Indian J Exp Biol

OCTOBER 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(10)  1093-1208  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscom.res.in

 

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2002

 

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 40(10) 1093-1208 (2002)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

Review Article

 

 

Lymphatic transport of orally administered drugs

L Hari Vardhan Reddy & R S R Murthy

1097

 

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Symbiotic characterization of isoleucine + valine and leucine auxotrophs of
Sinorhizobium meliloti

Raad Hassani, C Krishna Prasad, K E Vineetha, Neeraj Vij, Prachi Singh,

Reeteka Sud, Sangeeta Yadav & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

1110

 

 

 

 

Symbiotic characteristics of cysteine and methionine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti

Basil A Abbas, K E Vineetha, C Krishna Prasad, Neeraj Vij, Raad Hassani  & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

1121

 

 

 

 

Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41

Puvaneswari N, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

 

1131

 

 

 

 

PCR based molecular technique for identification and discrimination of quarantined and non-quarantined Tilletia sps.

Avinash Mishra, U S Singh, Reeta Goel & Anil Kumar

 

1137

 

 

 

 

Effects of methylprednisolone pulses on renal function of guinea pigs

Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Lydia Nakopoulou, Emmanuel Kavazarakis,

Maria Moustaki, Marios P Zeis, Theano Tsoukatou & Petros M Zeis

1143

 

 

 

 

Dieldrin initiates apoptosis in rat thymocytes

Dorsaf Hallegue, Khemais Ben Rhouma, Raja Krichah & Mohsen Sakly

1147

 

 

 

 

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic
perturbations in rats

A V Muruganandam, Vikas Kumar & S K Bhattacharya

 

1151

 

 

 

 

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced by chronic stress

A Bhattacharya, A V Muruganandam, Vikas Kumar & S K Bhattacharya

 

1161

 

 

 

 

Influence of honey on orally and intravenously administered diltiazem kinetics in
rabbits

K Koumaravelou, C Adithan, C H Shashindran, Azad Mohammed &

Benny K Abraham

 

1164

 

 

 

 

Antiatherogenic effect of taurine in high fat diet fed rats

S Sethupathy, C Elanchezhiyan, K Vasudevan & G Rajagopal

1169

 

 

 

 

Antiulcerogenic activity of Satavari mandur ¾ An Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation

G K Datta, K Sairam, S Priyambada, P K Debnath, R K Goel

 

1173

 

 

 

 

Hypoglycaemic effect of defatted seeds and water soluble fibre from the seeds of
Syzygium cumini (Linn.) skeels in alloxan diabetic rats

Madhuri Pandey & Aqueel Khan

 

1178

 

 

 

 

Protective influences of α-ketoglutarate on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in ammonium acetate treated rats

S Velvizhi, K B Dakshayani & P Subramanian

 

1183

 

 

 

 

Roosting patterns in a captive colony of short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl)

N Gopukumar, M Manikandan & G Arivarignan

1187

 

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

Effect of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on TAME-esterase induced contractions in rat aorta in vitro

F B H Gurib & A H Subratty

 

1191

 

 

 

 

Depurination of ribosomal RNA and inhibition of viral RNA translation by an antiviral protein of Celosia cristata

V K Baranwal, Nilgun E Tumer & H C Kapoor

 

1195

 

 

 

 

An appraisal of post-irradiation metabolic changes in toad liver (Bufo melanostictus)

J Mishra & A Mittra

1198

 

 

 

 

Haemopoietic organs and effect of their ablation on total haemocyte count in lemon-butterfly, Papilio demoleus L.

R K Tiwari, J P Pandey & R Salehi

 

1202

 

 

 

 

Influence of steroid hormones on plasma proteins in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny, K G Mohan & Oommen V Oommen

 

1206

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1097-1109

 

Review Article

 

 

Lymphatic transport of orally administered drugs

L Hari Vardhan Reddy & R S R Murthy

 

Several therapeutic molecules such as lipophilic drugs and peptides suffer from the problems of low oral bioavailability. Improvement of their bioavailability and simultaneous prevention of the oral degradation of the prone molecules appears to be a challenge. Lymphatic system, which is responsible for the maintenance of fluid balance, immunity and metastatic spread of cancers, is also found to play a major role in the oral absorption of lipids and lipophilic drugs from intestine. The specialized structure of gut associated lymphoid tissue can be utilized as a gateway for the delivery of particulate systems containing drugs. Eventhough a large gap has existed in the field of lymphatic drug delivery, the introduction of a large number of lipophilic drugs and peptides has brought a renewed interest of research in this area. In this review, the mechanisms of intestinal lymphatic drug transport, approaches taken for the delivery of macromolecules, lipophilic and peptide drugs, biochemical barriers involved in intestinal drug absorption, and animal models used in the studies of intestinal lymphatic drug transport has been discussed.

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1110-1120

 

 

Symbiotic characterization of isoleucine + valine and leucine auxotrophs of
Sinorhizobium meliloti

Raad Hassani , C Krishna Prasad , K E Vineetha , Neeraj Vij , Prachi Singh, Reeteka Sud,
Sangeeta Yadav & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

Received 1 September 2001; revised 20 June 2002

Ten isoleucine+valine and three leucine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rmd201 were obtained by random mutagenesis with transposon Tn5 followed by screening of Tn5 derivatives on minimal medium supplemented with modified Holliday pools. Based on intermediate feeding, intermediate accumulation and cross-feeding studies, isoleucine+valine and leucine auxotrophs were designated as ilvB/ilvG, ilvC and ilvD, and leuC/leuD and leuB mutants, respectively. Symbiotic properties of all ilvD mutants with alfalfa plants were similar to those of the parental strain. The ilvB/ilvG and ilvC mutants were Nod -. Inoculation of alfalfa plants with ilvB/ilvG mutant did not result in root hair curling and infection thread formation. The ilvC mutants were capable of curling root hairs but did not induce infection thread formation. All leucine auxotrophs were Nod+ Fix -. Supplementation of leucine to the plant nutrient medium did not restore symbiotic effectiveness to the auxotrophs. Histological studies revealed that the nodules induced by the leucine auxotrophs did not develop fully like those induced by the parental strain. The nodules induced by leuB mutants were structurally more advanced than the leuC/leuD mutant induced nodules. These results indicate that ilvB/ilvG, ilvC and one or two leu genes of S. meliloti may have a role in symbiosis. The position of ilv genes on the chromosomal map of S. meliloti was found to be near ade-15 marker.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1121-1130

 

                               

Symbiotic characteristics of cysteine and methionine auxotrophs of
Sinorhizobium meliloti

Basil A Abbas, K E Vineetha, C Krishna Prasad, Neeraj Vij, Raad Hassane  & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

Received 25 September 2001; revised 14 June 2002

Twenty one cysteine and 13 methionine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rmd201 were obtained by random mutagenesis with transposon Tn5. The cysteine auxotrophs were sulfite reductase mutants and each of these auxotrophs had a mutation in cysI/cysJ gene. The methionine auxotrophs were metA/metZ, metE and metF mutants. One hundred per cent co-transfer of Tn5-induced kanamycin resistance and auxotrophy from each Tn5-induced auxotrophic mutant indicated that each mutant cell most likely had a single Tn5 insertion. However, the presence of more than one Tn5 insertions in the auxotrophs used in our study cannot be ruled out. All cysteine and methionine auxotrophs induced nodules on alfalfa plants. The nodules induced by cysteine auxotrophs were fully effective like those of the parental strain-induced nodules, whereas the nodules induced by methionine auxotrophs were completely ineffective. The supplementation of methionine to the plant nutrient medium completely restored symbiotic effectiveness to the methionine auxotrophs. These results indicated that the alfalfa host provides cysteine but not methionine to rhizobia during symbiosis. Histological studies showed that the defective symbiosis of methionine auxotrophs with alfalfa plants was due to reduced number of infected nodule cells and incomplete transformation of bacteroids.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1131-1136

 

Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the
immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41

Puvaneswari N, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

 

Received 21 March 2002; revised 9 August 2002

Benzidine based azodyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources that released azodyes in their effluents. The dye, Direct blue contains two carcinogenic compounds namely benzidine (BZ), 4-amino biphenyl (4-ABP), while the dye Direct red has benzidine (BZ). Among 40 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens screened, one isolate designated as D41 was found to be capable of extensively degrading the dyes Direct blue and Direct red. Immobilized cells of P. fluorescens D41 efficiently degraded Direct red (82%) and Direct blue (71%) in the presence of glucose.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1137-1142

PCR based molecular technique for identification and discrimination of
quarantined and non-quarantined Tilletia sps
.

Avinash Mishra, U S Singh, Reeta Goel & Anil Kumar

 

Received 10 July 2001; revised 18 July 2002 

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based RAPD profiles, in conjunction with six primers, of Karnal bunt of wheat and rice bunt exhibiting distinct polymorphic DNA. A total of 84 RAPD loci were observed on polyacrylamide gel for both Tilletia sps. Out of 84, 16 loci were found monomorphic, while other 68 loci were unique. Usefulness of random primers was also checked with other seed borne fungal pathogens of wheat and rice. None of primers gave amplification with Magnaporthe grisea, a causative agent of rice blast. However, distinct RAPD profiles were obtained with Alternaria triticina, Fusarium monaliforme, Helminthosporium sativum and Rhizoctonia solani. These six arbitrary primers could distinguish T. indica, a quarantine fungal pathogen from a non-quarantine fungal pathogen, T. barclayana. The two Tilletia sps. could be discriminated not only on the basis of distinct RAPD profiles, but also by presence of few unique gene fragments amplified using all six primers.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1143-1146

 

 

Effects of methylprednisolone pulses on renal function of guinea pigs

Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Lydia Nakopoulou, Emmanuel Kavazarakis, Maria Moustaki,
Marios P Zeis, Theano Tsoukatou & Petros M Zeis

 

Received 22 October 2001; revised 8 July 2002

Methylprednisolone produced a dose dependant significant increase in glomerular filtration rate, a significant decrease in sodium excretion, and a significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase activity in guinea pigs. The renal histology in groups with 4,5 and 6 doses revealed mild degenerative changes in the tubular epithelial cells. The results suggest the beneficial effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy on renal function mainly by increasing glomerular filtration rate with only minimal side effects.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1147-1150

 

Dieldrin initiates apoptosis in rat thymocytes

Dorsaf Hallegue, Khemais Ben Rhouma, Raja Krichah & Mohsen Sakly

 

Received 2 April 2002, revised 3 July 2002

In vitro incubation for 6 hr to pesticide dieldrin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability comparable to that of dexamethasone. In vivo experiments also demonstrated that dieldrin administration induced a dose-dependent thymic atrophy which appeared to be mediated by endogenous corticosteroids. Agarose gel electrophorosis analysis, revealed the generation of typical apoptotic oligosomal DNA fragmentation in presence of dieldrin. However, in response to high concentrations of pesticide, cells seemed to undergo necrosis pathway. Thus, it may be concluded that dieldrin induced apoptosis in rat thymocytes.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1151-1160

 

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced
homeostatic perturbations in rats

A V Muruganandam, Vikas Kumar & S K Bhattacharya

 

Received 28 April 2002; revised 9 August 2002

EuMil, is a herbal formulation comprising the standardised extracts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L., Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica officinalis Gaertn., all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas to promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection to the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic and antistress activity of EuMil against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress-induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Panex ginseng (PG) was used for comparison. Gastric ulceration, plasma corticosterone levels, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions were used as the stress indices. These effects were attenuated by EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg. p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg. p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction period. Further, chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural despair and cognitive dysfunction and immunosuppression. All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, in a dose dependent manner by EuMil and PG. Thus, the results indicate that EuMil has significant adaptogenic and anti-stress, activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations, induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of EuMil in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, has been discussed.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1161-1163

 

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced by chronic stress

A Bhattacharya, A V Muruganandam, Vikas Kumar & S K Bhattacharya

 

Received 16 August 2001; revised 9 August 2002

EuMil, a polyherbal formulation consisting of standardised extracts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L., Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica officinalis Gaertn., is used as an anti-stress agent to attenuate the various aspects of stress related disorders. In the present study, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anti-stress activity of EuMil were evaluated by measuring the rat brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels and tribulin activity. Chronic electroshock stress (14 days) significantly decreased the nor-adrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in frontal cortex, pons-medulla, hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatal, hypothalamal region, respectively, and increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) level in frontal cortex, pons medulla, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Chronic stress, also increased the rat brain tribulin activity. EuMil (100 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) treatment normalized the perturbed regional NA, DA, 5HT concentrations, induced by chronic stress. EuMil also significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in the rat brain tribulin activity. The amelioration of chronic stress-induced neurochemical perturbations by EuMil explains the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the observed putative anti-stress activity of the product.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1164-1168

 

Influence of honey on orally and intravenously administered
diltiazem kinetics in rabbits

K Koumaravelou, C Adithan, C H Shashindran, Azad Mohammed & Benny K Abraham

 

Received 15 March 2002; revised 2 August 2002

Effect of honey on plasma concentration of diltiazem after oral and intravenous administration in rabbits, has been studied. For oral study, single dose of diltiazem (5mg/kg, po) along with saline was administered to New Zealand white rabbits (n=8). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hr after drug administration from marginal ear vein. After a washout period of one week, diltiazem was administered with honey (2.34ml/kg; po) and the blood samples were collected as above. To the same animals honey (2.34ml/kg; po) was continued once daily for 7 days. On 8th day, honey and diltiazem were administered simultaneously and blood samples were collected at similar time intervals as mentioned above. For intravenous study the pharmacokinetic was done in each animal on two occasions. The first study was done after single dose administration of diltiazem (5mg/kg; iv) along with saline (2.34ml/kg; po). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 6 hr after iv diltiazem administration. The same animals were treated with honey (2.34 ml/kg; po) for seven days. On day 8, the second study was carried out with single dose iv administration of diltiazem along with honey (2.34ml/kg; po) and blood samples were collected.  In the oral study, single dose administration of honey decreased the AUC and Cmax of diltiazem associated with significant increase in clearance and volume of distribution when compared to saline treated group. After one week administration of honey, diltiazem kinetic data showed further reduction in AUC and Cmax and increase in clearance and volume of distribution. In the iv study also, multiple dose administration of honey significantly reduced the AUC and increased the clearance value of diltiazem. The results suggest that honey may decrease the plasma concentration of diltiazem after its oral or iv administration in rabbits.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1169-1172

 

Antiatherogenic effect of taurine in high fat diet fed rats

S Sethupathy, C Elanchezhiyan, K Vasudevan & G Rajagopal

 

Received 3 April 2002; revised 30 July 2002

The role of taurine on atherogenesis induced by high fat diet in rats, a species which depends entirely on taurine for conjugation of bile acids has been investigated. Wistar male rats were fed on (po) taurine in addition to high fat diet (11% coconut oil w/w) for 6 months. High fat diet caused significant increase of serum total cholesterol (2 fold), serum triglycerides (92.6%), LDL cholesterol (92.3 %) and body weight gain (2.8 fold). Taurine administration significantly reduced serum cholesterol (37%), triglycerides (94.5%), LDL cholesterol (34%), body weight (46%). It also significantly reduced aortic cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and there was a significant increase of reduced glutathione. Taurine significantly increased fecal bile acids which may have resulted in significant decrease of serum cholesterol. Aortic lesion index was significantly decreased in the taurine administered group suggesting the antiatherogenic effect of taurine. It is concluded that taurine attenuated the atherogenesis possibly by its hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant property.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1173-1177

 

Antiulcerogenic activity of Satavari mandur ¾ An Ayurvedic
herbo-mineral preparation

G K Datta, K Sairam, S Priyambada, P K Debnath1, R K Goel

 

Received 22 November 2001; revised 2 August 2002

Satavari mandur (SM) is a herbo-mineral preparation containing Asparagus racemosus, which finds mention in ancient Indian texts for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of SM, 125-500 mg/kg given orally, twice daily for three, five and seven days, was studied on cold restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The effective regimen was found to be 250 mg/kg given for five days and hence was used for further experiments. SM showed significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by pyloric ligation but was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced ulcers. Further, gastric juice studies showed that, SM significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucus secretion, but had little or no effect on offensive factors like acid and pepsin secretion.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1178-1182

 

Hypoglycaemic effect of defatted seeds and water soluble fibre from the seeds of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) skeels in alloxan diabetic rats

Madhuri Pandey & Aqueel Khan

 

Received 1 April 2002; revised 17 July 2002

The effect of feeding orally alongwith diet of different fractions obtained from the seeds of S. cumini was tried on fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The quantitative determination showed that S. cumini seeds contained 40% of water soluble gummy fibre and 15% of water insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF). This study demonstrated that feeding for 21 days of the diets containing 15% powdered unextracted (intact) seeds containing water soluble gummy fibre, 15% powdered defatted seeds from which lipid and saponins were removed only and 6% water soluble gummy fibre isolated from S. cumini seeds significantly lowered blood glucose levels and improved oral glucose tolerance whereas feeding of the diets containing 15% powdered degummed S. cumini seeds from which water soluble gummy fibre was removed but which contained neutral detergent fibre(NDF)and 2.25% water insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF) isolated from S. cumini seeds neither lowered blood glucose levels nor improved oral glucose tolerance in both normal and diabetic rats. These observations indicate that the hypoglycaemic effect of S. cumini seeds was due to water soluble gummy fibre and also that water insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and other constituents of the seeds had no significant hypoglycaemic effects.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1183-1186

 

Protective influences of α-ketoglutarate on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in ammonium acetate treated rats

 

S Velvizhi, K B Dakshayani & P Subramanian

 

Received 14 March 2002; revised 31 July 2002

The effects of α-ketoglutarate on ammonium acetate induced hyperammonemia were studied biochemically in experimental rats. The levels of circulatory, non-protein nitrogen, serum transaminases and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in ammonium acetate treated rats. These levels were significantly decreased in α–ketoglutarate and ammonium acetate treated rats. Similar patterns of alterations were observed in the levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, phopholipids and cholesterol inbetween various groups. Further non-enzymatic (vitamins C and E) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants were significantly decreased in ammonium acetate treated rats; and were significantly increased in α-ketoglutarate and ammonium acetate treated rats. The biochemical alterations during α-ketoglutarate treatment could be due to (i) the detoxification of excess ammonia, (ii) by participating in the non-enzymatic oxidative decarboxylation in the hydrogen peroxide decomposition process and (iii) by enhancing the proper metabolism of fats which could suppress oxygen radicals generation and thus prevent the lipid peroxidative damages in rats.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1187-1190

 

Roosting patterns in a captive colony of short-nosed fruit bat
Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl)

N Gopukumar, M Manikandan & G Arivarignan

 

 

Received 16 January 2002; revised 21 July 2002

Development of roosting patterns under a limited resource was studied in the short-nosed fruit bat C. sphinx in captivity. Spatial fidelity during the resting period (day time) and the individual male bat’s presence/absence in the roost (occupancy index) were estimated during the active period (night time). Results show the presence of three groups on the basis of spatial fidelity. The first group was associated with the tent consisting of a harem male and seven females. The second group stayed near to the harem. The third group consisting of two males showed little occupancy index and no spatial fidelity. Female turnover between the first and second groups, and harem male replacement were observed. These findings of male groupings and female loyalty on the basis of “resource”, suggest that resource defence polygyny is the primary mating strategy in C. sphinx.

 

Notes

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1191-1194

 

Effect of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on TAME-esterase induced
contractions in rat aorta in vitro

F B H Gurib & A H Subratty

 

Received 14 February 2002; revised 30 July 2002

Effect of genistein, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on TAME-esterase induced contractions were studied on rat aorta strips in vitro. Data showed that TAME-esterase induced contractions were concentration dependent and these contractions were significantly inhibited when rat aorta strips were pre-incubated with genistein. The present findings provide evidence for the possible contribution of tyrosine kinases during TAME-esterase induced contractions in aorta.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1195-1197

 

Depurination of ribosomal RNA and inhibition of viral RNA translation by an
antiviral protein of Celosia cristata

V K Baranwal, Nilgun E Tumer & H C Kapoor

 

Received 17 April 2002; revised 29 July 2002

An antiviral protein (25 kD) isolated from leaves of Celosia cristata (CCP 25) was tested for depurination study on ribosomal RNA from yeast. Ribosomal RNA yielded 360 nucleotide base fragment after treatment with CCP 25 indicating that CCP 25 was a ribosome inactivating protein. CCP 25 also inhibited translation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) and pokeweed mosaic virus (PMV) RNAs in rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The radioactive assay showed that incorporation of [35S]-methionine was less in translation proteins of BMV nucleic acid when CCP 25 was added to translation system. This indicated that antiviral protein from Celosia cristata not only depurinated ribosomal RNA but also inhibited translation of viral RNA in vitro.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1198-1201

 

An appraisal of post-irradiation metabolic changes in toad liver
(Bufo melanostictus)

J Mishra & A Mittra

Received 1 February 2002; revised 9 July 2002

Whole body 60Co gamma irradiation of B. melanostictus with two sublethal doses of 3.5 and 7 Gy resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in total lipid (hyperlipidemia), cholesterol content (hypercholesterolmia) and total free amino acid content, and significant decrease (P < 0.001) in total protein content in the liver tissues on post-irradiation day (PID) 1, 5 and 10 as compared to controls. The ratio of total lipid to cholesterol showed a gradual declining trend by PID-10 in the treated groups as compared to controls. However, it was more pronounced in the 7 Gy treated group. An observation on the ratio of total protein to total free amino acid content also showed a similar declining trend by PID-10 in both the treated groups as compared to controls.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1202-1205

 

Haemopoietic organs and effect of their ablation on total haemocyte count in lemon-butterfly, Papilio demoleus L.

R K Tiwari, J P Pandey & R Salehi

 

Received 10 January 2002; revised 1 July 2002

The haemopoietic organs in Vth instar larvae of P.demoleus are in the form of thin transparent cellular sheets, closely wrapped around the base of each wing-pad. Three cell types viz; prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes and oenocytoids appear to be derived from these organs and their ablation caused a reduction in cell number which, in turn, revealed that the haemocytes in general are derived both from the haemopoietic organs as well as from the circulating blood cells.

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, October 2002, pp. 1206-1208

 

Influence of steroid hormones on plasma proteins in freshwater tilapia
Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny, K G Mohan, & Oommen V Oommen

 

Received 28 March 2002; revised 22 July 2002

The effect of administration of cortisol, corticosterone, testosterone, progesterone and a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol on plasma proteins of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. SDS-PAGE clearly revealed the appearance of several new bands of protein, which were not present in the control plasma and were comparable to the known bands of the molecular markers. Of the different bands appeared in the steroids treated plasma, the most important ones were the presumed vitellogenin and corticotrophin binding globulin with a molecular weight of 180 and 17 kDa, respectively. Increase in protein bands in the steroid treated plasma of O. mossambicus confirmed the anabolic role of steroids in teleost.