Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

ISSN : 0971-0426   CODEN : IJFRET 

VOLUME  28

NUMBER  1

MARCH 2003

CONTENTS

 

Influence of wire point density in cards and combers on neps in sliver and yarn quality
K P Chellamani, D Chattopadhyay & V Thanabal

9

Twist structure of friction-spun yarns: Part II — Core-spun DREF-III yarns
K R Salhotra, R Chattopadhyay, S Dhamija & R C D Kaushik

16

Direct determination of yarn snarliness
A Primentas

23

Tensile properties of single and two-ply cotton yarn woven fabrics
V K Kothari & Anand Chitale

29

Bulk characteristics of air-jet textured yarn knitted fabrics
A Mukhopadhyay, R C D Kaushik & V K Kothari

36

Development of a method for measurement of fabric three-dimensional drape and studies on influencing factors
G Thilagavathi & V Natarajan

41

Inverse relaxation in fabrics
R P Nachane & G F S Hussain

50

Spirality of weft-knitted fabrics: Part I—Descriptive approach to the effect
A Primentas

55

Spirality of weft-knitted fabrics: Part II—Methods for the reduction of the effect
A Primentas

60

Characterization of grey and dyed cotton fibres as well as waste at different stages of rotor spinning process
S M Ishtiaque & A Das

65

Characterization of various acrylic fibres by infrared spectroscopy
Ajay Kumar, K V Rao & Girish C Pandey

71

Selective chemical pretreatments and post-treatments on microdenier polyester fabric for improving surface depth of colour
A K Samanta, D P Chattopadhyay, A Konar & D N Sharma

76

Silk dyed with Acalypha (Acalypha wilkesiana) and its fastness
Geeta Mahale, Sakshi & R K Sunanda

86

Use of natural mordant in dyeing of wool
J P Mathur & N P Gupta

90

Use of neem bark as wool colourant¾ Optimum conditions of wool dyeing
J P Mathur , Anjula Mehta, Romila Karnawat & C S Bhandari

94

Dyeing properties of some disperse dyes on polyester microfibre fabrics
Behcet Becerir & M Abdulhalik Iskender

100

Short Communications

 

Influence of fibre length and yarn linear density on mean fibre extent in OE DREF-II friction-spun acrylic yarns
S Dhamija, V K Sharma & K R Salhotra

108

Apron slippage in ring frame: Part III – Design and development of anti-slip apron for improved yarn quality
S M Ishtiaque, A Das & P Yadav

114

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 9-15

 

 

Influence of wire point density in cards and combers on neps 

in sliver and yarn quality

K P Chellamani, D Chattopadhyay & V Thanabal

 

Received 18 December 2001; accepted 30 January 2002

 

Card slivers were produced from two Indian cottons of micronaire values 2.7 and 3.1 in a 4th generation card using flat tops of five different wire point densities and spun into 80s and 100s combed yarns. Card sliver neps as well as imperfections in the corresponding yarn samples produced using those slivers were estimated. Conducting trials were also carried out using cylinder wires, flat tops and combing segments of variable density. Cylinder wires of variable density in card reduce sliver and yarn nep content by about 35%. Combing segments with 4 partitions in comber produce slivers and yarns with about 25% lower neps as compared to combing segments of 2 partitions.

     Keywords : Carding, Combing segments, Cotton, Flat tops, Neps, Yarn imperfections

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 16-22

 

 

Twist structure of friction-spun yarns: Part II — Core-spun DREF-III yarns

K R Salhotra, R Chattopadhyay, S Dhamija & R C D Kaushik

 

Received 5 September 2001;revised received and accepted 3 January 2002

The twist structure of DREF-III friction-spun yarns has been studied by optical method. It is observed that the different layers of sheath fibres exhibit more or less the same average twist as observed in the fibre layers of DREF-II structures. However, under the identical spinning conditions this twist is lower than the twist in DREF-II yarn structures and the use of coarser fibres further reduces it. The twist also shows a decreasing trend with the increase in fibre length from 25 mm to 44 mm followed by a slight increase thereafter. Core fibres, instead of being straight and parallel to the yarn axis as generally expected, are seen to be twisted. Both the core and the sheath fibres twist values have been found to increase with the increase in suction pressure. A decrease in core content increases the core twist while the sheath twist drops after an initial increase.

Keywords: Core-spun yarn, DREF-III yarn, Friction-spun yarn, Tracer fibre technique, Yarn twist, Yarn structure

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 23-28

 

 

Direct determination of yarn snarliness

A Primentas

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 11 March 2002

The formation of snarls that takes place in the yarns in post-spinning processes, such as winding, warping, weaving and knitting, has been studied. This defect is due to the excessive yarn twist liveliness (torsional buckling) and causes great trouble to the manufacturers of yarns and fabrics. Biased testing techniques are used for the measurement of this defect. A snarling testing apparatus PRIANIC and an unbiased testing technique have been developed and are reported. The investigation of factors such as yarn package form, yarn twist factor, time elapsed between production and processing stages of yarns and yarn conditioning show the significant role they play in the reduction of yarn snarliness.

Keywords: Knitting, Snarliness, Twist liveliness, Warping, Weaving, Winding, Yarn package, Yarn twist factor

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 29-35

 

 

Tensile properties of single and two-ply cotton yarn woven fabrics

V K Kothari & Anand Chitale

 

Received 24 July 2001; revised received and accepted 26 December 2001

 

Uniaxial tensile behaviour of woven fabrics made up of two-ply cotton warp and single/two-ply cotton weft yarns has been studied. The effect of increase in pick density on the strength and extension behaviour of the fabric has been observed in both warp and weft directions. Warp-way fabric strength decreases while weft-way strength increases with the increase in pick density. Yarn obliquity has been found to affect strength considerably in case of both single and two-ply cotton weft yarn fabrics but the yarn strength realization in fabric has been found to be better for the fabrics with single weft yarns as compared to that for the fabrics with two-ply weft yarns.

Keywords: Cotton yarn, Fabric strength, Tensile strength, Woven fabric

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 36-40

 

 

Bulk characteristics of air-jet textured yarn knitted fabrics

A Mukhopadhyay, R C D Kaushik & V K Kothari

 

Received 2 November 2001; revised received and accepted 25 February 2002

 

The thickness and specific volume of knitted fabric have been analyzed in relation to yarn type (air-jet textured/flat), stitch length and relaxation treatments. It is observed that the behaviour of parent yarn fabric is very different from that of the textured yarn fabric in dry-and fully-relaxed states. The thickness of air-jet textured yarn knitted fabric is independent of stitch length in fully - relaxed state, whereas the specific volume of the fabric increases with the increase in stitch length. The specific volume of the fabric of similar stitch length or the thickness of the fabric produced from the yarn of same linear density for loosely knitted structures with tightness factor less than 10.4 can be used for the evaluation of textured yarn bulk.

Keywords: Air-jet texturing, Fabric bulk, Fabric thickness, Knitted fabric, Specific volume

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 41-49

 

 

Development of a method for measurement of fabric three-dimensional 

drape and studies on influencing factors

G Thilagavathi & V Natarajan

 

Received 10 August 2001; revised received 13 November 2001; accepted 18 January 2002

 

A new method of measuring drape using a modified drape meter is proposed where the elegance of drape is more effectively observed in the elevation view of a draped fabric specimen. In the new method, apart from the top projection, the elevation projection along warp and weft directions of draped specimen mounted on the drape meter disc is taken using additional light source. The new three-dimensional drape coefficient (3-D DC) calculated from top projection and weft-way elevation projection is capable of differentiating the samples with different drape appearance but same conventional drape coefficient. This 3-D DC has better correlation with most of the drape describing parameters compared to the conventional drape coefficient. Studies with cotton shirting fabrics show that with the increase in picks per inch, the drape coefficient increases, reaches a maximum value and thereafter it decreases. In the case of polyester/cotton blended fabrics, an increasing trend in drape coefficient is observed. Dyeing decreases the value of drape coefficient. Studies also show that the DC % decreases with time and that the sample reaches stabilized condition after 5 min of sample mounting. Seamed fabrics have stabilized drape appearance and DC %. Increase in the number of seams in the fabric increases the fabric stiffness and hence the DC%.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, Drape appearance, Drape coefficient, Drape meter, Polyester-cotton fabrics

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 50-54

 

 

Inverse relaxation in fabrics

R P Nachane & G F S Hussain 

 

Received 24 September 2001; revised received 3 December 2001; accepted 31 December 2001

 

Inverse relaxation in cotton, polyester and cotton/polyester blended fabrics has been studied. For a given extension level, the inverse relaxation index at different retraction levels follows the same trend as is observed in fibres and yarns. It is also observed that the inverse relaxation index maximum is spread over a wide range of retraction levels in the case of 100% polyester fabric, whereas it restricts to a short retraction range in the case of 100% cotton fabrics,.

Keywords:  Cotton, Cotton-polyester blend, Inverse relaxation, Polyester

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 55-59

 

 

Spirality of weft-knitted fabrics: Part I—Descriptive approach to the effect

A Primentas 

 

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 11 March 2002

 

The nature, origin and characteristics of the spirality effect have been examined in detail. The distinction between the spirality effect and other fabric distortions contributes towards the verification, by experiment, that the prime reason for spirality is the yarn twist liveliness.

Keywords: Knitting, Spirality, Weft knitted fabric, Yarn twist liveliness

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 60-64

 

 

Spirality of weft-knitted fabrics: Part II—Methods for
the reduction of the effect

A Primentas 

 

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 11 March 2002

 

The effect of yarn steam setting and fabric washing on spirality has been studied and a brief description of a yarn treatment, based on the false twisting process, worked out towards the solution of this problem is given. The results indicate that a possible method for the reduction of the spirality effect should include a real reduction in the twist liveliness or torque existing in the yarns.

Keywords: Knitted fabric, Spirality, Steam setting

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 65-70

 

 

Characterization of grey and dyed cotton fibres as well as waste at
different stages of rotor spinning process

S M Ishtiaque & A Das

 

Received 19 September 2001; revised received and accepted 11 December 2001

 

A detailed analysis of the properties of grey and dyed (reactive dyed and natural dyed) cotton fibres including the waste materials at different stages of rotor spinning process has been carried out. Significant changes in length-related parameters are observed in each mechanical processing, the effect being more prominent in case of dyed fibres where the frictional coefficient is high. The effects of opening roller speed and its type on the fibre characteristics have also been reported.

 

Keywords: Blow room droppings, Open-end spinning, Opening roller speed, Short fibre content, Span length

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 71-75

 

 

Characterization of various acrylic fibres by infrared spectroscopy

Ajay Kumar, K V Rao & Girish C Pandey 

 

Received 12 April 2001; revised received and accepted 7 January 2002

 

An attempt has been made to develop a database containing information on the infrared spectral characteristics, composition and morphological features of different types of acrylic-based fibres with a view to provide an alternative and quick method of their identification, classification and gradation. This is based on a detailed infrared spectral and morphological study on different acrylic-based fibres showing variation in terms of type (monocomponent, bicomponent and special acrylic fibres), process (wet spun/dry spun ) and composition. The availability of optic fibre-based instruments has led to the ease of on site IR spectral measurements, even away from the main spectrometer and also replaces the presently used diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform measurement accessory. The study, thus, demonstrates the capability of IR spectroscopy as a semi-quantitative tool for fast identification/gradation of acrylic-based fibres on routine basis.

Keywords : Acrylic fibre, DRIFT spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 76-85

 

 

Selective chemical pretreatments and post-treatments on microdenier polyester fabric for improving surface depth of colour

A K Samanta, D P Chattopadhyay, A Konar & D N Sharma 

 

Received 2 November 2001; revised received and accepted 5 February 2002

 

Polyester microdenier (0.8 dpf) and normal denier (³ 2dpf) multifilament fabrics have been subjected to pretreatment with different solvents and caustic soda prior to dyeing with disperse dye. The relative changes in their textile-related physico-chemical properties and structures have been evaluated by measuring weight loss, shrinkage, tensile strength, elongation, critical dissolution time and surface depth of colour in terms of K/S value. Among the three organic solvents (phenol, dimethyl formamide and nitrobenzene) used, the pretreatment with phenol shows some noticeable improvement in surface depth of colour without much affecting the above physical properties. The effect of treatment with 10% mixture of DMF-phenol (1:1) for 60 min shows lesser weight loss but inferior balance of properties as compared to the treatment with 10% phenol or 10% DMF alone. Caustic soda pretreatment using 1-5% NaOH with 0.1-0.3% catalyst always shows higher weight loss in case of microdenier polyester fabric than that in case of normal denier polyester fabric. To achieve ~15% weight reduction in microdenier polyester fabric, the optimum treatment conditions are : 5% NaOH, 0.1% hexamethylene diamine, 60 min treatment time and 900C treatment temperature. Post-treatments with silicone and organo-modified silicone emulsion, having lower refractive index than that of the polyester fibre, are beneficial for improving surface depth of colour by 3.6 - 9% where amino-silicone emulsion shows the best results.

 

Keywords : Critical dissolution time, Disperse dye, Dyeing, Microdenier fabric, Polyester fabric, Silicone emulsion

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 86-89

 

 

 

Silk dyed with Acalypha (Acalypha wilkesiana) and its fastness

Geeta Mahale, Sakshi & R K Sunanda

 

Received 15 May 2001; revised received and accepted 16 January 2002

 

Silk skeins were dyed with Acalypha wilkesiana leaves extract using different concentrations of various mordants and then tested for fastness properties. Mordanting was done before, during and after dyeing. Irrespective of mordanting methods, the samples treated with potash alum showed increase in colour when subjected to sunlight test and those treated with potassium dichromate, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate showed excellent to good fastness properties.

 

Keywords: Acalypha wilkesiana, Dyeing, Fastness properties, Mordanting, Mulitvoltine silk, Natural dyes

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 90-93

 

 

Use of natural mordant in dyeing of wool

J P Mathur & N P Gupta

 

Revised received 23 October 2001; accepted 14 January 2002

 

Natural mordant was obtained by concentrating aqueous extract of banana flower petaloids under reduced pressure and evaporating it to dryness. Bharat Merino sheep wool yarn dyed with turmeric (Curcuma longa) was subjected to mordanting separately with natural mordant and chromium under the identical conditions. Out of the different concentrations of the mordants used, 3.5 % natural mordant and 1.5 % chromium (on the weight of yarn) showed similar colour fastness, reflectance, colour shade and K/S values. The chemistry of wool dyeing and the physico-chemical properties of dyed wool yarns are also discussed.

 

Keywords: Banana petaloids, Curcuma longa, Tensile behaviour, UB solubility, Wool

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 94-99

 

 

Use of neem bark as wool colourant¾ Optimum conditions of wool dyeing

J P Mathur, Anjula Mehta, Romila Karnawat & C S Bhandar 

 

Revised received 23 October 2001; accepted 14 January 2002

 

Wool yarn has been dyed with natural colourant extracted from the bark of neem (Azadirachta indica) branchlets under the optimum conditions. Neem bark colourant shows two absorption maxima at 275 and 374 nm. Dyeing of wool yarn under the optimum conditions (pH, 4.5; colourant conc., 0.05g per gram of wool; treatment time, 60 min; and treatment temp., 97.5°C) shows very good light and wash fastness properties without deteriorating the quality of wool. The chemistry of wool dyeing process has also been discussed.

 

Keywords: Colour fastness, Dyeing, Neem bark colourant, Tensile behaviour, U B solubility, Wool

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 100-107

 

 

Dyeing properties of some disperse dyes on polyester microfibre fabrics

Behcet Becerir & M Abdulhalik Iskender

 

Received 5 September 2001; revised received and accepted 3 January 2002

 

Dyeing properties of different molecular sized disperse dyes, which are commercially used for dyeing polyester microfibre fabrics, were investigated in accordance with the changing dye concentration. The experiments were carried out in two separate steps by using a certain levelling agent. In the first step, the dyeing properties of two microfibre fabrics and a conventional polyester fabric were investigated using two disperse dyes. In the second step, the dyeing properties of different molecular sized disperse dyes were investigated by using two microfibre fabrics and nine disperse dyes. Dye uptake and colour values of different polyester microfibre fabrics were found to depend on the molecular size and concentration of the disperse dyes used for dyeing and also on the properties of the fibres and weave pattern. Increasing the dye concentration in the dyebath causes an increase in the colour value to a certain limit. Using the excess amount of dye in the dyebath does not always improve the colour values. The colour values (coordinates) can be developed to the limit of fibre saturation for dyes. The development of colour values shows different changes in different dye concentration range.

Keywords: Disperse dye, Dyeing, Microfibre, Polyester

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 108-11

 

 

Influence of fibre length and yarn linear density on mean fibre extent in OE DREF-II friction-spun acrylic yarns

S Dhamija, V K Sharma & K R Salhotra

 

Received 11 June 2001; revised received 10 January 2002; accepted 20 February 2002

 

The structure of OE DREF-II friction-spun yarns has been investigated mainly in terms of mean fibre extent. Fibres at the centre of these yarns are seen to extend for longer distance along the yarn axis than those at the outside. The average mean fibre extent lies within a narrow range of 15-22 mm. Within this range, depending on yarn linear density the mean fibre extent increases with the increase in fibre length up to 38 or 44 mm followed by a decrease thereafter.

 

Keywords: Acrylic yarn, DREF-II yarn, Friction-spun yarn, Mean fibre extent, Tracer fibre technique, Yarn structure

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, March 2003, pp. 114-116

 

 

Apron slippage in ring frame: Part III –
Design and development of anti-slip apron for improved yarn quality

S M Ishtiaque, A Das & P Yadav

 

Received 8 March 2001; revised received and accepted 19 December 2001

 

The use of anti-slip apron in place of normal apron shows a total elimination of apron-to-apron slippage due to the positive means of motion transmission from bottom apron to top apron. As there is no apron-to-apron slippage in case of anti-slip apron, it can control the movement of floating fibres in a better way. Thus, the use of anti-slip aprons improves the yarn quality.

 

Keywords: Anti-slip apron, Apron-to-apron slippage, Yarn quality, Yarn tenacity