Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

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VOLUME  32

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2007

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CONTENTS

 

Investigation on cotton ring-and OE rotor yarn characteristics: Part I — Effect of caustic and enzymatic scouring treatments on dye uptake and mechanical characteristics

        G K Tyagi, Ashvani Goyal, D P Gon & D K Mahajan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D02G3/00, D06C]

 

279

Tensile properties of cotton yarns after slack swelling and stretching in presence and absence of sodium hydroxide

        G Anita Hebsiba & S Thambidurai

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D06M]

 

284

Variation in imperfections level due to winding of ring yarn

        S Subramanian, P S Karthikeyan, M Ragu Ramachandran & A Velmurugan

        [IPC Code : Int. Cl. 8 D02G3/00]

 

290

Performance characteristics of mercerized ring- and compact-spun yarns produced at varying level of twist and traveller weight

        S Dhamija & Manpreet Manshahia

        [IPC Code: Int.Cl. 8 D02G3/00]

 

295

Studies on animal fibre blended handmade felts: Part II — Frictional, compressional and thermal properties

        D B Shakyawar, P C Patni & N P Gupta

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D04H]

 

301

Cut resistance of textile fabrics — A theoretical and an experimental approach

        V K Kothari, A Das & Sreedevi R

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D03D]

 

306

Development of flame retardant cotton fabric through grafting and post-grafting reactions

        Inderjeet Kaur, Vibha & Rajneesh Sharma

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D06M14/00]

 

312


 

Effect of crease behaviour, drape and formability on appearance of light weight worsted suiting fabrics

        B K Behera & Rajesh Mishra

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D03D]

 

319

Effect of grafting acrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and their mixture on the properties of polyester fabric

        Eglal H El-Gendy & Nisreen M Ali

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D06M14/00]

326

Frictional characteristics of woven suiting and shirting fabrics

        A Das, V K Kothari & V Nagaraju

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D03D]

 

337

FAST system approach to discriminate the characterized generic hand of fabrics

        Lai Sang-Song & Lin Tsung-Huang

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D03D]

 

344

Microencapsulation of herbal extracts for microbial resistance in healthcare textiles

        G Thilagavathi , S Krishna Bala & T Kannaian

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 A61F13/00, D06B5/00]

 

351

Thermal behaviour and structural features of chemically and bio-chemically modified jute substrate

        Ashis Kumar Samanta, Deepali Singhee, Gautam Basu& Santosh Kumar Biswas

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D06C29/00, D06L]

 

355

Dyeing of wool and silk with Bixa orellana

        Debasish Das, Sankar Ray Maulik & Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D06P1/34]

 

366

Short Communications

 

 

Effect of yarn twist on wicking of cotton interlock weft knitted fabric

        Azita Asayesh & Mohammad Maroufi

        [IPC Code:Int. Cl.8 D04B]

 

373

Theoretical evaluation of warp tension variations during weaving process

        M Sheikhzadeh, S A Hosseini & M Darvishzadeh

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl. 8 D03D]

377

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 279-283

 

Investigation on cotton ring-and OE rotor yarn characteristics:
Part I — Effect of caustic and enzymatic scouring treatments
on dye uptake and mechanical characteristics

 

G K Tyagi, Ashvani Goyal, D P Gon & D K Mahajan

Received 22 November 2006; revised received and accepted 5 March 2007

The effect of scouring with enzymes and caustic soda on the mechanical and surface characteristics of cotton ring-and rotor-spun yarns has been studied. For both yarn structures, the flexural rigidity, hairiness, yarn-to-metal friction and dye uptake increase markedly on scouring with enzymes and sodium hydroxide. Conventional scouring with NaOH renders the yarns strikingly strong and less extensible. However, the tenacity of both types of yarns is considerably reduced on enzymatic scouring.Scouring causes a marked increase in dye uptake of ring-and rotor-spun yarns; the increase is, however, more in NaOH scoured yarns than in the yarns spun with identical processing conditions but scoured with enzymes. The dye uptake decreases marginally with increasing rotor speed. The effect of opening roller speed on uptake of dye is also minimal.

Keywords: Enzymatic scouring, Flexural rigidity, Opening : roller speed, Ring-spun yarn, Rotor-spun yarn, Yarn-to-metal friction

 

             Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 284-289

 

Tensile properties of cotton yarns after slack swelling and stretching in presence and absence of sodium hydroxide

G Anita Hebsiba & S Thambidurai

Received 3 July 2006; revised received and accepted 11 January 2007

The properties of ring- and rotor-spun cotton yarns subjected to combined swelling and stretching in presence and absence of aqueous sodium hydroxide (21%w/w) at pre-determined time intervals have been studied. Yarns stretched in the solution exhibit spectacular changes in their properties. The increment in shrinkage values is found to be more in slack swollen rotor-spun yarns as compared to that in ring-spun yarns. Crystallinity values show a decreasing trend with the increase in swelling time. Yarns stretched in solution show a tremendous increase in packing fraction. Tenacity and elongation values show significant increase with the solution stretch. The values of packing fraction, tenacity and per cent elongation are found to be higher in the case of ring-spun yarns. Scanning electron microscopy proves the swellability and packing of fibres in the yarns.

Keywords: Cotton, Crystallinity, Packing fraction, Shrinkage, Tensile properties

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 290-294

 

Variation in imperfections level due to winding of ring yarn

 

S Subramanian, P S Karthikeyan, M Ragu Ramachandran & A Velmurugan

Received 14 April 2006; revised received 17 July 2006; accepted 1 September 2006

The variation in imperfections level due to winding of carded and combed ring yarns and the effect of foreign matters, such as black specks of broken seeds, lead bits and trashes present in the ring cop yarn, on imperfections during winding process for carded cotton ring yarn has been studied. The results show that the thin places increase, and thick places and neps decrease due to the fall of foreign matters during winding in the carded yarn. In the combed yarn, the thin places, thick places and neps increase during winding.

Keywords: Broken seeds, Cotton,  Fibre cluster, Foreign matters, Imperfections, Winding, Yarn hairiness

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 295-300

 

Performance characteristics of mercerized ring- and compact- spun yarns produced at varying level of twist and traveller weight

 

S Dhamija & Manpreet Manshahia

Received 11 September 2006; revised received and accepted 3 January 2007

The performance characteristics of ring- and compact-spun yarns have been compared at varying level of tex twist factor, yarn linear density and traveller weight. It is observed that the ring yarns are comparatively softer due to the lower flexural rigidity. On the other hand, compact-spun yarns perform better in respect of abrasion resistance, tensile strength, knot strength, loop strength and breaking extension. The loss in tensile strength is higher when the yarn is looped as compared to that when the yarn is knotted; however, in both the cases the loss is found to be marginally lower for compact-spun yarns. Further, the effect of mercerization on all these characteristics of both the yarns is found to be more pronounced in compact-spun yarns and the yarns spun at low twist factors.

Keywords: Compact spinning, Knot strength, Loop strength, Mercerization, Traveller weight, Yarn twist

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 301-305

 

 

Studies on animal fibre blended handmade felts: Part II — Frictional, compressional and thermal properties

 

D B Shakyawar, P C Patni & N P Gupta

Received 1 March 2006; revised received 4 August 2006; accepted 28 November 2006

The frictional, compressional and thermal properties of handmade felts prepared from wool, rabbit hair, camel hair and their blends have been studied. Felts made from rabbit hair and its blends are smoother, warmer and softer as compared to those made from camel hair and sheep wool. Felts produced from sheep wool possess highest coefficient of friction and resiliency than those produced from camel hair. Frictional properties of felts are governed by fibre diameter, medullation content and compressibility of felt, whereas thermal behaviour is influenced by fibre diameter only.

Keywords: Camel hair, Compressibility, Rabbit hair, Thermal conductivity, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 306-311

 

Cut resistance of textile fabrics — A theoretical and an experimental approach

 

V K Kotharia, A Das & Sreedevi R

Received 11 April 2006; accepted 8 September 2006

A simplified mathematical model to predict the cutting behaviour of textile fabrics has been developed. It has been tried to identify the forces involved in cutting a material with a reciprocating knife and also to derive an expression for the sliding distance, which is a measure of the cut resistance of the material. A series of 100% cotton woven fabrics with varying pick density and weave pattern (plain, matt, twill and honeycomb) and another series of fabrics with high performance fibres have been studied for their cut resistance properties. The plain weave has the maximum cut resistance, while the minimum cut resistance is exhibited by the honey comb weave. The cut resistance increases with the increase in picks/inch of the fabric. The study shows a very high cut resistance of the monofilament fabrics and the least cut resistance for para-aramid fabric along the warp direction, while the least cut resistance along the weft direction is exhibited by the HDPE fabric.

Keywords: Cotton, Cut resistance, Cutting force, Fabric weave, High performance fabrics

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 312-318

 

Development of flame retardant cotton fabric through grafting and post- grafting reactions

Inderjeet Kaur, Vibha & Rajneesh Sharma

Received 24 February 2006; revised received and accepted 5 December 2006

Low energy UV radiation induced graft copolymerization of methacrylamide (MAAm) onto cotton fabric has been carried out using benzophenone as photosensitizer to introduce functionalities that can react with phosphorus containing compounds to impart flame retardancy. The flammability behaviour of the grey cotton, cotton-g-poly (MAAm) and phosphorylated cotton–g-poly(MAAm) fabrics has been studied on a manual flammability tester. Maximum percentage of grafting (116.1%) is achieved at 75min irradiation time; 176.47´ 10-2 moles/L [MAAm]; 5 mL photosensitizer; and 3 mL reaction medium. The grey cotton and cotton-g-poly (MAAm) fabrics react with phosphorous trichloride and diethylphosphite to introduce phosphorous element, thus imparting flame retardancy. Phosphorylated grafted fabric shows improved flame retardant behaviour in comparison to grafted fabric, which is better than the grey fabric. All the fabric samples have been characterized by FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis and crease recovery behaviour.

Keywords:        Cotton fabric, Crease recovery, Flame retardancy, Graft copolymerization, Phosphorylation,                                   Thermogravimetric analysis

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 319-325

 

Effect of crease behaviour, drape and formability on appearance of light weight worsted suiting fabrics

 

B K Behera & Rajesh Mishra

Received 24 March 2006; revised received and accepted 17 October 2006

The total appearance value has been correlated with the crease retention property, drape and formability measured using the simple testing procedures. Fabrics with a low crease recovery angle can tolerate a lower level of formability and have acceptable appearance. However, the fabrics with a larger crease recovery angle require a higher level of formability to achieve the same acceptable appearance.

Keywords: Crease recovery angle, Drape coefficient, Fabric appearance, Formability, Light weight fabrics

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 326-336

 

Effect of grafting acrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and their mixture on the properties of polyester fabric

 

Eglal H El-Gendy & Nisreen M Ali

Received 10 March 2006; revised received and accepted 3 November 2006

The effect of grafting acrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and their mixture on the hydrophilic, electrical, dyeing, thermal and mechanical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric has been studied. Grafting improves significantly the water content, the water sorbency and the electrical conductivity of the fabric. Salt treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-graft-poly(acrylic acid) and poly(ethylene terephthalate)-graft-poly(acrylic acid-co-N-vinyl pyrrolidone) causes further increase in the electrical conductivity. The dyeability of the fabric towards basic, direct and disperse dyes is also improved by grafting. The thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis show the deteriorating effect of grafting. The activation energy for the thermal decomposition of the second stage and the fabric relative crystallinity are found to decrease linearly with the increase in graft yield. The rate of decrease in the activation energy with the increase in graft yield depends on the type of grafted monomer. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus decrease with the increase in degree of grafting while the elongation-at-break shows different dependence.

Keywords: Acrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone, Polyester, Radiation-induced grafting

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 337-343

 

Frictional characteristics of woven suiting and shirting fabrics

A Das, V K Kothari & V Nagaraju

Received 24 March 2006; revised received and accepted 9 June 2006

Frictional characteristics of woven shirting and suiting fabrics with different blends and constructional parameters have been studied. Fabric-to-metal surface and fabric-to-fabric frictional characteristics in both warp-warp and weft-weft directions have also been studied. It is observed that the normal load and the frictional force follow the logarithmic relationship for all the fabrics. The nature of fabric friction has been characterized by different parameters, like ratio of frictional force to normal load, friction index, friction parameter and their ratio. Fabric-to-metal friction is found to be less sensitive to fabric morphology and rubbing direction, whereas the fabric-to-fabric friction is highly sensitive to these factors. Fabric-to-fabric friction has been affected by lot of factors, like type of fibre, type of blend, yarn structure, fabric structure, crimp, compressibility, etc. For all the fabrics, the kinetic friction is always lower than the static friction at different levels of normal load and the F/N ratio reduces consistently with the increase in normal pressure.

Keywords: Cotton, Kinetic friction, Polyester, Shirting fabric, Static friction, Suiting fabric, Viscose, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 344-350

 

FAST system approach to discriminate the characterized
generic hand of fabrics

Lai Sang-Song  & Lin Tsung-Huang

Received 12 April 2006; revised received 21 August 2006; accepted 16 October 2006

An attempt has been made to discriminate different characterized generic hands of cotton, linen, wool, and silk woven fabrics using discriminant analysis and neural network method. Ten physical properties based on the FAST system have been selected for the analysis. It is observed that the cotton, linen, wool, and silk groups of fabric can be characterized and discriminated by discriminant analysis and neural network method with 91.67 % and 98.33 % classified accuracy. Model test results show thatthecotton type polyester, linen-textured rayon, wool type polyester, and silk-like polyester fabrics can be classified accurately by the neural network method. The confusion coefficient is found to be 100%.

Keywords: Canonical discriminant function, Cotton, Fisher linear discriminant function, FAST system, Linen, Neural
                    network, Silk, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 351-354

 

Microencapsulation of herbal extracts for microbial resistance in
healthcare textiles

 

G Thilagavathi ,  S Krishna Bala & T Kannaian

Received 3 July 2006; accepted 15 September 2006

Antimicrobial finish has been imparted to the cotton fabric using extracts of neem and Mexican daisy by direct application and by microencapsulation using pad-dry-cure method. To enhance the durability of antimicrobial finish to number of washes, the microencapsulation of herbal extracts has been done using phase separation / coacervation. Microcapsules are produced using herbal extracts as core and acacia as wall material. Structure of microcapsules has been evaluated using light microscopy with image analysis technique, the presence of microcapsules by scanning electron microscopy, the antimicrobial efficacy by quantitative method in terms of bacterial reduction, and the wash durability of antimicrobial activity by AATCC 124. It is observed that the microencapsulated herbal extracts possess a very good resistance for microbes even after 15 washes.

Keywords: Antimicrobial textiles, Cotton, Mexican daisy, Microencapsulation, Neem, Wash durability

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 355-365

 

Thermal behaviour and structural features of chemically and bio-chemically modified jute substrate

 

Ashis Kumar Samanta, Deepali Singhee, Gautam Basu  & Santosh Kumar Biswas

Received 23 January 2006; accepted 9 August 2006

Effects of NaOH treatment, conventional hot H2O2 bleaching, H2O2 and K2S2O8 combined room-temperature bleaching, mixed enzyme treatment and N-methylol resin finishing on thermal behaviour and structural features of jute substrate have been studied. Differential scanning calorimetric study under nitrogen cover reveals distinct peaks for thermal degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components of chemically and bio-chemically modified jute, showing some positive or negative shifts of thermal degradation temperatures for each of the three major constituents of jute owing to alkaline / oxidative or enzymolytic degradation or resinification of the jute components. Thiourea formaldehyde (TUF)-resin treatment renders the jute substrate with maximum thermal stability. There is a measurable increase in the crystallinilty percentage for 1-5% NaOH treatment, and the same is decreased on oxidative or enzyme treatment and remains almost unaffected for AMF-resin or TUF-resin treatment. Observed chemical changes / interactions have been explained by the analysis of FTIR spectra and copper number of differently treated jute substrate. Higher copper number is observed for room-temperature bleaching than that for conventional H2O2 bleaching. Changes in the overall surface morphology of the treated fabrics have also been characterized by scanning electron microscopic study. Room-temperature bleaching followed by mixed enzyme treatment shows maximum surface cleanliness with a smooth and less hairy surface appearance. Both AMF-resin and TUF-resin treatments show a surface coverage with a resin film.

Keywords:    Alkali treatment, Differential scanning calorimetry,FTIR spectroscopy, Jute, Mixed enzyme treatment, Resin finishing, Room-temperature bleaching, X-ray crystallinity

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 366-372

 

Dyeing of wool and silk with Bixa orellana

Debasish Das, Sankar Ray Maulik  & Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya

Received 29 August 2006; revised received and accepted 10 January 2007

Silk and wool fabrics have been dyed employing extract of seeds of annato (Bixa orellana) in absence and presence of magnesium sulphate, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate. Colouration of both the fibres is found to be most effectively accomplished at pH 4.5 commonly in the absence and presence of such inorganic salts. Colour uptake for wool is found to be more than that for silk under all the conditions studied. The use of ferrous sulphate produces significant improvement in colour uptake when both the substrates are treated with such salt prior to application of annato. Coloured protein fibres, in general, produce light and wash fastness ratings of 2-3. Ferrous sulphate, however, improves colour fastness properties and colour retention on washing of wool and silk fibres.

Keywords: Annato, Colour fastness, Dyeing, Silk, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 373-376

 

Effect of yarn twist on wicking of cotton interlock weft knitted fabric

Azita Asayesh & Mohammad Maroufi

Received 8 February 2006; revised received and accepted 10 October 2006

The effect of yarn twist on the wicking rate of cotton interlock weft knitted fabrics has been studied. It is observed that using the yarn linear density of 30tex, the wicking rate decreases with an increase in the amount of yarn twist. An equation ‘h=cT+d’ is found to be a good estimate of the maximum wicking height (h) for cotton interlock weft knitted fabrics measured over yarn twist (T). Also, an equation ‘h=atk+bt’ which is a modified version of Washburn-Laughlin’s equation, is a good estimate of wicking height (h) for these fabrics measured over time (t).

Keywords: Cotton, Weft knitted fabric, Wicking, Yarn twist

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 32, September 2007, pp. 377-380

 

Theoretical evaluation of warp tension variations during weaving process

 

M Sheikhzadeh, S A Hosseini & M Darvishzadeh

Received 3 March 2006; revised received 28 December 2006; accepted 20 March 2007

The relationship between the ratio of the applied force on warp yarn by backrest roller to the warp tension, and the radius of backrest roller, the vertical position of backrest roller and the horizontal position of backrest roller with variations in warp beam radius during weaving process has been studied. The optimum values of the parameters have been calculated using a computer programme with the aim to minimize the variation in warp yarn tension during weaving process from full to empty warp beam. The results show that the increase in vertical distance between backrest roller and warp beam radius of backrest roller and horizontal distance between backrest and warp beam towards inner side causes lower variation in the ratio of force applied on warp sheet by backrest roller and warp tension during weaving process.

Keywords: Backrest roller, Warp beam diameter,  Warp tension, Weaving