Indian J Exp Biol

MAY 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(5)  507-632  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscom.res.in; http : // www.bioline.org.br/

 

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 5

MAY 2002

 

 

CONTENTS

View Point

 

 

Identification and isolation of insect pheromone gene: A model worth experimentation

511

 

Sunil Datta

 

 

Review Article

 

Programmed cell death and its clinical implications

Bandhana Katoch, Sonia Sebastian, Sudhir Sahdev, Harish Padh,

Seyed E Hasnain & Rasheedunnisa Begum

 

513

 

Papers

 

 

Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow

P K Agrawala & H C Goel

 

525

 

 

 

 

Development of biological tissue-equivalent phantoms for optical imaging

R Srinivasan & Megha Singh

531

 

 

 

 

Alteration of ingestive behaviours by nucleus accumbens in normal and

streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

G K Pal, Pravati Pal & Madanmohan

 

536

 

 

 

 

Vestibulo-cerebellar participation in protection of duodenal mucosa: Possible role of neurotransmitters

Debjani Guha, Sudarshana Purkayastha & Partha Chakrabarty

 

541

 

 

 

 

Neurotoxicity of fluoride: Neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice

Maheep Bhatnagar, Pratima Rao, Sushma Jain & Rekha Bhatnagar

546

 

 

 

 

Effect of preservative, antioxidant and viscolizing agents on in vitro transcorneal
permeation of ketorolac tromethamine

Manjusha Malhotra & D K Majumdar

 

555

 

 

 

 

Effect of honey on carbamazepine kinetics in rabbits

Koumaravelou K, Adithan C, Shashindran C H, Mohammed Asad &

Benny K Abraham

560

 

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat

S Khandelwal, L J Shukla & R Shanker

564

 

 

 

 

Effect of the aqueous extract of African Mistletoe, Tapinanthus sessilifolius (P. Beauv) van Tiegh leaf on gastrointestinal muscle activity

F D Tarfa, S Amos, V J Temple, L Binda, M Emeje, O Obodozie, C Wambebe &

K Gamaniel

 

571

 

 

 

 

Role of chelating agents and antioxidants in beryllium induced toxicity

Sonia Johri, Sangeeta Shukla & Pragya Sharma

575

 

 

 

 

Role of esterases and monooxygenase in the deltamethrin resistance in Anopheles
stephensi
Giles (1908), at Mysore

K N Ganesh, V A Vijayan, J Urmila, N Gopalan & Shri Prakash

 

583

 

 

 

 

Sublethal temperature stress in juvenile Labeo rohita (Ham-Buch.) and Rita rita (Ham.): Some physiological changes

Manas Kr Das, Tanusree Dutta, Subhendu Acharya & S Bhowmick

 

589

 

 

 

 

Physiological and biochemical alterations in Anabaena 7120 under iron stress

R K Saxena, P K Pandey & P S Bisen

594

 

Notes

 

 

Efficient protocol for in vitro direct plant regeneration in chickpea Cicer arietinum L.

Praveen Batra, Neelam R Yadav, Anil Sindhu, R C Yadav, V K Chowdhury &

J B Chowdhury

600

 

 

 

 

A new assembly and technique for testing insecticides

A Shakoor & S A Mir

603

 

 

 

 

Establishment of asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in Indian langurs (Presbytis entellus) through intradermal route

Alka Misra, A Dube, J K Srivastava, P Sharma & J C Katiyar

 

605

 

 

 

 

Ovary specific immune response during Plasmodium yoelii yoelii infection in malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera : Insecta)

S K Gakhar & Harish Shandilya

 

609

 

 

 

 

R-factor in Proteus vulgaris from ulcerative disease of fish, Channa punctatus

S Mandal, M Mandal, N K Pal, P K Halder & P S Basu

614

 

 

 

 

Effect of vitamin C on endothelial dysfunction during N-a-tosyl L-arginine methyl
ester [TAME]-esterase induced contractions in rat aorta in vitro

F B H Gurib & A H Subratty

 

617

 

 

 

 

In vitro propagation of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl. ¾ A threatened orchid

A N Pyati, H N Murthy, E J Hahn & K Y Paek

620

 

 

 

 

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryo explant of
papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. washington and honey dew)

J Bhattacharya, S S Khuspe, N N Renukdas & S K Rawal

 

624

 

 

 

 

New, simple and cheap alternative to troponin test for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

Indira Bhaskar & Shrinivas B Rao

 

628

 

Book Review

 

 

Assisted Reproductive Technologies ¾ Current Methods and Future Directions

T C Anand Kumar

631

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 511-512

 

 

View Point

 

Identification and isolation of insect pheromone gene:
A model worth experimentation

Prof. Sunil Datta

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 513-524

 

 

Review Article

 

Programmed cell death and its clinical implications

Bandhana Katoch, Sonia Sebastian, Sudhir Sahdev, Harish Padh, Seyed E Hasnain & Rasheedunnisa Begum

 

Cell death is a highly regulated process that is ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of both animal and plant development. Studies on apoptosis, the well characterized form of programmed cell death led to the identification of a central tripartite death switch i.e. apoptosome consisting of Apaf-1, Apaf-2 and Apaf-3. The caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate directed-proteases, constitute the central executioners of apoptosis. Much of the attention on programmed cell death is focused on caspases, however, cell death can still occur even when the caspase cascade is blocked, revealing the existence of nonapoptotic alternative pathway(s) of cell death. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome C following a PCD inducing stimulus in both plants and animals suggests the evolutionary conservation of death pathways. Dysregulation of apoptosis may be related to the development of several disease states as well as ageing. Excessive apoptosis is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, AIDS etc., whereas deficient apoptosis is associated with cancer, auto-immunity, viral infections etc. Understanding the regulation of programmed cell death would throw light in designing drugs and gene therapies that can target specific molecules in the apoptotic pathway opening the vistas for new therapeutic endeavors in many areas of medicine.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 525-530

 

Papers

Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow

P K Agrawala & H C Goel

Received 13 October 2000; revised 3 January 2002

Effect of pre-irradiation administration of different doses of RH-3, the herbal preparation of an Indian medicinal plant Hippophae rhamnoides, 30 min before 10 Gy whole body gamma irradiation was studied. Doses between 25 to 35 mg/kg body wt. were found to render > 80 % survival in mice. In order to investigate whether RH-3 protected against radiation induced genotoxicity, mice were administered different doses of RH-3, 30 min before 2 Gy dose and compared with untreated, RH-3 treated and irradiated controls. The bone marrow cells were collected at different time intervals following various treatments and processed for scoring micronuclei (MN). Administration of RH-3 alone did not enhance the MN frequency as compared to the control, and radiation dose of 2 Gy significantly enhanced the MN frequency (3.1 %, P < 0.01). Pre-irradiation treatment with RH-3, however, reduced the radiation induced MN frequency in a drug dose dependent manner suggesting its radioprotective efficacy. The protective effect of RH-3 on radiation induced perturbations in cell cycle progression was studied flowcytometrically in mouse bone marrow cells. RH-3 treatment (30 mg/kg body wt.) enhanced DNA synthesis (S-phase) in unirradiated controls and also countered radiation induced depression of S-phase to facilitate replenishment of cells lost due to radiation injury

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 531-535

 

Development of biological tissue-equivalent phantoms for optical imaging

R Srinivasan & Megha Singh

Received 24 August 2000; revised 18 January 2002

Optical characteristics of freshly isolated tissues depend on their color and composition. The surface backscattered profile, which account for the tissue compositional variation in fresh excised sheep’s heart, lungs, bone and muscle, were measured by multi-probe reflectometer. Optical phantoms were prepared from paraffin wax by mixing a specific combination of wax color materials till the surface backscattered profile of these matched with that of the biological tissues. The optical parameters absorption coefficient (ma), reduced scattering coefficient (ms) and anisotropy factor (g) of these phantoms, are the same as that of biological tissues and are obtained by matching their surface backscattered profiles with that as simulated by Monte Carlo procedure. The maximum and minimum values of absorption coefficient are for the phantoms of lungs (1.0cm-1) and muscle (0.02cm-1), whereas, for scattering coefficient these values are for muscle (21.2 cm-1) and bone (13.08 cm-1).

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 536-540

 

Alteration of ingestive behaviours by nucleus accumbens in normal and
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

G K Pal, Pravati Pal & Madanmohan

Received 20 July 2000; revised 30 October 2001

Twenty-four hour basal food and water intakes were recorded in Wistar rats. Diabetes was produced in a group of rats by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg/kg, b.w., IP) and their post-diabetic basal food and water intakes were recorded. Noradrenaline (2 µg) and dopamine (2 µg) were injected separately into the nucleus accumbens through the implanted cannula in non-diabetic and diabetic animals and their 24 hr food and water intakes were recorded. Food and water intakes were also recorded following bilateral electrolytic lesions of nucleus accumbens in both the groups of rats. In diabetic rats, basal food and water intakes were significantly increased in comparison to basal intakes of non-diabetic rats. Following injection of noradrenaline, a significant increase in water intake but not food intake was seen in non-diabetic rats, whereas food and water intakes remained unchanged in diabetic rats. Following injection of dopamine, a significant increase in food and water intakes was observed in non-diabetic rats, whereas dopamine-induced increase in food intake was absent in diabetic rats. The bilateral lesions of nucleus accumbens resulted in a significant inhibition of food and water intakes in non-diabetic rats, whereas inhibition of water intake without change in food intake observed in diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the pattern of change in water intake following lesions or dopamine injections between non-diabetic and diabetic rats, whereas difference was observed for food intake. The results suggest that nucleus accumbens activity changes for food intake, but not for water intake in diabetes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 541-545

 

Vestibulo-cerebellar participation in protection of duodenal mucosa:
Possible role of neurotransmitters

Debjani Guha, Sudarshana Purkayastha & Partha Chakrabarty

Received 6 September 2000; revised 11 January 2001

Vestibulo cerebellar lesion in rats produced a decrease in the intracellular presecreted mucus together with a decrease in the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) content of the duodenal tissue. Whereas vestibulo cerebellar stimulation by rotation produced an increase in the intracellular presecreted mucus and an increase in the NE content of the duodenal tissue but very little increase in 5HT content of the duodenum. The results suggest that the vestibulo cerebellum by modulating the tissue content of the neurotransmitter NE and 5HT has a direct influence in the protective mechanism through the intracellular mucus content.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 546-554

 

Neurotoxicity of fluoride: Neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice

Maheep Bhatnagar, Pratima Rao & Sushma Jain

and

Rekha Bhatnagar

 

Received 11 August 2000; revised 24 December 2001

Light microscopic study of hippocampal sub-regions demonstrated significant number of degenerated nerve cell bodies in the CA3, CA4 and dentate gyrus(Dg) areas of sodium fluoride administered adult female mice. Ultrastructural studies revealed. neurodegenrative characteristics like involution of cell membranes, swelling of mitochondria, clumping of chromatin material etc. can be observed in cell bodies of CA3, CA4 and dentate gyrus (Dg). Fluoride intoxicated animals also performed poorly in motor co-ordination tests and maze tests. Inability to perform well increased with higher fluoride concentration in drinking water.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 555-559

 

Effect of preservative, antioxidant and viscolizing agents on in vitro transcorneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine

Manjusha Malhotra & D K Majumdar*

Received 2 July 2001; revised 20 December 2001

The influence of formulation additives, e.g. preservative, antioxidant and viscolizing agents on in vitro transcorneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine from 0.5%(w/v) aqueous drop was studied using goat cornea. Permeation characteristics of drug, from selected formulations, through excised rabbit cornea were also evaluated. Aqueous solution of ketorolac tromethamine (0.5% w/v), pH 6.5 or 7.0 having ionic strength 0.2, was prepared. To this solution perservatives either alone or in combination with other additives were added to have drops of various composition. Permeation studies with goat cornea showed maximum permeation of ketorolac tromethamine from formulation containing benzalkonium chloride and disodium edetate. Increase in viscosity of drop resulted in decreased permeation of drug. Formulation containing benzalkonium chloride and disodium edetate also increased permeation of drug through rabbit cornea. Cumulative permeation of drug through rabbit cornea was found to be 2.3-2.4 fold higher than that observed with goat cornea.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 560-563

 

Effect of honey on carbamazepine kinetics in rabbits

Koumaravelou K, Adithan C, Shashindran C H, Mohammed Asad & Benny K Abraham

Received 25 September 2000; revised 21 January 2002

The study was undertaken to determine the effect of honey on carbamazepine kinetics in rabbits. The study was done on three occasions in each animal. Study 1 was carried out after single dose administration of carbamazepine (80 mg/kg, po along with saline (2.34 ml/kg, po. After a wash out period of one week, the second study was carried out by co-administration of carbamazepine with honey (2.34ml/kg, po). After this, the animals continued to receive honey (2.34ml/kg, po), once daily, for 7 days. On the eighth day of honey treatment, the carbamazepine kinetics was studied again. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that single as well as multiple dose honey treatment showed a significant decrease in area under the plasma time concentration curve (AUC) when compared with saline treated control. A significant increase in the clearance (CL/F) rate of carbamazepine was observed only after multiple dose honey treatment. Both single and multiple dose honey treatment did not show any significant effect on other pharmacokinetic parameters like t1/2, Cmax, Tmax and Vd when compared with saline treated group. Data thus obtained suggested that honey decreases the bioavailability of carbamazepine.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 564-570

 

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat*

S Khandelwal, L J Shukla & R Shanker

 

Received 30 November 2000; revised 13 November 2001

The efficacy of Emblica officinalis in modifying the acute cytotoxicity of cadmium in male rats was evaluated. Oral administration of Emblica fruit juice (500 mg/kg, b.w.) for 8 days followed by a single toxic dose of Cd as CdCl2 (3 mg/kg,b.w. ip), considerably reduced the mortality in rats as well as prevented to some extent the cadmium induced histopathological damage in testis, liver and kidneys. Biochemical investigation also revealed reduced levels of Cd induced serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase. The enhanced levels of Cd and lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and testes and metallothionein and total sulphydryl in liver and kidney by Cd were significantly reduced by Emblica pretreatment. These results suggest cytoprotective potential of Emblica fruit in acute cadmium toxicity which could be due to its multiple role in biological system.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 571-574

 

Effect of the aqueous extract of African Mistletoe, Tapinanthus sessilifolius
(P. Beauv) van Tiegh leaf on gastrointestinal muscle activity

F D Tarfa, S Amos, V J Temple, L Binda, M Emeje, O Obodozie, C Wambebe & K Gamaniel

Received 9 October 2001; revised 16 January 2002

Effects of the aqueous extract of T. sessilifolius on the gastrointestinal muscle were investigated on smooth muscle preparations isolated from rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum and on gastrointestinal transit in mice. Elemental analysis of the extract was also carried out. The aqueous extract of T. sessilifolius evoked a concentration dependent contraction of the rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. The contractions evoked by the extract were not attenuated either by atropine or mepyramine, but they were completely blocked by verapamil. The elemental analysis revealed the presence of Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu, and very high concentration of Ca. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was found to be 1500 mg/kg. The aqueous extract of T. sessilifolius possesses active components that may be mediating the observed biological activity through calcium mobilization.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 575-582

 

Role of chelating agents and antioxidants in beryllium induced toxicity

Sonia Johri, Sangeeta Shukla & Pragya Sharma

The present study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of chelating agents [glutathione, 2,3 dimercapto propane sulfonic acid (DMPS) and D-penicillamine (DPA)] in combination with antioxidant (sodium selenite) in beryllium induced toxicity in female rats. A bolus dose of 50mg/kg-beryllium nitrate was administered singly followed by chelation therapy with GSH, DMPS + Se and DPA + Se at various durations of 1,3 and 7 days respectively. Results revealed a significant fall in the glycogen content, whereas, a marginal fall in the protein was also observed. The enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase was depleted; on the contrary, there was a significant rise in the acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase pattern. A rise in the hepatic lipid peroxidation activity is a direct indication of oxidative damage resulting in free radical generation. The distribution of the metal by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed an increased concentration of beryllium in liver and kidney, followed by lung and uterus. The relative ability of three chelating agents to act as antagonists, for acute beryllium poisoning, have been examined in liver, kidney, lungs and uterus. The appreciable change in the beryllium concentration in various organs is duration dependent during the entire period being highly significant at 7 days regimen. Biochemical and distribution studies reveal that DPA + Se was the most effective therapeutic agent followed by DMPS + Se and GSH.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 583-588

 

Role of esterases and monooxygenase in the deltamethrin resistance in
Anopheles stephensi Giles (1908), at Mysore

K N Ganesh, V A Vijayan & J Urmila

 

and

N Gopalan & Shri Prakash

 

Received 2 June 2000; revised 16 November 2001

Field collected An. stephensi larvae were colonized in the laboratory for 15 generations and acclimatized. An isofemale line was raised from this colony and the larvae were subjected to continuous deltamethrin selection pressure. LC50 and LC90 values were calculated at every generation. The values indicated that at the end of seventh generation the larvae have developed 87 fold tolerance in terms of LC50 value compared with the first generation. The reason for this kind of resistance was analyzed on the basis of differential activity of A-esterase, B-esterase, glutathione s-transferase (GST) and glucose 6-phos­phate dehydrogenase (G6PD). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed with B-esterase and G6PD activity with the rise in the LC50 and LC90 values. However no significant rise were observed in the other enzymes tested such as A-esterase and GST. The isozyme analysis of the A-esterase and B-esterase using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) have shown differential profiles.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 589-593

 

Sublethal temperature stress in juvenile Labeo rohita (Ham-Buch.) and
Rita rita (Ham.): Some physiological changes

Manas Kr Das, Tanusree Dutta, Subhendu Acharya & S. Bhowmick

 

Received 4 May 2001; revised 3 December 2001

Juveniles of fish L.rohita and R.rita subjected to a rapid (5 min) sublethal temperature increase from 28 to 35oC showed significant increase in cortisol and decrease in interrenal ascorbic acid. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlactemia were also evident accompanied by increased blood haemoglobin and haematocrit and stable protein levels. Compensatory responses were initiated within 72 hr in both the fishes. R.rita recovered more quickly indicating it to be more resistant to the heat stress than L.rohita. Hence fishes subjected to sublethal temperature stress should be given a metabolic recovery period of 72 hr prior to further stress being applied.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 594-599

 

Physiological and biochemical alterations in Anabaena 7120 under iron stress

R K Saxena, P K Pandey & P S Bisen

 

Received 3 August 2001; revised 18 January 2002

Various physiological and biochemical process like growth, NO3--uptake, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and ATPases (Mg2+ and Ca2+ dependent) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 were observed under iron stress. Growth was found to be maximum in 50 mM Fe3+ added cells however, 20 mM Fe3+ (the Fe3+ concentration generally used for routine culturing of cyanobacterial cell in Chu 10 medium) incubation resulted in lower growth. Fe3+ starvation on the other hand showed very poor growth up to 4th day but once the growth started it reached at significant level on 7th day. Higher Fe3+ concentration reflected reduced growth with lethality at 500 mM Fe3+. Chlorophyll a fluorescence under Fe3+  stress reflected almost the similar results as in case of growth. However, the pigment was found to be more sensitive as compared to protein under Fe3+ stress. Similar results have been observed in case of NO3-uptake with only 80% reduction in nutrient uptake in 500 mM Fe3+ incubated cells. Nitrate reductase activity was lower in Fe3+ starved cells as compared to significant enzyme activity in 20 and 50 mM Fe3+ incubated cells. Similar to nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase also showed maximum level in 50 mM Fe3+ added cells, however, higher Fe3+ concentration (300-500 mM ) resulted in reduced enzymatic activity. Glutamine synthetase activity was less sensitivity as compared to nitrate reductase activity under Fe3+ stress. ATPase (Mg2+ and Ca2+ dependent) always showed higher level with increasing Fe3+ concentration.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 600-602

 

Efficient protocol for in vitro direct plant regeneration in chickpea Cicer arietinum L.

Praveen Batra, Neelam R Yadav, Anil Sindhu, R C Yadav, V K Chowdhury & J B Chowdhury

 

Received 30 March 2001; revised 16 January 2002

An efficient plant regeneration system was developed for two important Indian chickpea cultivars, C-235 and HC-1. Immature cotyledons (7-8 mm) directly formed shoots without an intervening callus phase on MS medium containing B5 vitamins, BAP (2.0 mg/l), IBA (0.125 mg/l), AgNO3 (1.69 mg/l) and phytagel (2.5 g/l). The regenerated shoots had normal morphology and were successfully rooted in half strength MS medium under partial dark conditions. Regenerated plants were transferred to potted soil. However, the survival rate of pot house transferred plants was 17.6 per cent.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 603-604

 

A new assembly and technique for testing insecticides

A Shakoor & S A Mir

 

Received 29 August 2001; revised 8 January 2002

A new design of insecticide testing assembly has been devised that is highly versatile in testing the efficacy,potency and interaction of insecticides and other test chemicals.The merits of the assembly and technique have been explained.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 605-608

 

Establishment of asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in Indian langurs (Presbytis entellus) through intradermal route*

Alka Misra, A Dube, J K Srivastava, P Sharma & J C Katiyar

 

and

S Naik

 

Received 14 August 2000; revised 23 November 2001

Indian langurs, which were previously reported to be highly susceptible, were infected intradermally using variable numbers of promastigotes along with different doses, 1/2 pair, 5 pairs and 10 pairs respectively of salivary gland lysate (SGL). Although, all the monkeys developed mild infection and remained subclinically infected throughout the observation period, which later resolved, none of them could develop the classical disease. No marked antigen specific antibody or lymphoproliferative response was noticed throughout the experimental period. However, a late IFN-g response (by day 90 pi.) was demonstrated in monkeys infected with 2x106 promastigotes +10 pairs SGL. It seems that a single intradermal dose of promastigotes with or without SGLs had a ²vaccine² like effect. Perhaps, multiple frequent inoculations, as happens in the natural situation, may be necessary for the development of full-blown disease.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 609-613

 

Ovary specific immune response during Plasmodium yoelii yoelii infection in
malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera : Insecta)

S K Gakhar & Harish Shandilya

 

Received 12 June 2001; revised 29 Octopber 2001

Innate immune related polypeptides expression during three gono­trophic cycles in the ovaries of major disease vector mosquito A. stephensi has been analyzed following infection by malaria parasite, P. yoelii yoelii. Seventeen polypeptides were induced in the ovaries of various stages due to parasitic infection. Most of proteins were induced systemically during early stages of infection suggesting the possibility of immune related signalling process. The reduction in the quantity of protein contents in infected mos­quitoes has been ascribed to the repression of seven polypeptides and in turn correlated with the fecundity reduction. The mechanism of these responses and their significance for malaria transmission and fecundity reduction are discussed.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 614-616

 

R-factor in Proteus vulgaris from ulcerative disease of fish, Channa punctatus

S Mandal, M Mandal, N K Pal & P K Halder

and

P S Basu*

 

Received 17 October 2000; revised 2 October 2001

A Proteus vulgaris isolated from external ulcers of the fresh water fish Channa punctatus showed multidrug resistance and heavy metal tolerance. The isolate from the ulcer showed resistance to chloramphenicol (Ch), nalidixic acid (Nx), streptomycin (Str) and tetracycline (Tet) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 750, 150, 75 and 125 μg/ml, respectively. The isolate showed growth in medium containing cadmium (Cd2+), up to a concentration of 2.5 mM indicating its heavy metal tolerance. Resistance to Ch, Str, Tet and Cd2+ of the isolate was lost after plasmid curing. Presence of plasmid DNA in the wild type and its absence in the cured P. vulgaris suggested that the resistance were plasmid mediated.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 617-619

 

Effect of vitamin C on endothelial dysfunction during N-a-tosyl L-arginine
methyl ester [TAME]-esterase induced contractions in rat aorta in vitro

F B H Gurib & A H Subratty*

 

Received 31 July 2001; revised 21 November 2001

Contractions induced by TAME-esterase on rat aorta strips mounted in vitro were significantly inhibited in presence of Vitamin C. The work lends support to the role of ascorbic acid in preventing endothelial dysfunction through release of nitric oxide. It is suggested that conclusions TAME-esterase could be an important biological marker associated with onset of vascular diseases such as hypertension.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 620-623

 

In vitro propagation of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl. ¾ A threatened orchid

A N Pyati, H N Murthy, E J Hahn & K Y Paek

 

 

 

Received 18 June 2001; revised 10 January 2002

In vitro propagation of Dendrobium macrostachyum, a threatened and endemic species was achieved through nodal explants. The nodal explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and MS medium supplemented with N6-benzyladenine (BA-2.22, 4.44 and 8.88 μM), Kinetin (KN – 2.32, 4.65, and 9.29 μM) and Coconut water (CW, 5, 10 and 15%) individually or in combination with 2.69 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Axillary shoots were induced directly from nodal explants in medium containing BA, KN or CW. Optimal shoot induction (6 shoots/explant) was attained from nodal explants cultured on medium supplemented with 15% CW. Well developed shoots rooted at an average 5 roots per shoot in half strength MS medium devoid of any growth regulators.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 624-627

 

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryo explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. washington and honey dew)

J Bhattacharya, S S Khuspe, N N Renukdas & S K Rawal

 

Received 6 June 2001; revised 18 January 2002

Immature zygotic embryo explants of Carica papaya were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4–D (2.0 mg/l) and formed globular embryos on explants without callus formation in 4-6 weeks. Maturation and conversion of somatic embryos was also achieved on the same medium. Cotyledonary stage embryos germinated to 63.66 and 68.33% in cv. honey dew and washington respectively in MS basal medium supplemented ABA (0.5μm/l). Robust development and proliferation of plantlet roots in vitro was obtained on MS basal medium. Hardened plantlets have 60% survival rate.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 628-630

 

New, simple and cheap alternative to troponin test for diagnosis of acute
myocardial infarction

Indira Bhaskar & Shrinivas B Rao*

 

Received 10 July 2001; revised 18 January 2002

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is often a fatal disorder in humans seen throughout the world. It was earlier diagnosed with some serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase, creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzyme CPK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase which were shown to be increased in AMI. However, in the last few years importance has been given to measuring serum troponins released from the injured myocardium to confirm an AMI. Troponin estimation involves immunological technique, which is expensive with other associated problems like shelf life of reagents, number of samples to be analysed and availability of the kit itself, used for estimation. Under these circumstances the present work involves the measurement of total salt soluble proteins which are proteins associated with troponins also released from myocardium of a patient with AMI. This new test overrules all the disadvantages of the troponin test but seems equally viable and useful for diagnosis of AMI.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, May 2002, pp. 631-632

 

Book Review

Assisted Reproductive Technologies ¾ Current Methods and Future Directions