 1 mg/kg for 21 days significantly increased LPS induced leukocyte proliferation. NK cell activity was significantly increased when mice were pretreated with Immu-21 (10 and 30 mg/kg, ip) once a day for 7 days. The results indicate that pretreatment with Immu-21 selectively increased the proliferation of splenic leukocyte to B cell mitogen, LPS and cytotoxic activity against K 562 cells in mice.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 288-295

 

 

Immunological identification of two female-specific proteins from the plasma of Indian freshwater
murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

Neeta Sehgal & S V Goswami

 

Existence of a non-phosphorylated female-specific protein (FS II), in addition to phosphorylated vitellogenin (FS I), in the plasma of murrel by exogenous administration of estradiol-17ß is reported. Polyspecific rabbit antibodies were raised against estrogen-inducible murrel plasma proteins. This antiserum was absorbed with normal male serum in order to obtain female-specific antiserum (FSAS). Radial immunodiffusion studies suggested that both the proteins (FS I and FS II) were present in the plasma of E2-treated and normal vitellogenic females and in the ovarian homogenate from gravid females, but absent in normal male plasma. Autoradiographic experiments demonstrated that phosphorus moiety was attached with FS I only. Further, immunoelectrophoretic analysis and peptide maps supported the observation that FS I and FS II were discrete, unrelated female-specific proteins.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 296-303

 

 

Evaluation of guinea pig model for experimental Salmonella serovar
Abortusequi infection in reference to infertility

B R Singh, Javed Alam, D Hansda, J C Verma, V P Singh & M P Yadav

 

The present study conclusively revealed the role for Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi in conception failure. None of the 12 guinea pigs conceived when orally exposed to sublethal dose of the pathogen during breeding, while 66.67% of animals in control group were found pregnant during same period of observation under similar conditions. Salmonella carrier animals also had drastic reduction in conception rate (16.67%). During mid pregnancy, S. Abortusequi exposure to guinea pigs through intravaginal, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes induced fetal death followed by resorption. While 2 out of 6 orally inoculated and 3 out of 6 intraperitonially inoculated guinea pigs aborted, in rest of the animals fetal death was followed by meceration and resorption. It was interesting to note that S. Abortusequi could not persist longer than a week in males while in pregnant females it could be detected for >10 weeks after inoculation. In late pregnancy, most of the exposed animals aborted and non aborting animals though had normal parturition, survival rate of their babies was nearly zero in comparison to the control group. The study revealed role for S. Abortusequi in impairing conception, abortion, early fetal deaths, fetal meceration and resorption. Further studies are required to identify factors responsible for increased susceptibility of females particularly during pregnancy.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 304-308

 

 

Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility
of male rats

W D Ratnasooriya & J R A C Jayakody

According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 309-313

 

 

Marker assisted detection of gene (1Dx5) and translocation (1B/1R) in wheat genotypes

Ratan Tiwari, Priyamvada, Rajender Singh, H S Nainawatee, Rajendra Kumar, B S Tyagi,
R K Gupta & S Nagarajan

Detection of 1Dx5 gene and presence of 1B/1R wheat rye translocation were studied in nineteen elite Indian wheat genotypes using AS-PCR and STS markers, respectively. Fifteen genotypes had 1B/1R translocation whereas ten showed presence of 1Dx5 gene. More than 50 per cent of the genotypes tested were found positive for both 1Dx5 and 1B/1R translocation. The results are in conformity with HMW glutenin SDS-PAGE profile for 1Dx5 and cytological observations for 1B/1R translocation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 314-318

 

 

Fungistatic activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f nut extract

Kanika Sharma, Sunil Dutt Shukla, Pooja Mehta & Maheep Bhatnagar

 

Alcoholic extract of dry nuts of S.anacardium showed dose dependent antifungal activity in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. At 400 mg/ml concentration, growth of both the fungi was inhibited and considerable reduction in size of cells and hyphae was observed. Sporulation also decreased.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 319-324

 

 

Bioleaching of copper from chalcopyrite ore by fungi

D Venkateshwara Rao, Channappa T Shivannavar & Subhaschandra M Gaddad

Microorganisms have been geologically active in mineral formation, mineral diagenesis and sedimentation via direct action of their enzymes or indirectly through chemical action of their metabolic products. This property of microorganisms is being harnessed during the recent years for extraction of metals from their ores, especially from low-grade ores. In the present study bioleaching of copper from its low-grade chalcopyrite ore using 26 isolates of acidophilic fungi is reported. Most of these fungal strains belonged to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus. The leaching experiments were conducted in Czepek Dox minimal medium containing 1% (100 mesh) ore with shaking at room temperature for 20 days. Out of these, 4 isolates exhibited significant bioleaching activities. Maximum leaching of copper (78 mg/L) was observed with Aspergillus flavus (DSF-8) and Aspergillus niger (DOF-1). Nutritional and environmental conditions for optimum bioleaching were standardized. Present study indicates the usefulness of acidophilic fungi in bioleaching of copper from its low-grade ores.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 325-328

 

 

Fermentation of starch to ethanol by an amylolytic yeast
Saccharomyces diastaticus SM-10

S Sharma, M Pandey & B Saharan

 

A total of fifteen yeast strains were isolated from natural sources including fruits, soil, molasses, honey and a variety of indigeneous fermented foods. Screening of these strains for growth, ethanol production and glucoamylase activity led to selection of a yeast strain SM-10 identified as S. diastaticus having maximum glucoamylase activity (80 units ml-1) and ethanol production from starch (3.5%). Ethanol production from wheat flour was found to be 1.75% which could be increased to 5.2% after treatment of wheat flour with pepsin, diastase and glucoamylase.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 329-333

 

 

In vitro organogenesis and genetic transformation in popular Cucumis sativus L. through Agrobacterium tumefaciens

E V Soniya & M R Das

The effect of growth regulators and culture conditions on the morphogenetic response of cotyledonary leaf discs was studied in popular cucumber variety (Cucumis sativus cv. Sheetal). Organogenesis was induced directly without any intervening callus phase on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine and indole propionic acid. Best results (93%)were obtained in the presence of the 4mg/L benzyladenine and 1mg/L IPA. The elongated shoots were rooted in basal medium with 1mg/L indole butyric acid, hardened and transferred to the field conditions. Genetic transformation system has been established for Cucumis sativus cv. Sheetal, plants by infecting cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary plasmid pBI121, which contains scorable marker, b-glucuronidase and selectable marker nptII under the CaMV 35S promoter. Infection was most effective when explants were infected with Agrobacterium for 15 min and co-cultivated for 2 days in the co-cultivation medium. Shoots were regenerated directly from cotyledonary leaf explants in the presence of kanamycin (50mg/ml) and analysed. Southern blot analysis confirmed that transformation had occurred. This method will allow genetic improvement of this crop by the introduction of agronomically important genes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 334-340

 

 

Host plant nodule parameters associated with nitrogen fixation efficiency in French bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris L) cultivars

Amarjit K Nath, Tarannum Ahmed, Neerja S Rana & D R Sharma

 

Two cultivars of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) viz. contender and arka komal were planted in polythene bags containing sand and grown under glasshouse conditions. The nodulation status, shoot/root biomass, activities of several nodule enzymes, total soluble protein and leghaemoglobin contents were monitored over the entire growth period. Allantoinase activity in leaves was measured to monitor the ureide degrading capacity. Significant genotype difference was observed in both the cultivars. All the parameters showed a decline after flowering except uricase, which declined before flowering. Malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase showed a constant decline throughout the growth period. Degree of decline varied with the genotype for all the parameters. Leghaemoglobin content, PEP carboxylase activity and ureide degrading capacity of leaves did not show an appreciable decline in contender and were significantly higher than in arka komal. These factors can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in French bean.

 

Notes

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 341-344

 

 

Anti-angiogenic activity of BIM (bio-immunomodulator)

Debasis Ghoshal

 

Angiogenesis and immune suppression are the two important factors responsible for embryo implantation and development of tumor. Therefore, disruption of angiogenesis and upliftment of immune function is essential for control of tumor growth as well as to regulate the activity of post coital contraceptives. BIM is an immunomodulatory cytokine obtained from rodent bone marrow that showed anti-implantation and anti-tumor activities. It also improved T/B cell and monocyte macrophage functions. In this communication the anti-angiogenic property of BIM is demonstrated in pregnant rat model. BIM induced disintegration of uterine myometrium and blood vessels. No implantation was observed compared to control. It is proposed that depending upon the physiological condition of the host BIM could modulate host immune function and exert its anti-angiogenic effect.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 345-348

 

 

Effect of enrofloxacin on AgNOR counts in chick bone marrow nuclei

Asha Khanna & Joydeep Dutta

 

The mAgNOR and pAgNOR counts reflecting the number of rDNA genes being transcribed, showed a highly significant increase from control values following administration of 5X, 10X, 15X doses of enrofloxacin in chicken. The maximum increase for both, mAgNOR and pAgNOR was shown by birds receiving 15X dose, sacrificed 48 hr after the last drug injection. The increase of pAgNOR at 5X (24 hr) was not significant relative to control values. After 72 hr time interval, AgNOR counts were not feasible due to poor differentiation. Values at 15X (24 hr) showed a decrease in number of AgNOR counts (non-significant) relative to 10X, probably due to depression of transcriptional activity of rDNA genes, which, however, is removed at 48 hr. The general increase in mAgNOR and pAgNOR with dose reflects hypertranscription of rDNA genes so that the birds can cope up with the drug induced toxicity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 349-351

 

 

Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on experimental pre-eclampsia induced by prolonged blockade of nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant rats

P Pandhi, L Saha & S Malhotra

 

Nitric oxide inhibitor L-NAME when given alone caused a significant rise in both systolic and diastolic pressure, an increase in 24 hr urinary protein excretion and reduction in weight of the litter as compared to control group. Supplementation of MgSO4 at lower dose (250mg/kg) did not inhibit this pre-eclamptic effect of L-NAME; but in higher doses (500 and 750mg/kg), it inhibited the pre-eclamptic action of L-NAME. The results suggest that administration of MgSO4 improves the foetal outcome and significantly prevents the development of symptoms of pre-eclampsia like hypertension and proteinuria.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 352-354

 

 

Measurement of creatinine by Jaffe’s reaction¾ Determination of concentration of sodium hydroxide required for maximum color development in standard, urine and protein free filtrate of serum

B D Toora & G Rajagopal

 

Creatinine in serum or urine is determined by Jaffe's reaction where creatinine produces quantitatively an orange color with picric acid in alkaline medium. After allowing an incubation time of 15 min at room temperature for color development the color is measured at 520nm. Without taking into consideration the acidic nature of standard, protein free filtrate (PFF) of serum and urine, 1% picric acid and 0.75N NaOH are used in this reaction for color development in standard, PFF of serum and urine. An investigation was thought to be necessary to determine the optimum alkali concentration required in standard, PFF of serum and urine. The results show that 0.25, 0.75 and 1N NaOH give maximum color in urine, standard and PFF of serum respectively. A standard solution of creatinine is prepared in 0.1N HCl and the PFF of serum is obtained by addition of fresh tungstic acid . Alkali is consumed to neutralise the acids in both these cases. For urine creatinine measurement, a direct diluted urine sample is used .The difference in the requirement of NaOH is conceivable. The routine use of 0.75N NaOH irrespective of the nature of specimen as is done in all biochemical laboratories, for creatinine measurement needs modification in the light of this investigation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 355-358

 

 

Effect of dietary protein on vitamin A levels in plasma and liver of
hypervitaminotic-A rats

P K Karar, R Manavalan and G Rajagopal

Level of vitamin A increased in plasma and liver in hypervitaminotic A albino rats fed normal quantity of protein in diet. In low protein fed state vitamin A level in liver increased due to accumulation of vitamin A and lack of carrier protein with an associated decrease of plasma vitamin A. In high protein fed rats the level of vitamin A in plasma increased due to enhanced transport while in liver it decreased. The results indicate that for normal transport of vitamin A adequate plasma protein level is essential.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 359-362

 

 

Male accessory gland secretions in hybrids of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and
D. n. albomicans neither show luxuriance nor breakdown

K Ravi Ram & S R Ramesh

Male accessory gland secretions, which have a role to play in reproduction have been investigated. The number of cells that make-up the gland, the quantity of secretions synthesized and the influence of these secretions on fecundity of the female have been studied in D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans and their F1 progeny. The results revealed that the hybrid males show a trend towards D. n. nasuta in the synthesis of male accessory gland proteins and the fecundity of the female is influenced more by its genetic constitution rather than the quantity of accessory gland secretions.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 363-365

 

 

Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of Annona squamosa leaves against
filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say

A Jaswanth, P Ramanathan & K Ruckmani

 

Methanolic extract of leaves of A.squamosa was tested for mosquitocidal effect against C.quinquefasciatus. A liquid mosquito insecticide formulation was prepared with the extract (1, 3 and 5 %w/w) using deodorized kerosene as solvent and investigated for its knock-down and 24 hr mortality. The extract formulation produced dose dependent activity, exhibited significantly shorter knock down KD50 and KD90 values and produced significant mortality. The results suggest the potential mosquitocidal effect of A.squamosa on C.quinquefasciatus.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 366-368

 

 

Effect of a non-hormonal feed additive, Cholymbi on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activity of common carp, Cyprinus carpio

H Hanumanthappa, P Keshavanath, A T Ramachandra Naik & B Gangadhar

Supplementation of pelleted feeds (30% crude protein) consisting of practical ingredients with 250, 375 and 500 mg Cholymbi/kg diet resulted significantly improved the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Highest final average weight was recorded with diet containing 500 mg Cholymbi/kg. Feeding Cholymbi to fish showed increased carcass protein and fat. Gut protease and hepatopancreas amylase activity were the highest with 500 mg Cholymbi/kg incorporated diet (T3). The results of the present study suggest that Cholymbi, a non-hormonal growth promoter could be effectively used in the diet of common carp. Further investigations are required to work out the optimal dosage required in the diet of common carp.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 369-372

 

 

Influence of cell wall degrading enzymes on colonization of N2 fixing bacterium,
Azorhizobium caulinodans in rice

R Buvana & S Kannaiyan

In rice, nodule like structures were formed by inoculation of A. caulinodans combined with growth regulators and enzymes. Among the treatments, combination of cell wall degrading enzyme mixture and NAA with A. caulinodans induced more number of paranodules in rice. Total nitrogen content also increased in treated plants compared to uninoculated control.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, March 2002, pp. 373-376

 

 

News Scan

Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Towards therapeutic angiogenesis