Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

                                     www.niscair.res.in; http://nopr.niscair.res.in

VOLUME  34

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2009

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426 (Print); 0975-1025 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Moisture management performance of functional yarns based on wool fibres

        Raul Fangueiro, Pedro Gonçalves, Filipe Soutinho & Carla Freitas

 

315

Grafting of acrylonitrile monomer onto bleached okra bast fibre and its textile properties

        G M Arifuzzaman Khan, Md Saheruzzaman, S M Abdur Razzaque, Md Sakinul Islam,

        Md Shamsul Alam &  Md Mainul Islam

 

321

Yarn hairiness controlled by various left diagonal yarn path offsets by modified bottom roller flute blocks in ring spinning

            G Thilagavathi, D Udayakumar,  L Sasikala  &  T Kannaian

 

 

328

Influence of spinning variables on migration parameters of compact and ring-spun yarns

            G K Tyagi & R Kumar

 

333

Tensile characteristics of yarns in wet condition

            A Das, S M Ishtiaque, S Singh & H C Meena

 

338

Water absorbency of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabric

            Surajit  Sengupta

 

345

Comparative study of different test methods used for the measurement of physical properties of cotton

            A U Nair, R P Nachane & B A Patwardhan

 

 

352

Optimization of process parameters for crease resistant finishing of cotton fabric using citric acid

            T Ramachandran, N Gobi, V Rajendran & C B Lakshmikantha

 

359

Improvement in physical and dyeing properties of natural fibres through pre-treatment with silver nanoparticles

                D P Chattopadhyay  & B H Patel

 

368

 

 

Short Communications

 

Simple and fast method for purifying single-walled carbon nanotubes

            Ozarkar Sukrut Deepak, Manjeet Jassal   & Ashwini K Agrawal

 

374

 

 

 

 

Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

            E Erasmus & F A Barkhuysen

 

377

A sharp technique for identification of defective points in false twist textured yarns

            Dariush Semnani  & Ali Gholami

380

 

 

Review Article

 

Application of natural dyes on textiles

            Ashis Kumar Samanta & Priti Agarwal

 

384

Annual Index

400

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 315-320

 

Moisture management performance of functional yarns based on wool fibres

Raul Fangueiro, Pedro Gonçalves, Filipe Soutinho & Carla Freitas

School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal

Received 16 October 2008; revised received and accepted 4 March 2009

Blends of wool and moisture management fibres such as Coolmax and Finecool have been prepared to produce innovative yarns with specific functionalities. These yarns have been used to produce knitted fabrics and their performance is evaluated, including vertical and horizontal wicking. The drying capability of the fabrics has been assessed by drying rate testing under two different conditions, namely standard conditions (20±2ºC and 65±3 % RH) and, in an oven at 33±2ºC to simulate the body skin temperature. The influence of wool fibre proportion on the performance of each blend is analyzed. It is observed that the Coolmax based fabrics show the best capillarity performance, and the wool based fabrics show low water absorption performance but good drying rate.

Keywords: Coolmax fibre, Drying capability, Finecool fibre, Functional yarns, Wicking performance, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 321-327

 

 

Grafting of acrylonitrile monomer onto bleached okra bast fibre
and its textile properties

G M Arifuzzaman Khan, Md Saheruzzaman, S M Abdur Razzaque, Md Sakinul Islam & Md Shamsul Alam

Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh

and

Md Mainul Islam

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh

Received 8 September 2008; revised received and accepted 31 March 2009

The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile monomer onto okra bast fibre has been carried out using potassium persulphate as an initiator in the presence of ferrous sulphate. The graft yield is evaluated on varying the concentration of monomer from 1.0×10-2 to 7.0×10-2 mol L-1 and concentration of potassium persulphate from 1.0×10-3 to 7.0×10-3 mol L-1 at ferrous sulphate concentration varying from 1.0×10-3 to 7.0×10-3 mol L-1 in the reaction mixture. The graft yield and other grafting parameters have been optimized at 3.0×10-2 mol L-1 monomer, 4.0×10-3 mol L-1 potassium persulphate, 5.0×10-3 mol L-1 ferrous sulfate, 120 min treatment time and 70°C temperature. The composition of grafted chain is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopic studies. Dyeing and tensile properties of grafted okra bast fibre have also been studied. The grafted fibre shows better properties in all cases in comparison to bleached okra bast fibre.

Keywords: Acrylonitrile, Dyeing properties, Graft copolymerization, Okra bast fibre, Tensile properties

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 328-332

 

 

Yarn hairiness controlled by various left diagonal yarn path offsets by modified bottom roller flute blocks in ring spinning

G Thilagavathi, D Udayakumar & L Sasikala

PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

and

T Kannaian

PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014, India

Received 9 September 2008; revised received and accepted 6 February 2009

The influence of modified yarn path on spinning triangle and, in turn, on yarn hairiness has been studied using 100% cotton yarns of the counts 25s, 40s, 60s, 70s & 100s, and polyester/cotton blended (70/30) yarns of the counts 30s, 45s & 64s with various left diagonal path offsets in ring spinning. The study has been carried out using DJ5 ring frame model by modifying the bottom roller flute blocks, pressure bar and pneumafil hole accordingly. The yarns have been tested for hairiness, strength, unevenness and breakage and the test results are compared with the various yarns produced by different left diagonal path offsets and normal straight path. It is observed that there is upto 40% reduction in hairiness at 60 mm offset left diagonal path with slight increase in the strength for all the counts produced except 100s.

Keywords: Cotton, Left diagonal path, Polyester, Spinning triangle, Yarn hairiness

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 333-337

 

Influence of spinning variables on migration parameters of compact and
ring-spun yarns

G K Tyagi & R Kumar

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 3 November 2008; revised received and accepted 25 February 2009

The influence of spinning variables on the migration parameters in compact and ring-spun cotton yarns has been studied. Spinning variables include twist factor, twisting speed and spinning draft. Spinning mode is found to be the key factor in determining yarn structural responses. When compared with conventional ring-spun yarns, compact yarns have significantly smaller mean fibre position, helix angle and helix diameter, but display higher values of mean migration intensity, equivalent migration frequency and migration factor. Of the various spinning variables, twist factor and spindle speed significantly affect mean migration intensity, migration frequency and migration factor, whereas spinning draft affects each of these parameters in non-distinguishable manner.

Keywords:   Compact yarn, Cotton, Fibre migration, Mean fibre position, Mean migration intensity, Migration factor, Ring-spun yarn

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 338-344

 

Tensile characteristics of yarns in wet condition

A Das, S M Ishtiaque, S Singh & H C Meena

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 22 December 2008; accepted 25 February 2009

This paper reports the tensile characteristics of cotton, polyester, viscose and polyester/viscose (P/V) ring and rotor yarns of different linear densities and blend proportions in dry and wet conditions. An experimental set-up has been fabricated, which can be attached with the tensile tester to study the tensile characteristics of yarns under water. The tenacity of yarns is found to be higher in wet condition as compared to that in dry condition for all the yarns, except the viscose yarns where tenacity drops in wet condition. The increase in tenacity in case of cotton is much higher than that in case of polyester and P/V blended yarns. In case of polyester and cotton, the breaking elongation of yarns increases while in viscose and viscose-rich P/V blended yarns, the breaking elongation decreases in wet condition. In viscose and viscose-rich P/V blended ring-spun yarns, the increase in initial modulus is found to be very high, whereas in the case of polyester and cotton, there is moderate increase in initial modulus of yarns in wet condition. In case of cotton ring-spun yarns, there is very high level of increase in work of rupture in wet condition. Yarn fineness significantly affects the tensile characteristics.

Keywords: Breaking elongation, Cotton, Initial modulus, Polyester, Ring yarn, Rotor yarn, Tenacity, Viscose, Work of rupture

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.34, December 2009, pp 345-351

 

 

Water absorbency of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabric

Surajit Sengupta

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Kolkata 700 040, India

Received 3 October 2008; revised received 3 February 2009; accepted 2 March 2009

The water absorbency of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabric has been studied. Statistical models using central composite rotatable experimental design are developed for density of fabric, extrinsic sorptive capacity and extrinsic rate of sorption, depending on the three important parameters, i.e. needling density, depth of needle penetration and per cent oil applied. From this model and its contour diagrams, the effects of different parameters can be understood and prediction of sorptive capacity and rate of sorption can be made, knowing the values of independent parameters. The correlation coefficients between observed and predicted values are found to be significant in all the cases.
An optimum extrinsic sorptive capacity has been achieved at around 160 punches/cm2, 14 mm depth of needle penetration and 2-3% oil. The extrinsic sorptive capacity of fabric is highly correlated with bulk density, but there is poor relationship between extrinsic sorptive capacity and extrinsic rate of sorption as well as bulk density and extrinsic rate of sorption.

Keywords: Central composite rotatable experimental design, Depth of needle penetration, Extrinsic rate of sorption, Extrinsic sorptive capacity, Jute, Needle-punched nonwoven, Needling density

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 352-358

 

Comparative study of different test methods used for the
measurement of physical properties of cotton

 

A U Nair & R P Nachane

Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Adenwala Road, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

and

B A Patwardhan

Department of Textiles and Clothing, Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Home Science,

S.N.D.T. Women’s University, Mumbai 400 049, India

Received 11 November 2008; revised received and accepted 2 April 2009

Ten cotton varieties/hybrids with varying properties, such as 2.5% span length measured by HVI, AFIS & Baer Sorter; bundle strength at 3.2mm measured by HVI and Stellometer; and linear density measured by AFIS, HVI and Gravimetric method, have been studied. Maturities are also compared between AFIS and caustic soda methods. In addition, short fibre content measured by HVI, Baer Sorter and AFIS are also compared. Results show that AFIS values may be considered more realistic for length parameters, viz. 2.5% span length and short fibre content, as compared to HVI values. However, the linear density as measured by AFIS is not correct. Micronaire value (micrograms/inch) from HVI agrees quite well with the gravimetric linear density. Maturity value as measured by AFIS does not agree with the percentage maturity determined using caustic soda method.

Keywords:   AFIS Method, Baer Sorter method, Cotton, HVI method, Linear density, Maturity, Strength

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 359-367

 

 

Optimization of process parameters for crease resistant finishing of
cotton fabric using citric acid

T Ramachandran

Department of Textile Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

and

N Gobi, V Rajendran & C B Lakshmikantha

Department of Textile Technology, K S Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637 215, India

Received 18 December 2008; revised received and accepted 20 February 2009

Citric acid has been identified as a successful non-formaldehyde-based crosslinking agent and the process parameters used for citric acid finishing treatment on cotton fabric optimized. An experiment has been designed using Box and Behnken method with three levels and their three variables, such as citric acid as a crosslinking agent, trisodiumcitrate as catalyst and curing temperature. Regression equations have been obtained to analyse fabric properties of 27 combinations and the optimum process parameters identified. The optimum process parameters are found to be 20% citric acid, 6% trisodiumcitrate and 180°C curing temperature. It is observed that the high conc. of citric acid increases the crease recovery angle and reduces the tensile strength of cotton fabric. Trisodiumcitrate acts as very good catalyst at all curing temperatures.

Keywords: Box-Behnken method, Citric acid, Cotton, Crease recovery angle, Crease resistant finishing,
Regression equation

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.34, December 2009, pp 368-373

Improvement in physical and dyeing properties of natural fibres through
pre-treatment with silver nanoparticles

D P Chattopadhyay & B H Patel

Department of Textile Chemistry, Faculty of Technology & Engineering,

M S University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 001, India.

Received 20 January 2009; revised received and accepted 24 March 2009

Silver nano colloids have been synthesised by chemical reduction of silver salt solution, characterised by its surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra at 450 nm and by SEM images of nanoparticles. The size and size distribution of these nanoparticles have also been examined using particle size analyzer; the average size of the particles is found to lie between 80 nm and 90 nm. The findings support the size and shape of the synthesised nano silver particles. These nanoparticles have been applied to cotton, silk and wool fabrics by usual padding technique and manifested the improved microbial resistance as measured through soil burial test. The dyeing behaviour of the treated fabrics with three direct dyes has also been studied and the build-up of dyes, measured as colour strength in terms of K/S values, reported. The higher K/S values are obtained when the Ag nano is anchored in the fibre matrix, i.e. when the fibre is pre-treated and dyed with direct dyes. Improved colour strength with good wash and light fastness is also obtained after treatment of fabrics with nano colloids.

Keywords: Absorption spectrum, Bacterial resistance, Cotton, Dyeing, Nanoparticles, Silk, Silver nano colloids, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 374-376

 

Simple and fast method for purifying
single-walled carbon nanotubes

Ozarkar Sukrut Deepak, Manjeet Jassal &
Ashwini K Agrawal

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology,

New Delhi, 110 016, India

Received 18 July 2009; revised received and
accepted 24 August 2009

A fast and efficient method for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes has been reported in this paper. It is observed that the use of an inorganic acid in conjugation with an organic solvent can effectively remove the metal catalyst particles from the single-walled carbon nanotubes. This treatment technique has been compared with the conventional method employing concentrated nitric acid using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray studies.

 

Keywords:   Carbon nanotube, Nanotubes purification, Single-walled carbon nanotube

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 377-379

 

Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

E Erasmus & F A Barkhuysen

Material Science and Manufacturing, Fibres and Textiles
Competence Area,
Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, P.O. Box 1124, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa

Received 22 December 2008; accepted 4 May 2009

Cotton with a superhydrophobic surface and self-cleaning ability has been prepared by the treatment with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-fluorooctyl triethoxysilane. An increased level of treatment increases the water contact angle, thereby exhibiting a self-cleaning ability.

Keywords: Cotton, Fluorosilane, Superhydrophobic surface

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 380-383

 

 

A sharp technique for identification of defective points in false twist textured yarns

Dariush Semnani & Ali Gholami

Department of Textile Engineering,
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

Received 8 March 2009; accepted 24 March 2009

Fast Fourier Transformation technique has been used to classify the defective points in the yarn surface into three classes, namely less important defective points of textured yarn containing surface fibres and broken filaments; medium defective points; and large and unusual defective points. The results obtained from textured yarn with 300 Nm show that this method can be considered for commonly used yarns in acceptable accuracy. This method can detect the defects in a fraction of seconds and can be installed on machines.

                     Keywords: Defective points, False twist textured yarn, Fast Fourier Transformation, Image processing

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, December 2009, pp. 384-399

 

 

Application of natural dyes on textiles

Ashis Kumar Samanta & Priti Agarwal

Institute of Jute Technology, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, India

Received 18 August 2009; accepted 22 September 2009

This paper reports the studies available on the characterization and chemical/biochemical analysis of natural dyes; extraction of colorants from different natural sources; effects of different mordants and mordanting methods; conventional and non-conventional methods of natural dyeing; physico-chemical studies on dyeing process variables and dyeing kinetics; development of newer shades and analysis of colour parameters for textiles dyed with natural dyes; and test of compatibility for application of binary mixture of natural dyes. The chemical modification of textile substrate for improving dyeability, attempts for improvement in overall colour fastness properties and survey of some traditional processes of natural dyeing in different parts of India have also been discussed.

Keywords: Cationic dye fixing agent, Colour fastness, Dye characterization, Natural dye, UV absorber