Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

VOLUME  26

NUMBER  3

SEPTEMBER 2001

CONTENTS

 

Studies on the properties of alkali-treated jute-modacrylic flyer-spun yarns

Atin Chaudhuri & Gautam Basu

 

239

Studies on tensile responses of wrap-spun jute yarn

A N Roy & G Basu

 

246

Fibre distribution in air-jet and ring yarns

S K Punj, S Debnath & A Chowdhury

 

251

Influence of some process parameters on the properties of viscose fibre rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi , R C D Kaushik & K R Salhotra

 

 

255

Effect of chemical texturization on physical and relaxation properties of
jute-polypropylene ply yarns

S Sengupta , P K Ganguly & Samar Kanti Ghosh

 

 

261

Studies on physical properties of jute-acrylic blended bulked yarns

A K Sinha & G Basu

 

268

Theoretical model for predicting creep behaviour of nonwoven fabrics

V K Kothari & P C Patel

 

273

Studies on polypropylene - cotton spun yarns and their fabrics

B K Behera , Ajay Sardana & B C Verma

 

280

Influence of wool-synthetic fibre blends on thermal insulation

R Indu Shekar, Nishkam Kasturiya, Hans Raj & Susheel Nigam

 

287

Role of fibre properties in colour non-uniformity of dyed fabrics

K P Chellamani, M Arulmozhi & K Kumarasamy

 

296

Modification of natural polymers: Part IV ¾ Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate onto Cannabis indica fibre initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

Ghanshyam S Chauhan , Harinder Lal , A S Singha & B S Kaith

 

 

302

Lambda - cyhalothrin spray as an insectproofing agent for woollen fabrics

Vijay Veer, N Gopalan & K M Rao

 

308

Use of beet sugar as wool colourant

J P Mathur & C S Bhandari

313

 

 

Short Communications

 

A new concept on mean fibre length in cotton

R P Nachane

 

317

Influence of pressure and position of first nozzle and spinning speed on the properties of acrylic MJS yarns

G K Tyagi & R Jindal

 

 

321

Application of multiple taker-in system at card

Sheikh Muhammad Nawaz, Babar Shahbaz & Nusrallah Khan

 

324

Review Article

Fibre-reinforced composites: Their fabrication, properties and applications

V B Gupta

 

327

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp.239-245

 

Studies on the properties of alkali-treated jute-modacrylic flyer-spun yarns

Atin Chaudhuri

Institute of Jute Technology, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019, India

and

Gautam Basu

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Calcutta 700 040, India

Received 7 March 2000; accepted 5 April 2000

Jute and jute-modacrylic yarns of various blend ratios have been prepared and treated with different concentrations of NaOH (5% -22%  w/w). It is observed that this treatment results in axial shrinkage and weight loss of the yarns. The axial shrinkage increases with the increase in NaOH concentration up to 18% whereas the weight loss increases with the increase in NaOH conc. up to 22%. Even though the tenacity and modulus of yarns decrease substantially on alkali treatment, the work of rupture increases after treatment which is mainly due to the increase in breaking elongation. Statistical analysis shows that the modulus of different strain levels and tenacity values are positively and significantly correlated with the packing fraction values of the yarns. Blending of modacrylic fibre with jute does not show any appreciable improvement in bulk property of yarn. However, the whiteness index and mean gray value of alkali-treated blended yarns confirm the improvement in appearance of the yarns due to the preferential migration of modacrylic fibres on the surface of the yarn.

Keywords: Axial shrinkage, Flyer spinning, Jute, Modacrylic, Modulus, Packing fraction, Tensile properties, Whiteness index

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 246-250

 

 

Studies on tensile responses of wrap-spun jute yarn

A N Roy & G Basu

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Calcutta 700 040, India

Received 10 April 2000; accepted 24 May 2000

Wrap-spun jute yarns of 276 tex linear density have been spun at different wrap densities (250,300,350,400 and 450 wpm) using polypropylene, polyester and nylon of different linear densities as wrapping elements. It is observed that in the case of 23.3 tex polypropylene multifilament and 17.2 tex polyester multifilament wrappers, the yarn could not be spun beyond 350 wpm due to the excessive breakage of wrapping elements. The breaking strength of the wrap-spun jute yarn increases with the increase in wrap density up to an optimum level and then decreases. The breaking extension of the wrap-spun jute yarns increases but initial modulus decreases with the increase in wrap density.

Keywords: Breaking extension, Initial modulus, Jute, Nylon, Polyester, Polypropylene, Tenacity, Work of rupture, Wrap density, Wrap-spun yarn

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.26, September 2001, pp. 251-254

 

 

Fibre distribution in air-jet and ring yarns

S K Punj, S Debnath & A Chowdhury

Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 3 March 2000; revised received 1 November 2000; accepted 7 December 2000

The radial packing density in different zones of air-jet (MJS & MTS) and ring-spun yarns and the total packing density along with longitudinal distribution of fibres have been studied. Among the single yarns, the ring yarn shows the maximum packing density. In the case of ring yarn, the fully migrated fibres occupy the cylindrical zone at a distance between 1/3rd and 1/4th of yarn radius away from yarn axis, contributing maximum percentage of its length. The coefficient of migration is also found to be maximum in that zone of ring yarn.

Keywords : Air-jet yarn, Murata jet spinner, Murata twin spinner, Radial packing density, Ring yarn, Wrapper fibre

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp.255-260

 

Influence of some process parameters on the properties of viscose
fibre rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi & R C D Kaushik

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

and

K R Salhotra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 15 December 1999; accepted 28 March 2000

 The influence of opening roller speed and sliver preparation on the properties of viscose OE rotor yarns spun from the fibres of different linear densities at high rotor speeds has been studied. It is observed that the fine fibres offer significant advantage in regard to yarn tenacity, breaking extension, work of rupture, abrasion resistance and mass irregularity. Each of these quality parameters improves initially but deteriorates thereafter as the opening roller speed is further increased beyond the optimum level. The rate of decline in the properties is greater when the yarns are produced at higher rotor speeds. Such decline in the properties at higher rotor and opening roller speeds is, however, more marked in yarns spun with single passage drawframe sliver.

Keywords: Opening roller speed, Rotor-spun yarn, Twist efficiency, Viscose yarn, Wrapper fibres

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 261-267

 

 

Effect of chemical texturization on physical and relaxation properties of jute-polypropylene ply yarns

S Sengupta & P K Ganguly

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Calcutta 700 040, India

and

Samar Kanti Ghosh

National Jute Manufacturers Corporation, Khardah 743 188, India

Received 20 September 1999; revised received 2 February 2000; accepted 11 May 2000

Two-, three- and four-ply jute-polypropylene (70:30) yarns have been prepared and chemically texturized using 18% (w/w) NaOH solution. It is observed that as the number of ply increases, the tenacity, breaking elongation, work of rupture, packing factor and flexural rigidity of untextured yarns improve. Chemical texturization of ply yarn brings about moderate increase in tenacity along with considerable improvement in bulk. However, after texturization, the tenacity, breaking elongation, work of rupture and packing improve while the initial modulus and flexural rigidity are adversely affected with the increase in number of ply. As revealed by the stress relaxation and cyclic loading of ply yarns, the stress decay and permanent set increase with the increase in number of ply at low deformation level, while at high extension level, the stress decay decreases. In the textured yarn, the stress decay and permanent set are always higher as compared to that of their untextured counterparts. Wetting of ply yarn results in lowering of tenacity, modulus and flexural rigidity and enhancement of elongation-at-break, work of rupture, stress decay and permanent set values.

Keywords: Extension cycling, Jute, Packing factor, Ply yarn, Polypropylene, Specific flexural rigidity, Stress relaxation, Texturization

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 268-272

 

Studies on physical properties of jute-acrylic blended bulked yarns

A K Sinha & G Basu

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, 12, Regent Park, Calcutta 700 040, India

Received 28 January 2000; revised received and  accepted 20 April 2000

Jute-shrinkable acrylic blended bulked yarns of various blend ratios have been prepared by relaxing shrinkable component of the yarns using three different methods of thermal treatments, namely dry hot air, steam and boiling water. The performance of these methods of bulking has been compared. It is observed that all the three methods produce bulked yarns having more or less same value of specific volume. Since the boiling water method is easier, convenient and economical, this method is adopted for detail study. The optimum treatment time in boiling water is found to be 30 min. Flexural rigidity of yarns decreases remarkably after bulking and shows a decreasing trend with the increase in percentage of acrylic up to 80%. Breaking strength and breaking extension of non-bulked yarn increase with the increase in percentage of acrylic. The extensibility further increases remarkably after bulking but the breaking stress of parent yarn decreases remarkably on bulking. The loss of tenacity is more when percentage of jute is more in the blends.

Keywords: Acrylic, Bulked yarn, Flexural rigidity, Jute, Tensile properties

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 273-279

 

Theoretical model for predicting creep behaviour of nonwoven fabrics

V K Kothari & P C Patel

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 20 April 2000; accepted 14 June 2000

A model has been developed to predict the creep behaviour of nonwoven fabrics using the fibre creep data and the structural parameters of the fabric. A network structure of the constituent fibres of nonwoven fabric is considered and creep strain has been estimated for constant stress creep condition. The changes in the structural parameters due to creep strain have been incorporated in the model. The model has been used to obtain theoretical creep curves for different nonwoven fabrics and these curves have been compared with experimental creep curves.

Keywords: Creep behaviour, Nonwoven fabric, Theoretical creep curves

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 280-286

 

Studies on polypropylene - cotton spun yarns and their fabrics

B K Behera & Ajay Sardana

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

and

B C Verma

Sriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi 110 007, India

Received 26 May 1999; revised received 4 September 2000; accepted 10 October 2000

Polypropylene staple fibres were mixed with cotton in different proportions for producing ring-spun yarns and the yarns so produced were converted into both woven and knitted fabrics. Various fabric properties including low-stress mechanical properties and hand values were determined on Kawabata fabric evaluation system. Mixing of polypropylene resulted in lowering of total hand value and improvement in total appearance value. Polypropylene-cotton knitted fabrics offer better durability performance.

Keywords: Cotton, Low-stress mechanical properties, Polypropylene, Spun yarn, Total appearance value,    Total hand value

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 287-295

 

Influence of wool-synthetic fibre blends on thermal insulation

R Indu Shekar, Nishkam Kasturiya, Hans Raj & Susheel Nigam

Textiles Division, Defence Materials and Stores Research & Development Establishment, Kanpur 208 013, India

Received 25 November 1999; revised received 7 April 2000; accepted 15 May 2000

Five different types of wool fibre blended blankets and four different types of knitted undergarments have been prepared and their thermal insulation evaluated by Thermolobo technique using dry and wet methods. It is observed that the optimum thermal insulation can be achieved in wool-acrylic blends, both in woven and knitted constructions. A comparison of woven and knitted constructions shows that the knitted clothings offer better advantages because of the more entrapped air. Data have been statistically analyzed to relate the observed performance to the operative mechanisms of thermal transport.

Keywords: Acrylic fibre, Polypropylene fibre, Thermal conductivity, Thermal insulation, Thermal resistance, Wool fibre

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 296-301

 

Role of fibre properties in colour non-uniformity of dyed fabrics

K P Chellamani, M Arulmozhi & K Kumarasamy

The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore 641 014, India

Received 22 February 2000; accepted 11 May 2000

             The variation in colour uniformity (DE) of dyed fabrics has been measured by spectrophotometer. Difference in micronaire value, maturity ratio and fluorescence have been identified as the major fibre properties which influence shade variation in dyed fabrics. A comprehensive study has been carried out to establish the limits for variation in above fibre properties of the mixing used for spinning yarns in order to maintain high level of colour uniformity in dyed fabrics. Image processing technique was employed in the study for assessing cotton fibre maturity. Fibre properties of cotton mixing for maintaining acceptable DE of 1 in dyed fabrics have been suggested using prediction expression connecting fibre properties with DE. It has also been observed that the fabrics made out of man-made fibres exhibit shade variation after dyeing. The extent of DE value in these fabrics, as measured by spectrophotometer, has been found to be around 0.5.

Keywords: Colour non-uniformity, Fluorescence, Image processing, Maturity ratio, Micronaire value

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 302-307

 

Modification of natural polymers: Part IV¾Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate onto Cannabis indica fibre initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

Ghanshyam S Chauhan & Harinder Lal

Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171 005, India

 

and

 

A S Singha  & B S Kaith

Department of Applied Sciences, Regional Engineering College, Hamirpur 177 005, India

Received 16 February 2000; revised received and accepted 10 May 2000

Cannabis indica fibre has been graft copolymerized with methyl acrylate using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The effect of monomer, initiator and HNO3 concentrations, amount of water, reaction temperature and reaction time on per cent grafting has been studied. The swelling behaviour in DMF, n-butanol and water follows the pattern DMF > H2O > n-butanol for the grafted fibres and H2O > DMF > n-butanol for the ungrafted fibre. Both the ungrafted and grafted fibres degrade thermally in multiple and single stage respectively.  Grafting has not been found to improve the thermal stability of the fibre. A plausible explanation to account for the trends in results has been provided.

Keywords: Cannabis indica, Ceric ammonium nitrate, Grafting, Graft copolymerization, Methyl acrylate, Thermal stability

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. .308-312

 

Lambda-cyhalothrin spray as an insectproofing agent for woollen fabrics

Vijay Veer, N Gopalan & K M Rao

Defence Research & Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002, India

Received 15 December 1999; revised received and accepted 23 March 2000

The effectiveness of synthetic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin at 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05% concentrations as solvent-based sprays was evaluated against the larvae of the tropical case making clothes moth, Tinea translucens Meyrick and the furniture carpet beetle, Anthrenus falvipes LeConte. Lambda-cyhalothrin spray at 0.025% concentration provided high degree of protection to the wool fabric even after 30 months of the ageing of treated fabric from these two serious wool pests. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed ovicidal action as all eggs, laid on the treated fabric by the moths, were killed. The minimum effective concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin for complete protection of woollen fabric was determined to be 0.005% on wool weight against the larvae of A. flavipes. T. translucens was found more susceptible than A. flavipes to lambda-cyhalothrin. Residue of lambda-cyhalothrin was estimated 25-35% lower than its initial deposits on the fabrics after 30 months of its application.

Keywords: Anthrenus flavipes, Insectproofing, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Synthetic pyrethroid, Tinea translucens, Woollen  fabric

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 313-316

 

 

Use of beet sugar as wool colourant

J P Mathur  & C S Bhandari

Department of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

Received 28 October 1999; revised received and accepted 12 June 2000

Beet sugar (Beta vulgaris) colourant was obtained by concentrating beet sugar juice under reduced pressure and evaporating it to dryness. It showed three absorption bands at 220, 280 and 530 nm. The optimum concentration of beet sugar colourant for dyeing of Bharat Merino wool was found to be 0.03g per g of wool at pH 4.5 and temperature 97.5°C. The wool dyed as such did not meet the requirement of BIS colour fastness standards. However, when the wool treated with metal ions such as Al(III), Cr(VI), Cu (II), Fe(II) and Sn(II) and rare earths such as La(III) and Sm(III) was dyed with beet sugar colourant, it could withstand the requirement of BIS fastness standards. The chemistry of wool dyeing process and the tensile behaviour of treated yarns are discussed.

Keywords: Beet sugar, Beta vulgaris, Betanin, Vulgaxanthin, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 317-320

 

A new concept on mean fibre length in cotton

 

R P Nachane

Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 24 April 2000; accpted 31 May 2000

A theoretical method to determine the number of floating fibres between two planes perpendicular to the sliver axis is given. Also, theoretically it is shown that the mean length as measured by using a Baer sorter pattern, which is considered as the standard method for determination of number average mean length, depends on the length of the sliver used in preparation of the pattern and it lies between the actual number average value and the weighted average mean length value of the sample.

Keywords : Baer sorter, Cotton fibre, Floating fibres, Mean fibre length

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 321-323

 

Influence of pressure and position of first nozzle and spinning speed on the properties of acrylic MJS yarns

G K Tyagi  & R Jindal

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences,
 Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 3 January 2000;revised received and accepted
4 May 2000

The effect of pressure and position of first nozzle and spinning speed on the properties of acrylic MJS yarns has been studied. It is observed that the first nozzle pressure has the highest influence on the yarn properties followed by the spinning speed. Higher first nozzle pressure significantly improves the yarn tenacity and breaking extension but adversely affects the yarn regularity, residual shrinkage and flexural rigidity. The less rigid yarns are produced with a low spinning speed and a small gap between the first nozzle and the nip of front roller.

Keywords : Acrylic yarn, Flexural rigidity, MJS yarn, Murata air-jet spinner, Nozzle pressure, Wrapper fibres

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 324-326

 

Application of multiple taker-in system at card

Sheikh Muhammad Nawaz, Babar Shahbaz & Nusrallah Khan

Department of Fibre Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received 25 October 1999; revised received 31 March 2000; accepted 10 May 2000

The Multiple taker-in system card not only ensured a gentler and higher degree of opening but also increased the quality potential of sliver and yarn by transferring the fibres to the cylinder in a form of more even and fine web.

Keywords: Carding, Cotton, Multiple taker-in system

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 26, September 2001, pp. 327-340

 

Fibre-reinforced composites: Their fabrication, properties and applications

V B Gupta

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 19 March 2001; accepted 7 June 2001

An attempt has been made to describe the wide range of composites based on the combination of reinforcing fibres like carbon, aramids, high-modulus polyethylene, ceramic, boron and glass with matrices like thermosetting resins, thermo­plastic polymers, soft metals, ceramics and carbon. Starting with the definition and classification of composites, the advantages of the fibrous shape and of an optimum adhesion between the fibre and the matrix are considered. This is followed by an account of the properties of the constituents of the composites, viz. the fibres and the matrices. The composite fabrication processes are then described. Finally, the properties and major applications of the composites are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Composites, Laminates, Matrices, Polymers, Reinforcing fibres

 

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