Indian J Exp Biol

JANUARY 2002

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  40(1)  1-122  (2002)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscom.res.in; http : // www.bioline.org.br/

VOLUME 40

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2002

 

CONTENTS

 

Mini Review

Herbal formulations as phamacotherapeutic agents

7

  A Kuruvilla

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Low level radiation exposure: The radiobiologist’s challenge in the next millennium

12

  Abraham F G Stevenson

 

 

 

Insulin like growth factor 1 and regulation of ovarian function in mammals

25

  Rahul Behl & Rajeev Kaul

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of chronic treatment with losartan on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

31

  B Murali & R K Goyal

 

 

 

Effect of prenatal alprazolam exposure on anxiety patterns in rat offspring

35

  Arun K Jaiswal

 

 

 

Male reproductive toxic effects of carbendazim: Hitherto unreported targets in testis

40

  B Kadalmani, R Girija, A Faridha & M A Akbarsha

 

 

 

Effect of Ruta graveolens L. and Euphorbia peplus L. anti-inflammatory extracts on nutritional status of rats and the safety of their use

 

45

  Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Eman M El-Sayed, Nagwa M Ammar, Nabil K El-Sayed &

  Lamina T Abou El-Kassem

 

 

 

Nutritional evaluation of extruded faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as a protein supplement in cereals based diet in rats

 

49

  Ameeta Kushwah, Prakrati Rajawat & Hukum Singh Kushwah

 

 

 

Role of male scent glands in improving poison bait acceptance in female rats, Rattus norvegicus

 

53

  R Selvaraj & G Archunan

 

 

 

Prevention of HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by Garcinia cambogia extract and its possible mechanism of action

 

58

  P Mahendran, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Contd

 

Baculovirus studies in new, indigenous lepidopteran cell lines

63

  U Pant, A B Sudeep, S S Athawale & V C Vipat

 

 

New Helicoverpa armigera Hbn cell line from larval hemocyte for baculovirus
studies

 

69

  A B Sudeep, Y S Shouche, D T Mourya & U Pant

 

 

 

Responses of isolated scale melanophores of a fresh water carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) to zidovudine

 

74

  Sudhir Kumar Srivastava & M Ovais

 

 

 

Evidence for presence of GABA-ergic receptor mediated dispersion in isolated scale melanophores of a carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)

 

78

  Mohammad Ovais & Sunita Rani Chimania

 

 

 

Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham.)

83

  T A Sethuramalingam & M A Haniffa

 

 

 

Effect of Alternaria pathotoxin(s) on expression of p53-like apoptotic protein in calli and leaves of Brassica campestris

 

89

  Abha Khandelwal, Anil Kumar, Manish Banerjee & G K Garg

 

 

 

Environmental radiation as the conditioning factor for survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

95

  N Gajendiran & R K Jeevanram

 

 

 

Degradation of predigested distillery effluent by isolated bacterial strains

101

  Neeraj Jain, A K Minocha & C L Verma

 

 

 

Notes

 

Heat modifiability of outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida serotype B : 2

106

  Anirban Pal, S K Srivastava & V P Singh

 

 

 

Cloning and sequencing of beta toxin gene of Clostridium perfringens type C

109

  P P Goswami, K S Girish, P Chaudhuri, V Tiwari, S J Akare & P C Harbola

 

 

 

Effect of ciprofloxacin on specific immune response in rabbits

111

  K Jayakumar, Honnegowda, G Krishnappa, K N V Sastry & K Narayana

 

 

 

Pharmacological and haematological study of shol fish (Channa striatus) skin extract on experimental animal

 

115

  Surajit Karmakar, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

 

 

Use of meristem tip culture to eliminate carnation latent virus from carnation plants

119

  Manisha Mangal, S V Bhardwaj, D R Sharma, R Kaur & A K Mangal

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 7-11

 

Mini Review

Herbal formulations as pharmacotherapeutic agents

A Kuruvilla

Herbal medicines are popular as remedies for diseases by vast majority of world’s population. Polyherbal preparations are products from medicinal plants. These are considered as safe since they are natural products. Herbal formulations which have reached widespread acceptability as therapeutic agents in India include noortropics, antidiabetics, hepatoprotective agents and lipid lowering agents. Pharmacological effects of many plants have been studied in various laboratories in India. However, there are many limitations regarding safety and efficacy of these preparations. Knowledge about active principles of herbal preparations are not well defined, information on toxicity and adverse effects of these formulations are lacking. Information regarding pharmacokinetics and bioavailability is not available. Packet inserts providing details regarding safety, and warning are not required for sale of these which are available as over the counter preparations. The risk of untested and unregulated remedies should be known to the lay public. Selection of plant material based on quality, standardisation of methods of preparation, enforcement of regulation regarding appropriate labels, are measures which will improve the quality and acceptability of herbal preparations as therapeutic agents. Documentation of research publications in journals and availability of information on website, are other measures to assist research in this field.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 12-24

 

Review Article

Low level radiation exposure

The radiobiologist’s challenge in the next millennium*

 

Abraham F G Stevenson

 

 

A formal definition for low level exposure does not exist. This has arbitrarily been defined here as exposures from 0 to 5 cGy. The health implications of exposures within this dose range are highly controversial since the effects are exclusively stochastic. As such, the effects can only be detected in large populations. The Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC) established leukaemia as a predominant effect. After the chernobyl nuclear disaster, studies in European countries have correlated perinatal mortality with radioactive contaminations which could only have raised the radiation burdens by levels which are currently regarded as negligible. The reported risk indices for childhood leukaemia arising from low level exposures are generally comparable to those ascertained for high exposures, thus posing an enigma to radiobiologists. This paper reviews the progress in various areas of radiobiological research and attempts to make a synthesis of the facts with the view to provide an explanation. The purpose is also to stimulate an understanding of multifactorial biological mechanisms. Environmental radiation exposures must be expected to be concomitant with other toxic agents which must be taken into account in risk assessment. The challenge in the future will be to realise this goal.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 25-30

 

Papers

Insulin like growth factor 1 and regulation of ovarian function in mammals

Rahul Behl & Rajeev Kaul

 

Various growth factors have been proposed to play endocrine and / or paracrine role in mammalian ovarian follicular development. The insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is one such factor. More and more reports now support the existence of an intra-ovarian IGF system including receptors and binding proteins. The role of IGF-1 in ovary is to amplify gonadotropin hormone action in terms of increased steroidogenesis by ovarian granulosa cell and granulosa cell proliferation. The synthesis and proteolysis of insulin like growth factor binding proteins, under the control of follicle stimulating hormone, regulate the intra-follicular availability of IGF-1, which further determines the sensitivity of granulosa cells to gonadotropins. Besides gonadotropins, IGF-1 has been implicated in somatotropin hormone action in the ovarian function. Exact mechanism of IGF-1 action in the ovarian follicles needs to be worked out to elucidate whether or not IGF-1 is indispens-able in addition to know endocrine factors like gonadotropic and ovarian steroid hormones. This will pave the way for better understanding of control(s) which ensure final development of dominant follicle(s) and atresia of other follicles of the cohort.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 31-34

 

 

Effect of chronic treatment with losartan on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

B Murali & R K Goyal*

 

Treatment of rats with streptozotocin (STZ, 45mg/kg, i.v.,single dose) produced cardinal symptoms of diabetes mellitus including hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and increase in blood pressure. Treatment with losartan ¾ an angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonist, 2 mg/kg, po for 6 weeks decreased the blood glucose levels by 16.5%. There was 190% increase in AUCglucose and 59.4% decrease in AUCinsulin in STZ-diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Treatment with losartan caused slight decrease in AUCglucose and slight increase in AUCinsulin. There was no significant difference in insulin sensitivity (KITT) index of STZ-diabetic group as compared to control. Losartan treatment failed to alter these levels significantly. Serum cholesterol and creatinine levels were found to be increased significantly in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with losartan significantly prevented the rise in cholesterol and creatinine levels by 20.1 and 81% respectively. The results suggest that losartan produces some beneficial effects in STZ- diabetic rats.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 35-39

 

 

Effect of prenatal alprazolam exposure on anxiety patterns in rat offspring

Arun K Jaiswal

 

Prenatal alprazolam (APZ) treatment in 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/day doses during 13-20 days of gestation induced significant increase in open-field ambulation, rearings, self-grooming and faecal pellets in rat offspring. Prenatal APZ treated rats displayed significantly increased anxiogenic behaviour on elevated plus maze (spent less time on open arms, more time on enclosed arms and made less number of entries on open arms) and increased anxiogenecity on elevated zero maze (APZ treated rats spent less time on open arms and made less number of head dips and stretched attend postures in comparison to control rat offspring). The results indicate persistent behavioural alterations in the rat offspring after prenatal exposure to APZ.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 40-44

 

 

Male reproductive toxic effects of carbendazim: Hitherto unreported targets
in testis

B Kadalmani, R Girija, A Faridha & M A Akbarsha

Carbendazim (MBC), a widely used fungicide, is toxic to male reproductive mechanisms. Various cellular targets in the testis for MBC action are being understood only recently and still more targets have been conceived. The present study was aimed at finding such newer targets. Male rats were administered through oral route a single dose of carbendazim (400mg /kg) and the testis was studied adopting routine histological technique. It has been observed that pachytene spermatocytes could also be targets for MBC action in the testis. The study also reports selective loss of step 14 spermatids, asynchrony of the stages in the spermatogenic cycle and development of Sertoli cell fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules of carbendazim-treated rats. From the different kinds of responses seen in the seminiferous tubules in the same testis to MBC, particularly in the Sertoli cell, MBC action in the testis appears dependent on the stage in the spermatogenic cycle at first exposure.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 45-48

 

 

 

Effect of Ruta graveolens L. and Euphorbia peplus L. anti- inflammatory extracts on nutritional status of rats and the safety of their use

Sahar Y Al-Okbi & Eman M El-Sayed

A significant increase in body weight with remarkable increase in total food intake and significant increase in protein efficiency ratio were observed following oral administration of R. graveolens ether extract (500 mg/kg body wt) to growing rats for 3 weeks. Serum albumin was significantly decreased after administration of declofenac (15 mg/kg body wt). Albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly on administration of E. peplus ether extract (500 mg/kg body wt). No significant changes were observed in other biochemical and nutritional parameters on administration of either of the extracts or declofenac. However, only a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase was noticed during treatment with
R. graveolens. The results suggest that both plant extracts have no harmful effect on nutritional status and are safe towards kidney functions, while Euphorbia is more safe than Ruta in relation to liver functions.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 49-52

 

 

Nutritional evaluation of extruded faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as a protein
supplement in cereals based diet in rats

Ameeta Kushwah, Prakrati Rajawat & Hukum Singh Kushwah

The quality of extruded faba bean (EFB) (Vicia faba L.) as a protein supplement in cereals diet was evaluated. Growth rate and protein efficiency ratio was better in 20% EFB blended dietary group of rats than those fed either on cereals alone or at 40% EFB supplementation. Subsequent studies on digestibility co-efficient, biological value, net protein utilization and net protein ratio also confirmed biological utilization of EFB proteins in a better way at low level (20%).

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 53-57

 

 

Role of male scent glands in improving poison bait acceptance in female rats, Rattus norvegicus

R Selvaraj & G Archunan

The poison (Zn3P2) bait mixed with preputial gland and cheek gland extract was highly effective as compared to poison bait mixed without the scent gland extract, in increasing the food consumption and mortality rate in rats. Among these two scent glands, preputial gland extract was more effective than cheek gland extract in increasing the bait acceptance. The scent gland extract mixed with poison bait was capable of improving the poison bait acceptance. A 10% concentration of scent gland extract was more effective than 5% concentration in acceptance of poison bait. The results suggest efficacy of scent gland in improving the poison bait acceptance.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 58-62

 

 

Prevention of HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by
Garcinia cambogia extract and its possible mechanism of action

P Mahendran, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

Oral pretreatment of rats with G. cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body weight/day at interval of 7 and 15 days) protected gastric mucosa against HCl - ethanol induced damage by decreasing the volume and acidity of gastric juice. Increased lipid peroxidation, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, altered levels of protein and glycoproteins in the ulcerated mucosa, and gastric juice were maintained at near normal levels in G. cambogia pretreated rats. The results suggest the anti-ulcer activity of G. cambogia by virtue of its ability to decrease acidity and increase mucosal defense.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 63-68

 

 

Baculovirus studies in new, indigenous lepidopteran cell lines

U Pant, A B Sudeep, S S Athawale & V C Vipat

 

Eight lepidopteran cell lines were established recently and their susceptibility to different insect viruses was studied. Two Spodoptera litura cell lines from the larval and pupal ovaries, were found highly susceptible to S. litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SLNPV, 5-6 x 106 NPV/ml). The Helicoverpa armigera cell line from the embryonic tissue was highly susceptible to H. armigera NPV (HaNPV, 6.3 x 106 NPV/ml). These in vitro grown SLNPV and HaNPV caused 100% mortality to respective 2nd instar larvae. The susceptibility of the cryo-preserved cell lines to respective baculoviruses (SLNPV/HaNPV) was studied and no significant difference in their susceptibility status was observed. The cultures could grow as suspension culture on shakers and may find application for in vitro production of wild type/recombinant baculoviruses as bio-insecticides. S. litura and Bombyx mori cell lines from larval ovaries, were highly susceptible to Autographa californica NPV (5.5x106 NPV/ml) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV, 6.1 ´ 106 NPV/ml) respectively. These cell lines may find application in baculovirus expression vector studies for the production of recombinant proteins, useful in the development of diagnostic kits or as vaccines.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 69-73

 

 

New Helicoverpa armigera Hbn cell line from larval hemocyte for baculovirus studies

A B Sudeep, Y S Shouche, D T Mourya & U Pant

A new cell line from the larval hemocytes of H. armigera was established in Grace’s medium modified by adding lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeastolate (3.3g/l), and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (20%). The cell line was designated as NIV-HA-1195. The cell population at P-78 consisted mainly of epithelial–like cells (89.36%), fibroblast-like cells (8.31%) and giant cells (2.13%). The population doubling time was 96hr at P-8, 60hr at P-43. The chromosome number ranged from 45 to 200. The cell line is susceptible to the baculoviruses, Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV), Spodoptera litura NPV and the homologous HaNPV. Isoenzyme profile and results of 16S rRNA heteroduplex analysis clearly indicated the species specificity of the new cell line.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 74-77

 

 

Responses of isolated scale melanophores of a fresh water carp,

Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) to zidovudine

 

Sudhir Kumar Srivastava & M Ovais

 

Zidovudine (AZT) induced concentration related aggregation in C. mrigala melanophores. Denervated melanophores failed to respond to AZT. Specific and nonspecific alpha adrenoceptor antagonists completely blocked the responses of fish melanophores to AZT. Histamine and prostaglandin antagonists also inhibited aggregation of the melanophores induced by AZT. The results suggest that AZT may release a mixture of neurotransmitter like substances, which cause the aggregation of this fish melanophores.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 78-82

 

 

Evidence for presence of GABA-ergic receptor mediated dispersion in isolated scale melanophores of a carp, Cirrhinus mrigala Ham.

 

Mohammad Ovais & Sunita Rani Chimania

Effects of GABA-ergic agonists and antagonists were examined on the melanophores of a carp C. mrigala in vitro. GABA and baclofen both induced concentration - related dispersion in fish melanophores. Denervation of the melanophores by reserpine treatment potentiated the sensitivity of the melanophores to GABA. While denervation by cooling treatment inhibited the sensitivity of the melanophores to GABA, atropine, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole all inhibited the dispersal responses of the melanophores induced by higher concentrations of GABA. 5-aminovaleric acid also significantly inhibited the dispersion of the melanophores induced either by GABA or baclofen. It is concluded that GABA-ergic agonist induced dispersal responses in C. mrigala melanophores are mediated through specific GABA receptors. The presence of both GABAA and GABAB receptors in this fish melanophores has been indicated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 83-88

 

 

Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham

T A Sethuramalingam & M A Haniffa

 

Six sets of feeding experiments were carried out using formulated diets containing prawn head waste (PW), chicken intestine waste (CW), banana flower (BF), cauliflower waste (CAU) Dolicos lab lab (DLL) and groundnut leaf (GNL) in four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to assess the pattern of distribution and activities of digestive enzymes like cellulase, amylase, maltase, invertase, protease and lipase in the digestive tracts of Labeo rohita fingerlings. A control group of fish was fed with diets containing antibiotics to destroy the digestive tract microflora which may induce digestive functions. In general, the activity of digestive enzymes depended on the amount and type of the ingredients present in the diets ingested by the fish. Test animals showed both endogenous and bacterial cellulase activities which suggests the necessity for including cellulose (plant protein source) as dietary ingredient. Occurrence of higher amount of cellulase in the foregut and amylase in the fore and midgut influenced by DNL and GNL diets revealed the possibility of including less than 40% of the respective ingredients in the diet of rohu. Maltase and invertase were highly influenced by GNL, DLL and BF diets than PW and CW diets. More than 40% inclusion of PW and CW was found to increase protease and lipase secretion in the midgut and hindgut regions. The higher secretion of lipase in the midgut suggested the physiological versatility for lipid digestion in rohu fingerlings.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 89-94

 

 

Effect of Alternaria pathotoxin(s) on expression of p53-like apoptotic protein in calli and leaves of Brassica campestris

Abha Khandelwal, Anil Kumar, Manish Banerjee & G K Garg

Possible involvement of apoptosis was investigated in pathotoxin-treated and nutritionally-depleted in vitro cultured calli by comparing levels of p53-like protein. Antibodies raised against human p53 were used to detect and quantify p53 in B.campestris. Expression of p53-like protein increased from proliferating to static growth stage and reached to constant level at decaying stage. Both ELISA and dot immuno-binding assay showed that p53-like protein was over expressed in toxin treated and nutritionally depleted calli. Almost similar changes were seen in senescent damage in Brassica species indicating involvement of p53 dependent pathways.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 95-100

 

 

Environmental radiation as the conditioning factor for the survival of yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

N Gajendiran & R K Jeevanram

Whether natural radiation can be a conditioning factor for the growth and survival of a living organism was investigated using diploid yeast S. cerevisiae D7. Yeast cells were conditioned by growing them continuously for at least 100 generation in 3 different radiation background such as i) ambient radiation (1.1 mSv/y), ii) sub-ambient radiation (0.44 mSv/y, within a shielded chamber) and iii) an elevated background radiation (88 and 880 mSv/y in a g-field). At the end, the cells were challenged with 60Co g, 100 Gy and the viable fractions were determined. Conditioning the cells in 880 mSv/y and in ambient radiation, enabled the cells to reduce the deleterious effect of the challenging dose significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of sub-ambient radiation. The cellular viability of yeast cultures seems to be influenced by the prevailing radiation background, apart from starvation. Comparatively, a rapid decline in viability was noticed when the cultures were incubated for 60 days in the shielded chamber. The results indicate that some amount of radiation equivalent to background level or little above is needed to confer fitness in biological systems against stress factors, including radiation. The adaptive dose for the diploid yeast was also determined by single exposure. The priming dose ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 Gy. An adaptive dose of 0.25 or 0.4 Gy, almost nullified the deleterious effect of the challenging dose. The adaptive response may have a greater role in the field of cancer therapy and in radiation risk assessment. Understanding the response of an organism at different radiation-background will be helpful for successful space management.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 101-105

 

 

Degradation of predigested distillery effluent by isolated bacterial strains

Neeraj Jain, A K Minocha & C L Verma

Batch studies were conducted on degradation of anaerobically digested distillery wastewater by three bacterial strains, viz. Xanthomonas fragariae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus in free and immobilized form, isolated from the activated sludge of a distillery wastewater treatment plant. The removal of COD and colour with all the three strains increased with time up to 48 hr and only marginal increase in COD and colour removal efficiency was observed beyond this period up to 72 hr. After this period removal efficiency remained fairly constant up to 120 hr. The maximum COD and colour removal efficiency varied from 66 to 81 % and 65 to 75 %, respectively for both free and immobilized cells of all the three strains. The strain Bacillus cereus showed the maximum efficiency of COD (81 %) and colour (75 %) removal out of the three strains. An interrelationship between the percent COD and colour removal was carried out by correlation and regression analysis and was justified by high values of coefficient of correlation (r = 0.99) for all the cases. The first order removal rate kinetics was also applied and rate constants were evaluated for COD and colour removal efficiencies.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 106-108

 

Notes

 

Heat modifiability of outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida
serotype B : 2

Anirban Pal, S K Srivastava & V P Singh

Outer membrane proteins (OMP) are generally porins, functioning as molecular sieves assisting in the transmembrane transportation. Heat modifiable characteristics of OMP from P.multocida B: 2 have been explored to know their basic characteristics on event of temperature rise. A major band of 32 kDa and two minor bands of ~ 39 and ~ 28 kDa were found to be heat modifiable. It is suggested that boiling at 100 °C in presence of b mercaptoethanol for 5 min is sufficient for characterisation of OMP by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 109-110

 

 

Cloning and sequencing of beta toxin gene of Clostridium perfringens type C

P P Goswami, K S Girish, P Chaudhuri, V Tiwari & S J Akare

 

A gene encoding beta toxin was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from C. perfringens type C isolate and cloned in pUC 19 vector. The nucleotide sequence was identical with C. perfringens type B beta toxin gene sequence. The Southern hybridization using labelled beta toxin gene probe revealed the presence of positive signals only in beta producing C. perfringens.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 111-114

 

 

 
Effect of ciprofloxacin on specific immune response in rabbits

K Jayakumar, Honnegowda, G Krishnappaa, K N V Sastry & K Narayana

iprofloxacin (10 mg/kg body weight, iv, twice daily for 4 days) failed to alter specific antibody titres, total immunoglobulin concentration, total serum protein concentration, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, phagocytic index and skin thickness in DNCB skin sensitivity test against Brucella plain killed antigen in New Zealand White rabbits. It can be concluded that ciprofloxacin at the dose and duration employed did not adversely affect specific immune response in normal rabbits.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 115-118

 

 

Pharmacological and haematological study of shol fish (Channa striatus) skin extract on experimental animal

Surajit Karmakar, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

Snake head fish Channa striatus (locally called ‘shol’) skin extract (SFSE) was examined for certain pharmacological and haematological effects on experimental animals. LD50 of SFSE was found to be 6 mg/20gm (iv) in male albino mice. SFSE potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Low dose of SFSE decreased respiratory rate in rat and guineapig and high dose produced apnoea leading to death. On isolated toad and guineapig heart, SFSE significantly decreased rate and amplitude of contraction leading to temporary blockade, which returned after repeated wash. On isolated nerve muscle preparations, SFSE produced irreversible blockade of twitch response. SFSE induced quick contraction on isolated guineapig ileum, which was antagonised by atropine and cyproheptadine. SFSE did not possess haemolytic and haemorrhagic activity but produced anaemia in male albino mice. A neurotoxic compound (fluoroscent and ninhydrin positive) was isolated from SFSE by thin layer chromatography. This compound (CS-NT) was lethal in male albino mice, produced death by apnoea in rat and produced irreversible blockade of isolated nerve-muscle preparation. This study confirms that the skin of Channa striatus possesses toxic and lethal components, which needs further detailed study.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 40, January 2002, pp. 119-122

 

 

Use of meristem tip culture to eliminate carnation latent virus from
carnation plants

Manisha Mangal, S V Bhardwaj, D R Sharma, R Kaur & A K Mangal

A successful protocol for meristem tip culture to eliminate carnation latent virus from carnation cv. scania has been described . The virus was found to be mechanically transmissible to Chenopodium quinoa, C. .amaranticolor, Dianthus barbatus and Saponaria vaccaria. Murashige and Skoog'smedium (MS)  supplemented with NAA (1.0 mM) and Kn (20.0 mM) proved best for meristem establishment and microshoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with IBA (5.0 mM). Meristems measuring 0.1 and-0.2 mm yielded virus free plants and larger meristems were not effective.