Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Special Issue

on

Environmental Issues: Technology Options for Textile Industry

VOLUME 26

NUMBERS 1 & 2

MARCH-JUNE 2001

CONTENTS

 

Foreword

9

Indian textile industry — Environmental issues
R B Chavan

11

Eco-regulations with respective Indian scene
Ram Asrey Lal

22

Environmental management systems for the textile industry : A case study
Mangala Joshi

33

Environmental and health hazards in spinning industry and their control
C D Kane

39

Noise pollution and its control in textile industry
M K Talukdar

44

Non-ecofriendly textile chemicals and their probable substitutes —  An overview
V A Shenai

50

Azo ban, eco-norms and testing
G S Nadiger

55

Ecofriendly textile production
H T Deo

61

Chemical processing on small scale — Entrepreneur’s viewpoint
Anil Kumar Mehra

74

Developments in grey preparatory processes of cotton textile materials
J Venkata Rao

78

Environment-friendly dyeing processes for cotton
R B Chavan

93

 

Ecofriendly processing of sulphur and vat dyes — An overview
M D Teli, Roshan Paul, Sachin M Landage & Arnab Aich

101

Cationization of cotton for low-salt or salt-free dyeing
D P Chattopadhyay

108

Environment-friendly processing of protein fibres
S R Shukla

116

Chemical processing of synthetics and blends — Impact on environment and solutions
R S Gandhi

125

Ecofriendly dyeing of synthetic fibres
S D Deshpande

136

Developments in acrylic-based thickeners as substitute of emulsion thickeners for pigment printing
M Jassal & P Bajaj

143

Inkjet printing — A revolutionary ecofriendly technique for textile printing
 Sanjay Gupta

156

Ecofriendly finishes for textiles
P Bajaj

162

Developments in textile machinery for ecofriendly chemical processing
M D Dixit

187

Present status of natural dyes
M L Gulrajani

191

Enzymes in textile industry — An environment-friendly approach
Rashesh Doshi & Vinod Shelke

202

Biotechnology applications in textile industry
Deepti Gupta

206

Development of textile products for protection and enhancement of environment
P K Banerjee

214

Recycling of textile waste for environment protection — An overview of some practical cases in the textile industry
A D Sule & M K Bardhan

223

 

 

 


 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 11-21

 

 

Indian textile industry—Environmental issues

 

R B Chavan

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

 

Indian textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy. Over the period, it has gone through several changes. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to present an overview of Indian textile industry in terms of its structure, associated problems, its impact on environment, pollution control strategies, German ban on azo dyes, response of textile ministry to cope with the implementation of German ban, and other environmental issues.

Keywords: Azo dyes, Eco label, Eco norm, German ban, Pollution control strategies

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 22-32

 

 

Eco-regulations with respective Indian scene

Ram Asrey Lal

Office of the Textile Commissioner , Ministry of Textiles, New C.G.O. Building, 48 New Marine Lines, Mumbai 400 020, India

As any other industrial activity, the textile industry is also responsible for environmental pollution during the manufacturing of textiles from fibres to finished products. It may not be possible to totally prevent the environmental pollution during manufacturing, but attempts could be made to minimize it to the possible extent. Some of the tools available to control environmental pollution are legislation, waste minimization, adoption of cleaner technologies and appropriate end-of-pipe treatment. In the present paper, the environment-related regulations in the national context are critically reviewed.

Keywords: Clean technology, Eco-regulations, End-of-pipe treatment, Legislation, Pollution abatement, Waste minimization

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 33-38

 

 

Environmental management systems for the textile industry : A case study

Mangala Joshi

Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Increasing Environmental responsibilities on part of the management to comply with environment protection and pollution control legislations and escalating environmental compliance and remediation costs, has created a need for effective Environmental Management System (EMS).The focus of EMS is to conserve input resources and to protect the environment. This paper describes the ISO 14000 series as an effective tool for environment management systems applied to textile industries.

A case study based on actual implementation of ISO 14001 in an upcoming textile unit based in North India has been illustrated.

 

Keywords: Eco-labelling, Environmental management system, ISO 14001, Waste management

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 39-43

 

 

Environmental and health hazards in spinning industry and their control

 

C D Kane

Textile & Engineering Institute, Rajwada, Ichalkaranji 416 115, India

 

Various aspects of environmental and health hazards in cotton spinning industries have been discussed and the measures to reduce the risk of health hazards, to a great extent, in cotton textile mills are suggested.

Keywords: Byssinosis, Cotton, Environmental hazard, Health hazard, Noise, Spinning

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 44-49

 

 

Noise pollution and its control in textile industry

M K Talukdar

Kusumgar Corporates, Mumbai 400 056, India

High noise level causes psychological effects and physical damage, including irritability, loss of concentration, anxiety and increased pulse rate. A one minute exposure to a sound level over 100dBA can cause permanent hearing loss. The studies show that a large number of textile workers, especially weavers, suffer from occupational hearing loss. The machinery manufacturers made considerable efforts in keeping the noise emission as low as possible while improving the speed of their machines, but the measures are not adequate to protect the textile workers from occupational hearing loss.

Keywords: A-weighted scale, Active noise control, Air-jet weaving machine, Projectile weaving machine, Rapier weaving machine, Water-jet weaving machine

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 50-54

 

 

Non-ecofriendly textile chemicals and their probable

substitutes—An overview

V A Shenai

13 Sunder Mansion, 91 Govandi Road, Chembur, Mumbai 400 071, India

Textile auxiliaries/chemicals/speciality chemicals are scanned for their ecofriendliness or otherwise. Polyester dyeing carriers are taken as an example to illustrate this point. Observations of a German working group on this aspect of carriers are quoted. Important non-ecofriendly chemicals are cited based on the requirements of Eco-Tex Consortium of Europe. Probable substitutes for the existing non-ecofriendly chemicals are suggested. A method to examine the claims of textile auxiliary manufacturers about ecofriendliness of their products is suggested for the benefit of users. A German example of combating the ecological problem is given for the possible implementation by Indian manufacturers.

Keywords: Carcinogenicity, Dyeing carriers, Ecology, Sensitizers, Textile auxiliaries

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 55-60

 

 

Azo ban, eco-norms and testing

 

G S Nadiger

Textiles Committee, 79 Crystal, Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai 400 018, India

 

Ecological aspects including azo ban enforced by Germany, Holland, Turkey, France and India; ban on certain chemicals employed in textile processing under eco-norms and containing with the pollution control; different eco-labelling schemes, like Okotex 100, MST, Clean Fashion, Steillmann and Indian Eco-label; and procedures currently employed to test the eco characteristics are discussed.

Keywords: Azo ban, Azo dyes, Arylamines, Eco-label, Eco-norms, Ecofriendly textiles

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 61-73

 

 

Ecofriendly textile production

H T Deo

18 Safalya, 19-20 Nath Pai Nagar, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai 400 077, India

It is no longer adequate to have a finished product to be safe only to human beings, but the product has to be environmentally safe during its entire life cycle and even beyond. This paper discusses the aspects of ecofriendly textile production in terms of use of ecofriendly chemicals, generation of lighter pollution load, effluent and gases, and drastic reduction in the use of resources like water, oxygen, land, energy, manpower, etc. Futuristic eco-scenarios, leading to the total eco-revolution philosophy, have also been discussed.

Keywords: Eco-revolution, Waste water treatment, Green textiles, Natural dyes

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp.74-77

 

 

Chemical processing on small scale—Entrepreneur’s viewpoint

Anil Kumar Mehra

Chamundi Prints, B 21, Sector 3, Noida 201 301, India

 

The viewpoint of a small-scale entrepreneur for achieving environment-friendly chemical processing of cotton is discussed briefly. It is emphasized that setting up of a laboratory, computer colour matching system, careful study of the literature on products introduced by dyestuff and auxiliary manufacturers and the selective product use help in achieving the right-first-time production, which, in turn, helps in waste minimization and thus in environment protection and value realization. The viewpoint is illustrated with the help of typical practical examples of the use of sequestering agents, non-silicate based peroxide stabilizers, peroxide killer enzyme and effective reactive dye washing after fixation. It is suggested that the investment in research and development would help the small-scale entrepreneurs in achieving the desired goals of environment protection and value realization.

 

Keywords : Cotton, Ecofriendly chemical processing

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 78-92

 

Developments in grey preparatory processes of cotton textile materials

J Venkata Raoa

Department of Textile Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India

Among all the chemical processes of textile materials, the grey preparatory process has been the most neglected area for research till mid sixties. The escalating energy and labour costs, stringent pollution control regulations, scarcity of water and greater demand for quality textiles have compelled the textile chemists to consider the preparatory processes more seriously. The R&D work carried out over the last four decades to overcome these problems in desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton is reported. The developments that have taken place in the designing of preparatory processing machinery, including singeing, are also reported.

Keywords: Bleaching, Cotton, Desizing, Scouring

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol 26, March-June 2001, pp. 93-100

 

 

Environment-friendly dyeing processes for cotton

R B Chavan

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016,  India

Environment-friendly dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes has been critically reviewed. Major developments are in terms of innovations in dyes and dyeing processes for high dye bath exhaustion and fixation with a view to reduce the total quantity of colour in the effluent. The use of bifunctional reactive dyes having high exhaustion and fixation properties, use of low-salt reactive dyes, machinery developments for dyeing at low liquor ratio, pad troughs with reduced volumes, replacement of urea with dicyandiamide, econtrol process, etc are some of the approaches for ecofriendly colouration of cotton with reactive dyes. The uses of environment-friendly reducing systems for dyeing of cotton with vat and sulphur dyes are also briefly discussed.

Keywords: Bifunctional reactive dye, Cotton, Sulpur dye, Vat dye, Waste minimization

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 101-107

Ecofriendly processing of sulphur and vat dyes—An overview

M D Telia, Roshan Paul, Sachin M Landage & Arnab Aich

Division of Technology of Fibres and Textile Processing, Department of Chemical Technology,
University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Various developments that have taken place in the ecofriendly dyeing of sulphur and vat dyes have been briefly discussed. A good degree of progress in this direction has been made by the successful use of products like hydrol in sulphur dyeing and zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde in vat dyeing. However, the efforts to improve the dyeing technology of sulphur and vat dyes on cotton are still required.

Keywords: Cotton, Dyeing, Ecofriendly processing, Sulphur dye, Vat dye

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 108-115

Cationization of cotton for low-salt or salt-free dyeing

D P Chattopadhyaya

Department of Textile Chemistry, The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Cotton acquires negative charge in aqueous medium and thus repels negatively charged dye anion during dyeing. Such repulsion between fibre and dye is offset by using large quantity of salt in dye bath, particularly for reactive dyes. A low dye bath exhaustion also leads to low dye fixation of reactive dyes on cotton. Thus, the use of high salt concentration and low reactive dye fixation lead to environmental problems related to highly coloured effluent with high salt content. These problems can be overcome by improving the dye substantivity of cotton in the absence of salt or with low salt additions. One such approach is cationization of cotton which is critically reviewed in the present paper. Majority of the chemicals used for introducing cationic sites in cotton are themselves not safe environmentally. Therefore, there is a need to explore the potentiality of the cationization route using ecofriendly chemicals. The use of chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, is a step forward in this direction.

Keywords: Cationization, Cotton, Dyeing, Reactive dyes

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.26, March-June 2001, pp.116-124

Environment-friendly processing of protein fibres

S R Shuklaa

Division of Technology of Fibres and Textile Processing, Department of Chemical Technology,

University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

 

The various practical and theoretical approaches adopted during the last decade towards the environment-friendly chemical processing of wool and silk are highlighted. The ways and means are available at the disposal of a chemical processor to evolve an ecofriendly wool/silk product, even with desired value addition. However, certain processes like ultrasound and plasma treatment need to be explored at the bulk processing level.

Keywords:  Ecofriendly processing, Protein fibre , Silk, Wool

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 125-135

 

 

Chemical processing of synthetics and blends ¾ Impact on environment
and solutions

R S Gandhi

Ishavasya, 4 Anand Nagar Society, Sagrampura, Surat 395 002, India

Chemical processing of synthetic textiles and blends generates significant air/water pollution. Through judicious selection and optimum usage of inputs (energy, water and substances) in processing, it is possible to minimize waste/pollution substantially. This will reduce the pollution load of an effluent to such a level at which it would be feasible to effectively operate the effluent treatment plant (ETP) and satisfy the norms of Pollution Control Boards (PCBs). Judicious selection of inputs will also take care of ecofriendliness of finished textiles to meet the eco‑label requirement and tackle environmental problems. Waste minimization is achieved by pre‑care and care during processing. Unavoidable minimum waste generated is then treated in after‑care step to remove colour, toxicity and heavy metal ions to reduce the levels of total dissolved solids (TDS), COD/BOD, etc by primary/secondary/tertiary treatments before recycling the treated water. Sludge (solid waste) is disposed off by either land‑filling or incineration depending on the extent of toxicity. The solutions offered aim at decreasing the hazardous character of sludge by eliminating the use of banned, red‑listed chemicals/dyestuffs which have carcinogenic, allergenic and toxic characteristics.

Keywords: Environment protection, Pollution control, Waste minimization

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol 26, March-June 2001, pp. 136-142

Ecofriendly dyeing of synthetic fibres

S D Deshpandea

Sasmira’s Institute of Man-made Textiles, Mumbai 400 025, India

Synthetic fibres, including polyester, nylon and acrylic fibres, account for nearly 46% of the total world-wide fibre consumption. Ecological consideration led to the significant developments in fibre production and their colouration techniques. Several new dyes and chemicals have been introduced to reduce the pollution load in the effluent. Recent developments in iron-based dyes and use of vinylsulphone dyes for nylon are reviewed.

Keywords : Acrylic, Banned dyes, Dyeing, Ecofriendly dyeing, Iron-based dyes, Nylon, Polyester, Vinylsulphone dyes

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 143-155

 

 

Developments in acrylic - based thickeners as substitute of emulsion thickeners for pigment printing

M Jassal  & P Bajaj

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

 

Pigment printing is confronted with growing demands, which, in turn, pose both environmental and technological challenges to the system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of developments in synthetic thickeners as substitute of emulsion thickeners for pigment printing.

Keywords: Acrylic thickener, Emulsion thickener, Kerosene emulsion, Pigment printing, Synthetic thickener

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 156-161

Inkjet printing—A revolutionary ecofriendly technique for textile printing

Sanjay Guptaa

National Institute of Fashion Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Some of the aspects of inkjet or digital printing, such as comparison between conventional and digital printing, digital printing systems, suitable inks based on dyes and pigments, colour management software, application and future scope of digital printing, are briefly discussed in view of the demand-activated manufacturing architect to satisfy the changing fashion trends and new market requirements.

Keywords: Inkjet printing, Rotary screen printing, Textile printing

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 162-186

 

 

Ecofriendly finishes for textiles

P Bajaj

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

The challenges facing the textile finishing industry have intensified during the last decade. Current awareness of the negative environmental impact of chemical processing of textiles, combined with increased strict legislation on industrial effluents, has led to the search for advanced, non-polluting processes for treating natural and manufactured fibre fabrics. In this paper, an overview of ecofriendly finishing treatments, which include formaldehyde- free finishes, enzymatic softening, use of silicones, low-temperature plasma and antimicrobial /antibacterial finishes, has been given. Application of breathable coatings has also been demonstrated.

Keywords: Antibacterial finishing , Enzymatic softening, Glyoxal, Moisture vapour permeable coatings, Plasma treatment, Polycarboxylic acids, Silicones

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 187-190

Developments in textile machinery for ecofriendly chemical processing

M D Dixita

2, Shri Siddhi-Vinayak Co-operative Housing Society, Swatantrya Veer Savarkar Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai 400 028, India

Textile machinery play an important role in indirectly controlling the pollution load for environment protection. Energy saving, reduced liquor-to-material ratio, counter current liquor flow for washing and use of microprocessor controls are some of the features incorporated in the present generation machines. These features help in reducing the generation of flue gases in boiler, allow to use reduced quantities of chemicals, produce reduced volumes of effluents and give better performance of machinery, resulting in reduced re-processing. Some of the developments in textile machinery covering these aspects are briefly highlighted.

Keywords : Ecofriendly chemical processing, Textile machinery

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 191-201

 

 

Present status of natural dyes

 

M L Gulrajani

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

 

The present status of natural dyes with reference to the stake holders of natural dyes, estimates of dye requirements, availability of natural dyes, technology for production, and some important natural dyes and mordants is critically discussed. Application techniques and fastness properties of natural dyes are also briefly discussed. It is suggested that the natural dyes are not substitutes of synthetic dyes. Some of the limitations of natural dyes such as use of banned metal salts as mordants, poor fastness properties and use of agricultural land for growing natural dye plants can be overcome through research and development.

Keywords: Environment protection, Mordants, Natural dyes

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26 March-June 2001, pp. 202-205

Enzymes in textile industry¾An environment-friendly approach

Rashesh Doshi & Vinod Shelke

Zytex (India) Pvt Ltd , Mumbai 400 012, India

Environment–friendly uses of various enzymes in different textile processing steps have been discussed. It is observed that enzymes can replace harsh chemicals, catalyze reaction and operate under mild conditions. These are safe to use, easy to control and biodegradable.

Keywords: Bio-polishing, Bio-preparation, Cotton, Enzyme, Hydrolases, Wool

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 206-213

 

 

Biotechnology applications in textile industry

Deepti Gupta

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

The applications of biotechnology to textiles are discussed with reference to improvements in natural fibres, novel new biodegradable fibres and polymers, biofabrics, intermediates and dyes from micro-organisms, and treatment of textile waste water. Majority of the techniques are not yet commercialized. However, wherever a clear economic justification and market for a particular product or process exists, progress has been rapid. It is thus expected that in future, many of the biotechnological processes would help in solving the environmental problems posed by textile industry.

Keywords: Biodegradable fibre, Biofabric, Biotechnology, Dye, Natural fibres

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp. 214-222

Development of textile products for protection and enhancement of environment

P K Banerjee

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Pre-seeded erosion control blanket, Coirsorb and Brecodrain, aimed respectively at arresting erosion, enhancing moisture retention capacity of soil and recovering useful land from marshy areas, have been developed from ecofriendly and biodegradable jute and coir fibres. The production processes of these three materials and their relevant properties have been discussed briefly and the scope of their application highlighted.

Keywords: Brecodrain, Coir, Coirsorb, Jute, Prefabricated vertical drain, Pre-seeded erosion control blanket, Superabsorbent mat

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, March-June 2001, pp 223-232

 

 

Recycling of textile waste for environment protection — An overview
of some practical cases in the textile industry

A D Sule  & M K Bardhan

Synthetic and Art Silk Mills’ Research Association, Worli, Mumbai  400 025, India

 

Environment protection could be achieved by adopting state-of-the-art technologies to minimize waste generation, effective treatment of effluent so that the effluent discharge conforms to the expected norms, and recycling the waste several times before discharge. The present paper,  with the help of typical case studies,  such as wool scour liquor disposal, utilization of leftover yarn in spinning and weaving departments, recycling of size, conservation of heat and water in disperse dyeing, recovery and utilization of salt in reactive dyeing, recycling of rags and used garments, and recycling of water in chemical processing,  illustrates that the effective way for environment protection is to recycle waste as many times as may be practically feasible. However, the recycling methodology adopted must be economical.

Keywords: Environment protection, Textile waste, Waste recycling

 

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