Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 


Total visitors:4,471 since 15-03-06

 

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 31

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2006

 

 

Special Issue

on

Emerging Trends in Polymers & Textiles

 

CONTENTS

 

Fibers from polymeric nanocomposites

        L A Utracki

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  B82B3/00, C01B33/00, D01H]

 

15

Polymer/carbon nanotube composites—An overview

        Han Gi Chae & Satish Kumar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  B82B, C08K3/04]

 

29

Functionalized nanofibers for advanced applications

        Mohammad Munim Hussain & S S Ramkumar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  B82B, D01D5/00]

 

41

Thermoresponsive smart textile

        Manjeet Jassal, Ashwini K Agrawal & Ninad S Save

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D06M]

 

52

Temperature stimulating shape memory polyurethane for smart clothing

        S Mondal & J L Hu

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  C09K5/00, D06M]

 

66

Microencapsulation of essential oils and phase change materials for applications in textile products

        Bojana Boh & Emil Knez

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  C09K5/00, D01F1/10]

 

 

72

Atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma and its applications in textile

        Kartick Samanta, Manjeet Jassal & Ashwini K Agrawal

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D06M10/00, H05H ]

 

83

Plasma polymerization and its applications in textiles

        Dirk Hegemann

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D06M10/00, H05H ]

99

Innovations in spun yarn technologies—Present and future

        W Oxenham

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D01H, D02G3/00]

 

116

Technological innovations in woven fabric manufacturing process

        P K Banerjee

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D03D, D03J]

 

125

Engineering design of textiles

        J W S Hearle

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  G06G]

 

134

Principle for the development of textile specialty products using material design

        Tatsuki Matsuo

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D06M]

 

142

Yarn engineering

        Yehia Elmogahzy

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D02G3/00]

 

150

Application of neural network in yarn manufacture

        R Chattopadhyay

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D02G3/00, G06N3/00]

 

160

Electronic textiles and their potential

        Tushar Ghosh & Anuj Dhawan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D02G3/00, G06K7/00, H01R4/00]

 

170

Thermo-physiological comfort characteristics and blended yarn woven fabrics

        V K Kothari

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D03D15/00]

 

177

Nano finishes

        M L Gulrajani

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  B82B, D06B]

 

187

Polymer/clay nanocomposite based coatings for enhanced gas barrier property

        Mangala Joshi, Kushan Banerjee  Prasanth R & Vikas Thakare

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 B82B3/00, C01B33/00]

 

202

Contribution of textiles to medical and healthcare products and developing innovative medical devices

        S Rajendran  & S C Anand

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  A61L15/00, D04H]

 

215

 


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 15-28

 

Fibers from polymeric nanocomposites

 

L A Utracki

 

The clay-containing polymeric nanocomposites (CPNC) comprise a polymeric matrix and dispersed in it mineral or synthetic clay platelets. The key condition for success is the thermodynamic miscibility of the ingredients at the processing temperature. Toward this goal, the clay is usually pre-intercalated and/or compatibilized with the matrix. The role of melt compounding is to accelerate the dispersion process. Adding an extensional flow mixer to the compounding line accelerates the dispersion. At the organoclay loading of 1-5 wt%, the CPNC show increased (in respect to matrix polymer) rigidity, strength, dimensional stability, barrier properties, flame resistance, etc. The main use of CPNC is in the transport and packaging industries. Fiber spinning of CPNC started about five years ago. The preliminary work demonstrated several beneficial aspects of the technology, e.g. improved spinnability, dyeability, mechanical properties, reduced shrinkage, flame resistance, and others. This review provides a brief outline of the fundamental aspects of CPNC production followed by a summary of publications on the electrospinning, solvent spinning, and melt spinning of CPNC. An effort has been made to focus on the relative effects brought about by incorporation of organoclay.

Keywords: Clay-containing polymeric nanocomposites, Compounding, Extrusion, Nanocomposite, Organoclay, Spinning

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 B82B3/00, C01B33/00, D01H

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 29-40

 

Polymer/carbon nanotube composites—An overview

 

Han Gi Chae & Satish Kumar

 

Carbon nanotubes can currently be obtained with a diameter from about < 1 nm to ~200 nm. Due to their exceptional mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties, the films, fibers and bulk composites are being processed from carbon nanotubes as well as from their composites in various matrix systems. Both pristine and functionalized nanotubes are being dispersed in various polymer matrices using melt processing, solution processing and in situ polymerization. Polymer/carbon nanotube composite with enhanced tensile strength, compressive strength, tensile modulus, glass transition temperature, solvent resistance, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and reduced thermal shrinkage can be processed using conventional polymer processing methods. Carbon nanotubes also act as a nucleating agent for polymer crystallization and have been incorporated in more than 40 polymer matrices. Their dispersion in polymer matrices is critical for achieving significant property improvements. Ultra high carbon nanotube orientation is critical for achieving high modulus carbon nanotube fiber or polymer/carbon nanotube composite fibers. In addition, maintaining long nanotube length is also important for achieving improvements in high strain properties. This paper reports the recent progress in the development of carbon nanotube and polymer/carbon nanotube composite films and fibers, focusing the work carried out at the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Composite fiber, Polymer/carbon nanotube composite

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 B82B, C08K3/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 41-51

 

Functionalized nanofibers for advanced applications

Mohammad Munim Hussain & S S Ramkumar

 

Electrospinning process is a fairly well established experimental method to produce submicron fibers. Fiber diameters are usually in the range of 100-500 nm that enable them to find out applications as filters, protective fabric liners, face masks, etc. More recently, adding functionality to nanofibers has gained increased attention from the research community. This review paper reports the state-of-the-art research on functionalized nanofibers and their fabrication, characteristics and high-end applications in chemical process industries, chemical protective clothing, biomaterials, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Keywords: Drug delivery, Electrospinning, Nanofibers, Nanotubes, Scaffolds, Tissue engineering

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  B82B, D01D5/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 52-65

Thermoresponsive smart textile

 

Manjeet Jassal, Ashwini K Agrawal & Ninad S Save

 

The developments in temperature-sensitive copolymers have been reviewed critically and an attempt has been made to synthesize a series of temperature-sensitive random linear and crosslinked copolymers of N-tert-butyl acrylamide (NTBA) and acrylamide (Am) in varying proportion from 80:20 mol % to 20:80 mol % with transition temperature varying between 2°C and 58°C. Linear copolymer with 40:60 feed ratio of NTBA and Am with actual incorporation of NTBA to the extent of 27 mol % was processed into mechanically strong films of 10-200 mm thickness. The transition temperatures of the crosslinked films are found to shift towards the lower temperature from 37°C (in linear copolymer) to ~ 22-25°C. In thin films of 10 μm, the swelling percentage increases to 4200 and the response time reduces to 5 min from 680% and 120 min respectively of the polymerized gel samples (2 mm disc) of the same composition. Reversible transition was also observed over repeated cycling. These copolymers were chemically integrated to the textile substrates for developing smart textile materials. Cotton yarns coated with this copolymer show a broad transition in the temperature range 15-30°C, and an equilibrium volumetric swelling of ~ 4500% in about 5 min and deswelling within 10 s. A model fabric, fabricated using the coated cotton yarns, exhibited temperature-responsive percentage cover (100% at 6°C and 43% above transition temperature).

Keywords: Coated yarn, N-substituted acrylamide, Percentage cover, Stimuli-sensitive polymer, Temperature-sensitive fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.31, March 2006, pp. 66-71

 

Temperature stimulating shape memory polyurethane for smart clothing

 

S Mondal  & J L Hu

 

An attempt has been made to investigate the application of temperature stimulating shape memory polyurethane for smart breathable clothing and the principle of temperature stimulating polymer described. Shape memory behaviour of shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) and its relationship with temperature sensitive water vapour permeability for smart clothing applications have been investigated. The water vapour permeability of SMPU has been compared with that of the ordinary polyurethane (PU). The result shows temperature sensitive water vapour permeability at the phase transition temperature (soft segment crystal melting point) of shape memory PU. However, no such abrupt change in water vapour permeability through the ordinary PU is observed. Finally, some applications of temperature stimulating SMPU for smart breathable textiles have been proposed.

Keywords: Shape memory polyurethane, Smart clothing, Temperature stimulating, Water vapour permeability

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09K5/00, D06M

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.31, March 2006, pp. 72-82

 

Microencapsulation of essential oils and phase change materials
for applications in textile products

Bojana Boh & Emil Knez

 

The paper reports the development and testing of three types of microcapsules for applications in textile products, namely microencapsulation of antimicrobial essential oils of sage, lavender and rosemary for nonwoven textile shoe insoles; smell-based animal repellents for agricultural textiles, designed to protect plants against damage caused by deer and rabbits; and paraffinic phase change materials (PCMs) for active thermal control garments. In situ polymerisation of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymers was used as the microencapsulation technology in all three cases, based on partly methylated trimethylolmelamine and hexamethoxymethylolmelamine resin as wall materials and a styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as a modifying agent. The microencapsulation process was modified to achieve the desired characteristics of microcapsule walls (different permeability and sensitivity/resistance to pressure). Bibliometric trends in microencapsulation technology with special reference to textile industries have also been discussed with an overview of main application fields and uses of microencapsulated additives in textile products.

Keywords: Microencapsulation, Nonwoven, Phase change material

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09K5/00, D01F1/10

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 83-98

 

Atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma and its applications in textile

 

Kartick Samanta, Manjeet Jassal & Ashwini K Agrawal

 

Plasma, a partially-ionized gas generated by an electrical discharge or high temperature, is of different types and can be classified based on pressure, temperature, source of energy and type of gases. Cold plasma is generated by electric discharge at near-ambient temperatures and can be used for surface modification of textile substrates. This paper reports a brief review of the various plasma and their applications for textile modifications. For textile modifications, atmospheric pressure glow discharge cold plasma is more suitable because it can be designed for continuous treatment of textile. However, the main challenge in atmospheric plasma is to obtain a stable glow (filament-free) discharge over a large surface area suitable for the safe treatment of textile. At IIT-Delhi, uniform glow discharge plasma at the atmospheric pressure over large surface area has been developed by optimizing reactor design and process parameters. Using this plasma, polyester (PET) and nylon fabrics were treated for 10-60 s under different gasses. The treatment significantly enhanced the water absorbency and surface energy of both the nylon and PET fabrics. In nylon-6, the properties imparted by plasma treatment did not change even after 25 days. However, in PET, the absorbency and surface energy were found to reduce slowly with time of storage. The samples did not degrade during plasma treatment and showed insignificant change in mechanical properties. The atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma can effectively and safely be used to modify surfaces of textile substrates at reduced process and environment cost.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma, Glow discharge plasma, Nylon-6, Plasma treatment, Polyester

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M10/00, H05H

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.31, March 2006, pp. 99-115

 

Plasma polymerization and its applications in textiles

 

Dirk Hegemann

 

Plasma polymerization enables the deposition of thin coatings on all kinds of substrates using electrical monomer discharges. This paper reviews plasma polymerization processes as surface modification (finishing) for textile applications. The dry and ecofriendly plasma technology aims at replacing wet-chemical process steps and adding new values to textile products. Characteristics of hydrocarbon, organosilicon, fluorocarbon, hydrophilic functional, monofunctional and ceramic coatings have been discussed to demonstrate their potential for textiles and fibers. Plasma technology requires adequate reactors for the continuous treatment of fabrics and fibers. To enable the optimization of plasma polymerization on batch reactors, questions of up-scaling are addressed to demonstrate the transfer to an industrial level. Both atmospheric and low pressure plasmas are considered regarding their effectiveness and efficiency. Examples for applications in textiles, such as hydrophobic, oleophobic and permanent hydrophilic treatments, have also been reported.

KeywordsFluorocarbon coating, : Hydrocarbon coating, Hydrophobic treatment, Hydrophilic treatment, Oleophobic           treatment, Plasma polymerization

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M10/00, H05H

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 116-124

 

Innovations in spun yarn technologies—Present and future

 

W Oxenham

 

Globalization has profound effects on the textile industry, including yarn production. These effects are not only evident in shifts in the geographical bases of production but also in the ‘drivers’ for manufacturing. This means that yarn producers are expected not only to produce higher quality yarns on much shorter lead times, but must also be competitive on prices in order to survive. A modern yarn producer must therefore be technologically aware, efficient, flexible, and cost conscious. The majority of recent developments in yarn production have been refinements of existing techniques plus improvements in process and product quality. While there are potentially many techniques that could be used to produce yarns, many have met with limited commercial success. Automation is an obvious way to reduce labor costs and improve quality; however, this often carries the penalty of reduced flexibility. Competing on pricing is a prerequisite to survival and the major component of yarn price in a modern spinning mill is the cost of the fiber. Thus, any saving made in raw material directly impacts possible profits. This paper reports the above aspects and their possible interactions.

Keywords: Compact spinning, Open-end spinning, Ring spinning, Spun yarn technologies, Twistless spinning, Wrap spinning

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H, D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 125-133

 

Technological innovations in woven fabric manufacturing process

 

P K Banerjee

 

The key to the gradual evolution of woven fabric manufacturing process has been traced to the introduction of the gripper shuttle, application of electronics and widespread use of composite materials in the modern looms. The cascading effect on the development of peripheral hardware and software as also on the yarn preparatory systems has been highlighted. Further innovations in some core areas should make the ‘Computer Integrated Manufacture’ a distinct possibility.

Keywords: Composite, Cone winding, Fabric manufacturing, Multiphase weaving, Sizing, Shuttleless loom, Weft insertion, Woven construction

IPC Code:          Int. Cl.8 D03D, D03J

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 134-141

 

Engineering design of textiles

 

J W S Hearle

 

The engineering design of textiles continues to follow the traditional empirical methods and for technical as distinct from aesthetic design has not adopted computer-aided design as used in other industries. The reasons for this and the need for change have been discussed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the structural mechanics of yarns and fabrics. The major challenge is to develop programs that industry will use and hence open up a creative interchange between academic researchers and industrial users. A description of key features of TexEng software, which includes an easy-to-use program aimed at meeting this challenge, is given.

Keywords: Computer-aided design, Fabric, Yarn, Structural mechanics

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06G

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 142-149

 

Principle for the development of textile specialty products using material design

 

 

Tatsuki Matsuo

 

Many kinds of specialty textile products have been commercialized and their importance in textile industry is growing. In the development of textile specialty products, material designing of the products is one of the most important working components. But there has been almost no literature in which principle of development using material design for textile specialty products is systematically discussed. This paper reports a method of material design for the development of apparel specialty fabrics, which is a knowledge-based total system by differential way. Selective examples of knowledge data for material designing in terms of attributive items are presented with some examples of related specialty technologies

Keywords : Apparel fabrics, Attributive items, Differential design, Material design, Textile specialty technologies

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

Yarn engineering

 

Yehia Elmogahzy

 

The process of developing a fibrous product consists of five critical phases, namely fiber engineering, fiber-to-yarn engineering, yarn engineering, yarn-to-fabric engineering and fabric engineering. The term ‘engineering’ here implies the design aspects of each phase from the selection of fibers that can provide optimum characteristics to modeling an end product that can provide optimum performance at minimum cost. This is different from the term ‘technology’, which implies the process of following pre-specified procedures to manufacture or produce a fibrous product. Traditionally, the fibrous and textile products have been produced primarily on the basis of technological approaches supported by conventional wisdom and experience. As a result, the general perception about the textile industry, particularly among engineers of other fields, has been that ‘it is a low-tech industry’. Indeed, and unlike other well-established engineering disciplines (civil or mechanical engineering), the term ‘textile engineering’ has no place or even a definition in most engineering societies or associations. The reality is that the textile industry has been high-tech but low-engineering. It has used state-of-the-art technology developed by engineers of all fields, yet with largely non-engineering approaches as experience and art have been the dominant ways to produce fibrous products. This traditional approach must give way to a more engineering approach, particularly as the fibrous materials move into more function-focused products, such as fiber composites, protective systems, medical products, automobiles and aircrafts. This article deals specifically with four critical aspects of yarn engineering, namely yarn type, fiber type, yarn structure, and the contribution of yarn structure to fabric performance characteristics.

Keywords: Comfort index, Function-focus fibrous products, Spinning, Traditional fibrous products, Yarn engineering,  Yarn structure

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 160-169

 

Application of neural network in yarn manufacture

 

R Chattopadhyay

 

This paper reports a brief outline of artificial neural network (ANN) and reviews its application in yarn manufacturing process. The use of neural network in predicting process parameters from known and unknown combination of yarn properties has also been investigated. ANN has been found to be very efficient in predicting process parameters when property combinations are taken from actual observed data. However, when the property set is arbitrary, the prediction is poor. The importance of choosing a feasible combination of input parameters has been highlighted.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Principal component analysis

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G06N3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 170-176 

 

Electronic textiles and their potential

 

Tushar Ghosh  & Anuj Dhawan

 

 

Textile materials are generally lightweight, flexible and unique in many ways compared to other materials. Most importantly, they are omnipresent in our lives. Textiles are necessary next to our skin as well as in our environment. They are used for comfort and protection as well as fashion. In the near future, almost all textile products including what we wear and walk on seem destined to be transformed from their present to multifunctional, adaptive and responsive systems. The functions may include communication, computation and entertainment, as well as health care and threat detection. Textiles used in non-apparel applications may perform surveillance and detection functions. Some of the concepts being explored currently may revolutionize our understanding and appreciation of fiber-textile products. This paper reports the developments in the field of electronic textiles, focusing on the current state-of-the-art of electrotextile products and the research being carried out in this field. 

Keywords: Electronic textile, Electromagnetic induction shielding, Static charge dissipation, Sensors, Textile circuit

IPC Code:                 Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G06K7/00, H01R4/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 177-186

 

Thermo-physiological comfort characteristics and blended yarn woven fabrics

 

V K Kothari

Clothing protects from cold or heat to maintain body thermal comfort throughout the full range of human activities. Various types of tactile, moisture and thermal interactions between the clothing material and the human skin determine the comfort level of a person at a given environmental condition while engaged in a specific level of activity. The fabric type and its blend composition, the tactile and thermal insulation behaviour of the fabric assembly and the moisture management capabilities of the clothing can affect the comfort. This paper discusses the role of fibre properties on comfort characteristics of fabrics and why the blending of fibres at yarn manufacturing stage can lead to fabrics having the desired characteristics from comfort point of view. The details about the properties of different fibres and their relationship to different comfort attributes have also been provided. The results of experimental study of water vapour permeability conduct of polyester/viscose (P/V) and polyester/cotton (P/C) blended yarn fabrics show that the higher polyester content in P/V and P/C fabrics is detrimental to water vapour transmission. The water vapour transmission rate also increases with the air flow rate above the fabric.

Keywords: Blended yarn, Comfort, Thermal insulation behaviour, Water vapour permeability, Woven fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D15/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 187-201

 

Nano finishes

 

M L Gulrajani

Techno-science of some recently introduced nano finishes for textile substrates has been reviewed. The logic of using low molecular weight fibre-reactive fluorocarbons that form the basis of Nano-CareÔ finish to impart durable hydrophobic-oleophobic characteristics to fabrics, as described in a patented literature, has been discussed. Super hydrophobicity as exhibited by lotus leaves and the finishes to get self-cleaning textile fabrics based on the Lotus EffectÔ have been covered giving some typical recipes. Mechanisms proposed to explain the photo-catalytic self-cleaning effect of TiO2 have been described. Developments in the production and evaluation of nano silver and wound care devices based on antimicrobial activity of silver have been covered in detail.

Keywords: ActicoatÔ, Antimicrobial, Lotus EffectÔ, Nano-CareÔ, NanosphereÔ, Photo-catalytic, Super hydrophobicity, Self-cleaning fabric, Whiskers

IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 B82B, D06B

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 202-214

 

Polymer/clay nanocomposite based coatings for enhanced gas barrier property

Mangala Joshi, Kushan Banerjee,  Prasanth R &  Vikas Thakare

 

This paper aims at exploring the revolutionary field of nanotechnology and some of its promising aspects in the innovative field of polymeric nanocomposites because they show substantially improved physical properties as compared to neat polymers. The polymer layered silicate nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials with improved mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. They also show superior UV and chemical resistance and are widely being investigated for improving the gas barrier and flame retardant properties. The common synthesis techniques to produce polymeric layered silicate nanocomposites and their feasibility as coatings for textiles to improve the property mix have been discussed along with the improved properties of these materials. Polymer nanocomposite based coatings for enhanced gas barrier properties have also been reviewed. A feasibility study on polyurethane /clay nanocomposite based coating for inflatable has been done and it is found that the polyurethane /clay nanocomposite based coated fabric shows an encouraging result on improving the gas barrier property for inflatables.

Keywords: Gas barrier property, Layered silicate nanoccomposite, Nanocoatings, Polymer nanocomposite, Polyurethane/clay nanocomposite

        IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 B82B3/00, C01B33/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, March 2006, pp. 215-229

 

Contribution of textiles to medical and healthcare products and developing innovative medical devices

S Rajendran  & S C Anand

 

The application of medical textiles used in woundcare nursing, implants, and healthcare and hygiene products has been discussed. The production and properties of biodegradable polysaccharide fibres obtained from natural sources, such as alginate, chitin/chitosan, collagen, catgut and branan ferulate, have been highlighted. Speciality medical polymeric fibres used for producing wound dressings, bandages and textile scaffolds for tissue culture have been presented. In addition, the difficulties encountered by elderly people due to venous leg ulcers and a specific research and development programme carried out at the University of Bolton in developing novel padding and compression bandages for the treatment of venous leg ulcers have also been critically discussed. It is observed that the developed padding bandages meet most of the criteria required for ideal bandages and have excellent pressure distribution property around the limb over the existing commercial padding bandages. The pressure profiling of the novel padding bandages in two-layer, three-layer and four-layer systems has been studied.

Keywords:     Compression bandage, Mannequin leg, Nonwoven, Padding bandage, Pressure distribution, Pressure mapping,      Venous leg ulcer

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 A61L15/00, D04H