Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

VOLUME 25

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2000

 

CONTENTS

 

Effect of winder type and winding parameters on package density and physical bulk of air-jet textured yarns

 

83

  V K Kothari, A Mukhopadhyay & R C D Kaushik

 

 

 

Effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of flax-viscose OE rotor-spun yarns

87

  G K Tyagi, R C D Kaushik, S Dhamija, D P Chattopadhyay & K R Salhotra

 

 

 

A study on wrap-spun jute yarn with cellulosic yarn as wrapping element

92

  A N Roy, G Basu & A Majumder

 

 

 

Some preliminary investigations into the mechanics of 1´1 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine

 

97

  Sadhan Chandra Ray & P K Banerjee

 

 

 

Modified tappet shedding mechanism for improved performance of jute loom : Part I—Design, operation and heald movement analysis of the mechanism

 

108

  S K Neogi, A K Bandyopadhyay & N C Banerjee

 

 

 

Mechanical properties of glass composites based on knitted preforms with inlays

115

  R M V G K Rao, G Anand Nahar & R Alagirusamy

 

 

 

Improvement in jute fabric handle through biofinishing

121

  D P Chattopadhyay, J K Sharma & R B Chavan

 

 

 

Enhancement in indigo uptake on cotton through metal salt pretreatment

130

  R B Chavan & J N Chakraborty

 

 

 

Degumming of silk with a fungal protease

138

  M L Gulrajani, Ritu Agarwal & Subhash Chand

 

 

 

Effluent treatment in textile processing : Part II—Bleaching of cotton yarn

143

  H T Deo & S K Chinta

 

 

 

Sublimation transfer printing of linen and polyester / linen fabrics

147

  M A El-Kashouti, A A El-Halwagy & M M El-Molla

 

 

 

Dyeing of ecru denim with onion extract using natural mordant combinations

152

  H T Deo & Roshan Paul

 

 

 

Short Communication

 

Inverse relaxation in polyester-viscose MJS yarns

158

  G K Tyagi & K R Salhotra

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Progress in air-jet spinning

161

  by A Basu ; reviewed by G K Tyagi

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 83-86

 

 

Effect of winder type and winding parameters on package density and physical bulk of air-jet textured yarns

V K Kotharia, A Mukhopadhyay & R C D Kaushik

Department of Textile Technology, The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 30 July 1999; revised received and accepted 3 December 1999

The effect of winder type (i.e. spindle driven winder and drum driven winder), winding time, package diameter and winding tension on the measured values of package densities and physical bulk of air-jet textured yarn has been discussed. Surface driven winders produce packages of higher densities and the measured values of physical bulk are lower. The effect of yarn tension during winding on the measured values of the physical bulk is higher in the case of spindle driven winders as compared to drum driven winders. Winding at lower tension results in the higher values of measured physical bulk. Changes in the package densities of both parent and textured yarn packages with change in winding time and package diameter affect the measured values of physical bulk while winding either on equal time or on equal diameter basis. For the measurement of physical bulk, it is recommended to wind the parent and textured yarn packages of larger diameter in the case of equal diameter winding. Longer winding time is recommended to build the parent and textured yarn packages for the measurement of physical bulk in case equal winding time is used as the basis for building packages.

Keywords: Air-jet textured yarn, Drum driven winder , Package density, Physical bulk, Spindle driven  winder

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 87-91

 

 

Effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of
flax- viscose OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi , R C D Kaushik , S Dhamija & D P Chattopadhyay

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences , Bhiwani 127 021, India

and

K R Salhotra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 31 March 1999; revised received and accepted 9 July 1999

 Flax-viscose blends can be easily spun on the rotor spinning system, though the mechanical properties of the blended yarn deteriorate with an increase in flax content. It has been observed that flax content should not exceed 30% for spinning stability. Alkali treatment remarkably increases the bulk and breaking extension but decreases the tenacity, initial modulus and flexural rigidity. The decrease in tenacity, initial modulus and flexural rigidity of the treated yarns shows descending relationship with flax content but it increases with the decrease in twist factor.

 Keywords : Flax- viscose rayon yarn, Rotor- spun yarn, Tex twist  factor, Wrapper fibre

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 92-96

 

A study on wrap-spun jute yarn with cellulosic yarn as wrapping element

 

A N Roy, G Basu & A Majumder

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Calcutta 700 040, India

Received 26 March 1999; revised received and accepted 4 August 1999

  Using the hollow-spindle technology, the wrap-spun jute yarns having linear densities of 276, 190 and 120 tex and varying wrap density (250-450 wraps/m) were produced with 2-ply cotton as wrapping yarn. Wrap-spun jute yarn of 276 tex was also spun using viscose rayon multifilament as wrapping yarn. The yarns with 450 wraps/m could not be spun due to excessive breakage in case of 276 tex linear density. Tensile strength of 276 tex and 190 tex wrap-spun jute yarn decreased with the increase in wraps/m. However, for finer yarns of 120 tex, the trend was erratic. The load-elongation curves of wrap-spun jute yarns having higher wrap densities manifested staggered multi-peak type fracture whereas the rupture was catastrophic (uni-pick type) when the wrap density was lower. The breaking elongation of all the yarns generally increased with the increase in wrap density. Wrap-spun jute yarns were comparatively better in appearance than the conventional all-jute yarns.

Keywords: Cotton yarn, Jute yarn, Tensile properties, Viscose rayon multifilament yarn, Wrap-spun yarn

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 97-107

 

 

Some preliminary investigations into the mechanics of 1´1 rib loop

formation on a dial and cylinder machine

 

Sadhan Chandra Raya & P K Banerjee

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 16 April 1999; accepted 18 May 1999

  An attempt has been made to find out the influence of the variables affecting loop length as well as to gain an insight into the mechanics of loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine with 1´1 rib gating. For the purpose, the movement of yarn across the knitting elements during loop formation has been studied with the help of a travelling microscope and the loop length has been measured in fabrics produced under different conditions of knitting. The forward movement of yarn inside knitting zone generally continues up to the cylinder knitting point. The backward movement of yarn occurs in atleast two phases—the first phase occurs just after cylinder knitting point and the second phase occurs around the dial knitting point. It has also been observed that the loop length in general increases with the increase in cylinder cam setting, dial cam setting and dial height and decreases with the increase in input tension. A wide range of loop length can be produced on a dial and cylinder machine only by chang­ing the timing of knitting. Generally, the lower loop length results at higher delayed timing.

Keywords: Cast-off loop,  Cylinder needle, Dial needle, Knitting, Loop length

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 108-114

 

 

Modified tappet shedding mechanism for improved performance of jute
loom : Part I—Design, operation and heald movement analysis
of the mechanism

S K Neogi, A K Bandyopadhyay & N C Banerjee

Indian Jute Industries' Research Association, 17 Taratola Road, Calcutta 700 088, India

Received 2 February 1999; revised received 26 May 1999; accepted 2 July 1999

A positive tappet shedding mechanism with simple design and 35% less number of components than in the existing system has been developed for weaving plain cloths. In this mechanism, only one grooved tappet actuates the two healds in both upward and downward directions. The mechanism is so designed and fitted on the loom that it enables easy and quick setting and produces much improved nature of heald movement which is expected to minimize the warp breakages at weaving.

Keywords : Grooved tappet, Heald displacement, Heald velocity, Jute loom, Tappet profile, Tappet shedding mechanism

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 115-120

 

Mechanical properties of glass composites based on knitted preforms with inlays

 

R M V G K Rao

National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017, India

and

G Anand Nahara & R Alagirusamyb

P S G College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

Received 1 April 1999; accepted 6 October 1999

  An attempt has been made to improve the mechanical properties of the composites with knitted preforms by introducing horizontal strands in the course direction in a flat-bed knitting machine. Flat knitted preforms were produced with different proportions of axial inlay strands and the composite laminates were prepared using the vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding technique. It is observed that the introduction of inlay strands influences the structure of the knitted preform by increasing course density, wale density and thickness. This result in the increased anisotropic behaviour of the composite laminate showing increased strength in the course direction and decreased strength in the wale direction. The flexural strength of the knitted preform composites increases in both wale and course directions with the introduction of inlay strands. Laminates from preforms with two inlays exhibit overall improved impact properties whereas those from preforms with one inlay show higher impact damage tolerance index. These observations are explained in terms of the change in fibre architecture brought about by the introduction of the inlay strands.

Keywords: Composites, Glass fibre, Knitting, Mechanical properties, Textile performs

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 121-129

 

 

Improvement in jute fabric handle through biofinishing

D P Chattopadhyay & J K Sharma

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

and

R B Chavan

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 9 February 1999; revised received and accepted 24 May 1999

Pure jute fabrics have been finished with Biosoft-P (cellulase enzyme) under different conditions selected statistically using Box and Behnken model and then tested for mechanical properties. The image analysis and Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-FB) have been used to evaluate the extent of modification and fabric hand respectively. It is observed that enzyme treatment causes considerable reduction in protruding surface hairs on the fabric and improvement in softness of the fabric. The treatment is found to improve the Fukurami and Numeri and reduce the Koshi and Hari. The total hand value of the fabric increases by more than 15% for the sample treated with 4% (owf) enzyme at 50ºC for 90 min and this condition is the best among the chosen conditions.

Keywords: Cellulase, Enzyme, Fabric handle,Image analysis, Jute

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 130-137

 

 

 

 

Enhancement in indigo uptake on cotton through metal salt pretreatment

R B Chavan & J N Chakraborty

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 6 July 1999; accepted 13 August 1999

A simple metal salt pretreatment of cotton has been suggested before multiple dip and nip dyeing of cotton with indigo. Among the various metal salt pretreatments investigated, the pretreatment with FeSO4 has been found to be most promisive. A tentative mechanism for improvement in colour yield due to metal salt pretreatment has also been suggested.

Keywords: Cotton, Denim, Ferric hydroxide, Ferrous sulphate, Indigo

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 138-142

 

 

Degumming of silk with a fungal protease

M L Gulrajani, Ritu Agarwal & Subhash Chand

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 8 April 1999; revised received and accepted 27 July 1999

Degumming with  25% (owf) Marseille’s soap for 1.5 h at boil gives a weight loss of 20.5 %, whereas degumming with enzyme (3 ml/g of fabric) at 37oC for 3 h gives a weight loss of about 19.8 %. Treatment with enzyme requires much lower temperature than that in the conventional process. Processing of silk with enzyme under the above conditions is likely to retain the lustre and softness of silk. To economize on the quantity of enzyme, the conditions like enzyme concentration, temperature and treatment time have been optimized. The efficiency of this enzyme has been studied in terms of weight loss and strength loss.

Keywords:  Degumming, Enzyme, Protease, Silk

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 143-146

 

 

Effluent treatment in textile processing: Part II—Bleaching of cotton yarn

H T Deoa & S K Chinta

Division of Technology of Fibres and Textile Processing, Department of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 8 June 1998; revised received and accepted 28 October 1998

A new method of bleaching cotton yarn, which doubles the production with overall saving of 58% without sacrificing the bleached yarn quality, has been described. As no chlorine-based bleaching agent or chemical is used, the new method is environment-friendly. This method virtually obviates the need of costly effluent treatment plant and is particularly useful for the cottage industry in yarn dyeing sector.

Keywords: Bleaching, Eco-friendly process, Cotton


 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 147-151

 

Sublimation transfer printing of linen and polyester/linen fabrics

M A El-Kashouti, A A El-Halwagy & M M El-Molla

Textile Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Received 5 January 1999 ; revised received 20 May 1999; accepted 1July 1999

An attempt has been made to chemically modify the linen and polyester/linen fabrics via benzylation.  Linen fabric is more susceptible to the benzylation reaction than its blend with polyester.  The maximum degree of substitution  obtained in the case of blend is  0.26 as compared to 0.85 in case of 100% linen when benzylation is conducted for 4 h.  Partial benzylation of linen and polyester/linen fabrics increases their transfer printability.  Partially benzylated  printed  fabrics have high colour strength and their overall fastness properties are good to very good.

Keywords: Linen fabric, Polyester/linen fabric, Sublimation transfer printing

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 152-157

 

 

Dyeing of ecru denim with onion extract using natural mordant combinations

H T Deoa & Roshan Paul

Division of Technology of Fibres and Textile Processing, Department of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai,
Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

 

Received 23 October 1998; revised received and accepted 1 March 1999

Ecru denim swatches were dyed with onion extract using natural mordants such as harda, tartaric acid and tannic acid separately and in combinations. Harda-tartaric acid combination was found to be the best followed by tannic acid –harda and tartaric acid- tannic acid combinations. Synergistic effect of mordant was observed while using the binary combinations of mordants. Meta-mordanting gave the best results for harda-tartaric acid and tartaric acid-tannic acid combinations, while pre-mordanting gave the best results for tartaric acid-harda combination. There was an overall improvement in performance properties of the samples dyed with various combinations over that of the single mordanted and the control samples. This new technique has immense potential in the modern concept of natural denim wear dyed with natural dyes using natural mordants.

Keywords: Ecru denim, Mordanting, Natural mordants, Onion extract, Synergism

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 25, June 2000, pp. 158-160

 

 

 

Inverse relaxation in polyester-viscose  MJS yarns

G K Tyagi

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences,
Bhiwani 127 021, India

and

K R Salhotra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 5 January 1999; revised received and
accepted 9 July 1999

The relationship between the magnitudes of the instrumental measurement of the inverse relaxation and some yarn factors has been investigated. It is observed that the inverse relaxation index and load induced are influenced by the blend composition, yarn linear density and first jet pressure. In MJS yarns, a systematic decrease in yarn linear density greatly increases the inverse relaxation index. The use of higher first jet pressure produces higher inverse relaxation but reduces load induced. Also, the inverse relaxation index increases with the increasing retraction level but shows descending relationship with the increasing polyester content.

Keywords  :    Air-jet spinning, Inverse relaxation index, MJS yarn, Polyester-viscose yarn,  Retraction