Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

www.niscair.res.in

VOLUME  33

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2008

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CONTENTS

 

Static and dynamic failure mechanisms of cotton yarns

S M Ishtiaque, B R Das, A Kumar & M Ramamoorthy

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

111

A comparative study between yarn diameter and yarn mass variation measurement systems using capacitive and optical sensors

Vítor Carvalho,  Filomena O Soares, Rosa M Vasconcelos & Michael Belsley

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

119

Hand- related properties of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring- and MJS yarn fabrics–Effects of fibre profile and finishing treatment

G K Tyagi, S Bhattacharya & P Kumar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

126

Comparative analysis of size materials and their weaving potential

B K Behera, Rajesh Mishra & Sanjay Nakum

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D, D06B1/00]

 

132

Tensile deformation of jute needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles under compressive load

Surajit Sengupta, Prabal Kumar Majumdar & Prabir Ray

[IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D04H]

 

139

Tensile and tearing properties of PVC coated biaxial warp knitted fabrics under biaxial loads

Yixi Luo, Hong Hu & Raul Fangueiro

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04C]

 

146

Pectinolytic activity of microorganisms in piling of jute

S Banik  & S N Ghosh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C]

 

151

Effect of UV radiation on dyeing of cotton fabric with extracts of henna leaves

Javed Iqbal, Ijaz A Bhatti & Shahid Adeel

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P ]

 

157

Colouration of wool and silk with Rheum emodi

Debasish Das, Sankar Ray Maulik & Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 D06P]

 

163

Dyeing of jute with binary mixtures of jackfruit wood and other
natural dyes — Study on colour performance and dye compatibility

Ashis Kumar Samanta,   Priti Agarwal & Siddhartha Datta

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P]

171

 

 

Short Communications

 

 

Determination of yarn position on cone surface of random cone winding system

M Sheikhzadeh, D Semnani, Z Eslamian & M Darvishzadeh

[IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

181

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of adsorption of berberine on silk

Gui-zhen Ke,, Wei-lin Xu & Wei-dong Yu

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C]

 

185

Review Articles

 

 

Low velocity impact behaviour of textile reinforced composites

Naveen V Padaki, R Alagirusamy,  B L Deopura, B S Sugun & Raul Fangueiro

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.8  B29K]

 

189

Influence of material and process parameters on the inter- fibre cohesion
in ring- spun yarns

N Gokarneshan,, V Subramaniam & N Anbumani

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

203

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 111-118

 

Static and dynamic failure mechanisms of cotton yarns

S M Ishtiaque, B R Das, A Kumar & M Ramamoorthy

Received 14 September 2007; revised received and accepted 27 December 2007

The effect of various material and testing parameters on the static and dynamic failure mechanisms of cotton ring yarns of several counts has been studied. The yarn broken ends are classified into three groups, namely sharp, taper and slipped ends, based on their captured breaking zone images. The percentage of sharp broken ends increases with the increase in yarn TM and yarn count; however the rate of increase is quite low in dynamic testing. The interaction effect of yarn TM and yarn count in static failure mechanism is also studied. It is observed that the yarn count is dominating the yarn TM in deciding the percentage of sharp broken ends. The interactive effect of yarn TM, yarn count and dynamic testing speed is characterized along with their individual influence on the dynamic failure mechanism. It is observed that the effect of yarn TM is dominating the yarn failure mechanism than other influencing factors. The comparison of static and dynamic yarn strength is carried out to assess the over estimation of static yarn strength. This difference in two types of strength can be attributed to the difference in their failure mechanisms and length of yarn over which strength is measured.

Keywords:   Cotton ring yarn, Dynamic failure mechanism, Dynamic yarn strength, Static failure mechanism, Static yarn strength, Types of failure

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 119-125

 

A comparative study between yarn diameter and yarn mass variation measurement systems using capacitive and optical sensors

Vítor Carvalho, Filomena O Soares, Rosa M Vasconcelos &

Michael Belsley

Received 2 August 2007; revised received and accepted 7 February 2008

This paper reports a comparative study between yarn mass and yarn diameter measurement systems using a differential capacitance tester and an optical coherent signal processing diameter tester respectively. A full description of the systems is presented along with their new contributions, namely 1mm length samples analysis for a capacitive tester and optical signal processing to eliminate the influence of hairiness while measuring the diameter. It is proven statistically that the yarn mass measurement systems based on capacitive testers give similar results to that of optical diameter measurement system when identical yarn samples are used. A detailed test report of a cotton yarn with a linear mass of 295 g/km is presented.

Keywords: Capacitive sensors, Optical sensors, Optical signal processing, Yarn diameter, Yarn mass

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 126-131

 

Hand- related properties of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring- and
MJS yarn fabrics—Effects of fibre profile and finishing treatment

G K Tyagi, S Bhattacharya & P Kumar

Received 15 May 2007; revised received 3 August 2007; accepted 15 October 2007

The hand- related properties of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring and polyester-viscose MJS yarn fabrics have been studied using FAST evaluation system. Invariably, polyester-viscose MJS yarn fabrics have higher rigidity, higher extensibility and enhanced formability but display lower shear rigidity than ring-spun yarn fabrics. The fibre profile and fibre-mix are important and critical to fabric formability and shear rigidity. When compared with the grey fabric, finished fabric compressibility and shear rigidity increase, while bending rigidity, extensibility and formability are markedly reduced. Nevertheless, polyester-cotton fabrics are more rigid, less extensible and provide higher shear rigidity and enhanced formability even for similar fibre profiles.

Keywords: Circular polyester fibre, Formability, MJS yarn, Ring-spun yarn, Wrapper fibre, Trilobal polyester fibre

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 132-138

 

 

Comparative analysis of size materials and their weaving potential

B K Behera, Rajesh Mishra & Sanjay Nakum

Received 15 January 2007; revised received and accepted 19 December 2007

 

The application of different varieties of natural starches, modified starches and synthetic size materials on cotton and P/C blend yarns has been studied followed by their evaluation with respect to retrogradation, cohesion, adhesion and solubility. It is observed that the size paste characteristics and film properties of modified starch are better than those of the natural starch. Yarns sized with modified starch perform better than those sized with natural starch and even some synthetic size materials. The use of starch ester is found to be beneficial as compared to other size materials, as the ester modification in starch gives better results and the yarn sized with it gives better weaving performance, close to that of PVA. Adhesion of size material with fibre substrate is found to have good correlation with weavability of sized yarns and it is an important parameter for selecting the size material for any application. The studies on the effect of lubricant show that the addition of lubricant into size solution helps to provide surface lubrication to the yarn which improves the abrasion resistance of the yarns and hence the weavability without affecting the essential properties.

Keywords: Adhesivity, Cohesivity, Cotton, Moisture regain, Polyester/cotton blend, Solubility, Viscosity, Weavability

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D, D06B1/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 139-145

 

 

Tensile deformation of jute needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles under compressive load

Surajit Sengupta, Prabal Kumar Majumdar & Prabir Ray

Received 26 April 2007; accepted 24 August 2007

The effect of compressive load on tensile behaviour of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabric has been studied with special reference to crack or void generation. A test box is designed to apply compressive load on the fabric during testing in horizontal cloth tensile tester. The tensile behaviour of single, 2-ply and 3-ply fabrics has been studied using this set-up with different compressive pressures ranging from 0 kPa to 39.2 kPa. It is observed that the stress-at-failure, extension-at-break, modulus of fabric and their coefficient of variations depend on the extent of compressive load. Fibre orientation and wetting of fabric play a role in determining its tensile behaviour under compressive load. A single ply, cross-laid fabric in wet condition shows better performance during crack or void generation in soil.

Keywords: Compressive load, Geotextiles, Jute, Needle-punched nonwoven, Tensile deformation

IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D04H

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 146-150

 

Tensile and tearing properties of PVC coated biaxial warp knitted fabrics under biaxial loads

Yixi Luo, Hong Hu & Raul Fangueiro

Received 20 April 2007; revised received and accepted 30 October 2007

The tensile and tearing behaviour of biaxial warp-knitted fabrics made with polyester fibre and coated with PVC under biaxial tensile loads has been studied. The typical tensile and tearing load-extension curves under biaxial tensile loads are presented and discussed. The failure mechanism of samples, in particular, by evaluation of the influence of crack length and direction under biaxial tensile loads is observed and analysed. The results show that the tensile properties of biaxial warp knitted fabrics coated with PVC depend on the yarn linear density, the densities of insertion and stitch yarns, the regularity of yarn tension during knitting and the quality of coated fabric. The pre-cracked tearing strength decreases with the increase in initial crack length and the maximum extension supported by a sample is increasing with the initial crack orientation.

Keywords: Biaxial warp knitting, Biaxial tensile load, Coated fabric, Polyester fibre, Tearing properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04C

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 151-156

 

Pectinolytic activity of microorganisms in piling of jute

 

S Banik & S N Ghosh

Received 12 February 2007; revised received and accepted 19 October 2007

Quantitative as well as qualitative evaluation of microorganisms associated with piling of jute has been studied using raw jute fibre, jute fibre from laboratory bins and fibre samples collected from two jute mills (M/s Bharat Jute Mill and M/s Budge Budge Jute Mill). Bacterial population in raw C. capsularis jute is found to be in the order of 104 per gram of jute fibre and that in raw C. olitorius jute is in the order of 105 per gram of jute fibre. Bacterial population in laboratory bins is found to be in between 106 and 107 per gram of jute fibre while fungal population is in between 104and 105 per gram of jute fibre. The bacterial isolates are mostly Gram-positive rods of the genus Bacillus and fungi mainly of the genera Aspergillus and occasionally Penicillium. No significant change in strength and fineness of fibre has been observed due to 48 h of piling. Bacterial and fungal populations in piled jute samples of Bharat Jute Mill are found to be in the order of 108 and 105 per gram of fibre, while the same in Budge Budge Jute Mill are in the order of 105 and 103 per gram of jute fibre respectively. The bacterial isolates are mostly Gram-positive rods of the genus Bacillus, Gram-positive coccus of the genus Micrococcus and Gram-positive filamentous rods of the genus Streptomyces. Fungal isolates are mainly of the genera Aspergillus and, to a lesser extent, of the genus Penicillium and Dendrophoma. Mucor has been found only in Bharat Jute Mill and Chaetomium is found only in Budge Budge Jute Mill fibre samples. Genera of bacteria and fungi isolated in jute fibre samples from both the jute mills are mostly similar which indicates that only a small group of microorganisms is active in jute bins/piles and they originate from the common source, i.e. soil and water during retting. All the isolated bacteria as well as fungi possess pectinolytic activity. This indicates that the piling microbes might play a significant role in removing residual pectin from the fibre during piling of jute.

KeywordsAspergillus, Bacillus, Binning, Chaetomium, Dendrophoma, Fibre strength, Fibre fineness, Micrococcus, Mucor, Piling , Jute, Pectinolytic activity, Penicillium, Streptomyces

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 157-162

 

Effect of UV radiation on dyeing of cotton fabric with extracts of henna leaves

Javed Iqbal, Ijaz A Bhatti & Shahid Adeel

Received 31 August 2007; accepted 28 December 2007

Natural dye containing Lawsone that imparts yellowish-green colour on to the cotton fabric has been extracted using water, alum and methanol from non-irradiated and irradiated henna powder through UV source. The effect of treatment time, temperature and salt concentration on the dyeing of cotton fabric has been studied using CIELab system for the optimization of dyeing conditions. Different mordants, such as copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate, have been employed for the improvement in colour fastness properties of the irradiated dyed cotton fabrics. It is observed that the UV radiation not only enhances the colour strength of dye on cotton fabric but also improves the fastness properties of pre-irradiated cotton fabrics.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, Colour fastness properties, Henna powder, Lawsone, UV radiation

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 163-170

 

Colouration of wool and silk with Rheum emodi

Debasish Das, Sankar Ray Maulik & Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya

Received 24 February 2007; revised received and accepted 19 December 2007

Silk and wool fabrics have been dyed with colourant extracted from Rheum emodi in the absence and presence of magnesium sulphate, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate mordants for producing shades of different colours, ranging from yellow to olive green. Colouring component of Rheum emodi has close resemblance with a typical anthraquinonoid type disperse dye; the uptake of such colouring component by the protein fibres remains unaffected within a wide pH range of 4 – 8. Colour uptake, rate of dyeing and affinity of colour are found to be more for silk than that for wool under all the conditions studied. The dyeing mechanism corresponds to the partition mechanism, confirming that this anthraquinonoid-based colourant is adsorbed by silk and wool fibres as a disperse dye and the dyeing process is endothermic. The use of ferrous sulphate and aluminium sulphate produces significant improvement in depth of shade, when both the substrates are treated with such salts prior to application of the colourant. Coloured protein fibres, in general, show a common light fastness and wash fastness ratings of 4 and 3 respectively. Ferrous sulphate, however, improves the colour fastness properties and colour retention on washing of both wool and silk fabrics further.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, Dyeing, Kinetic study, Mordanting, Rheum emodi, Silk, Wool

IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 D06P

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 171-180

 

Dyeing of jute with binary mixtures of jackfruit wood and other
natural dyes — Study on colour performance and dye compatibility

 

Ashis Kumar Samanta , Priti Agarwal & Siddhartha Datta

Received 11 December 2006; revised received and accepted 19 March 2007

Varying proportion of binary mixtures of aqueous extracts of jackfruit wood (JFW) with other natural dyes, like manjistha (MJ), red sandal wood (RSW), mariegold (MG), sappan wood (SW) and babool (BL), have been used to dye bleached jute fabric pre-mordanted with 20% myrobolan followed by 20% aluminium sulphate. Binary combinations of JFW with each of the five natural dye extracts have been evaluated for colour strength (K/S value) and its coefficient of variation, brightness index (BI), changes in hue (H), metamerism index (MI), total colour differences (∆E) and colour fastness to washing , light and rubbing. Dyed fabric samples have been further treated with the cationic dye fixing agents n-cetyl-N-trimethyl ammonium bromide, cetrimide and Sandofix-HCF to improve wash fastness. Treatment with 1% benztriozale is also given to improve light fastness. The compatibility of these binary pairs has been assessed by the analysis of C vs L and K/S vs L plots for the progressive depth of shade produced by varying time and temperature profile as well as by varying total concentrations of the binary pairs of dyes taken in equal proportion. A simple method of assessing relative compatibility rating of pairs of dyes has been proposed, where a new index called colour difference index [(E x H) / (C x MI)] has been postulated and the compatibility ratings determined. The results of this proposed system of compatibility rating are found to be in well agreement with the results of conventional methods of plots analysis. The order of relative degree of compatibility of these binary pairs of natural dyes applied on pre-mordanted jute is found to be JFW : RSW ≥ JFW: BL ≥ JFW : MJ >>> JFW: MG >>> JFW : SW.

Keywords: Babool, Cationic dye, Dye fixing agent, Colour fastness, Jackfruit wood, Jute, Manjistha, Mariegold, Natural dye, Red sandal wood, Sappan wood, UV-absorber

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8  D06P

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 181-184

 

Determination of yarn position on cone surface of random cone winding system

M Sheikhzadeh, D Semnani, Z Eslamian & M Darvishzadeh

Received 25 May 2007; revised received and accepted  November 2007

The parametrical differential equation of yarn curvature for suitable yarn random cone winding has been derived. Along with the determination of the yarn position on cone surface by numerical method, the suitable situation of random winding is also studied in various forms of yarn positions. The results show that the equation can determine the exact yarn position on surface of cone for optimum yarn winding conditions. Also, the wide start angle and tight cone angle cause tight yarn curvature and more yarn length on package, but these parameters are limited to winding and unwinding processes.

Keywords: Cone package, Random winding, Yarn, Yarn curvature

IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 185-188

 

 

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of adsorption of berberine on silk

 

Gui-zhen Ke , Wei-lin Xu & Wei-dong Yu

Received 24 October 2007; accepted 28 December 2007


Dyeing properties of silk fabric with berberine have been studied in terms of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors, including standard affinity, enthalpy change, entropy change, dyeing rate, diffusion coefficient and activation energy of the diffusion. The results show that the adsorption isotherm of berberine on silk fabric belongs to Langmuir type. The analysis of dyeing  thermodynamics shows that the adsorption of berberine on silk fabric is an exothermic process. When the fabric is dyed at higher temperature, the lower affinity and less dye uptake are obtained; however, the higher temperature increases the initial dyeing rate and diffusion coefficient.

Keywords: Berberine, Dyeing, Kinetic study, Silk

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 189-202

 

 

Low velocity impact behaviour of textile reinforced composites

 

Naveen V Padaki, R Alagirusamy , B L Deopura, B S Sugun & Raul Fangueiro

                              Received 13 April 2007; revised received 27 November 2007; accepted 8 February 2008

An attempt has been made to summarize the research progress on low velocity drop weight impact properties of textile reinforced composites. The paper mainly reports the impact test parameters and textile reinforcement along with matrix, interphase effects, impact failure modes and major evaluation techniques for impact damage analyses such as ultrasonic scanning and retention of strength after impact.

Keywords: Failure criterion, Impact behaviour, Post-impact damage evaluation, Textile composites

IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 B29K

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, June 2008, pp. 203-212

 

Influence of material and process parameters on the inter- fibre cohesion
in ring-spun yarns

N Gokarneshan, V Subramaniam & N Anbumani

Received 2 August 2007; revised received and accepted 4 February 2008

The inter-fibre cohesion phenomenon is an important aspect to be considered, as it directly affects the yarn strength/tenacity and indirectly affects the productivity in ring spinning. Also, inter-fibre cohesive forces influence the individual fibre mobility in yarn structure and the yarn mobility in fabric structure. This paper critically reviews the past and recent research works on the inter-fibre cohesion and provides scope for further research in this area.

Keywords : Cotton, Fibre, Inter-fibre cohesion, Ring-spun yarn, Yarn, Yarn twist

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00