INDIAN JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCES
[ISSN: 0379-5136 CODEN : IJMNBF]
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Identification and fermentation optimization of a marine-derived Streptomyces Griseorubens with anti-tumor activity,
Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of extracts from marine animals,
Evaluation of antiangiogenic activity through tubulin interaction of chloroform fraction of the feather star, Lamprometra palmata palmate,
culture fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum and a report on the
isolation, purification, identification and antibiotic activity of citrinin,
reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopic (DRIFTS) investigation
of E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans,
Detection of genetic variation in four Ulva species based on RAPD technique, Umashankar Prasad, Geetanjali Deshmukhe, Alkesh Dwivedi & S. D. Singh
Population structure, growth, mortality and yield per recruit of segestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus (Decapoda: Sergestidae) from the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia,
Prediction and modelling of
marine fishery yields from the
Effect of Chattonella marina
[(Subrahmanyan) Hara et
Chihara 1982] bloom on the coastal fishery resources along
Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary,
Occurrence and distribution of some enteric bacteria along the southern coast of Kerala, P. P. Ouseph, V. Prasanthan, P. P. Abhilash & P. Udayakumar
Seasonal variation of Zn, Cu
and Pb in the estuarine stretch of West Bengal,
Heat flow variation from bottom simulating reflector in
the Kerala-Konkan basin of the western continental margin of
resolution satellite geoids/gravity over the western Indian offshore for
tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration, R. Bhattacharyya, P. K. Verma &
The marine environment is one
of the most fascinating realm. Marine life with its beauty, mystery and variety
has fascinated man since very long time. The ocean covers about 71% of this
planet. Beneath this surface, the average depth of ocean is
The marine environment is believed to be the original source of life on Earth. Many of the organisms in the aquatic world communicate with each other by way of signaling systems composed of primordial chemical messengers. We have evolved from this environment, our internal signaling pathways, including our endocrine systems, still respond to the primordial exocrine signaling system found today in these ancient marine animals.
Due to the physical and chemical conditions of the marine environment, almost every class of marine organism exhibits variety of molecules with unique structural features, which are not found in terrestrial natural products. Today, researchers have isolated approximately 11,000 marine-derived natural products compared with more than 155,000 natural, terrestrial products. Although, the oceans contain much greater biodiversity than is found on land, efforts to exploit this biodiversity by identifying new chemical compounds have hardly begun. New chemcial compounds mainly have been isolated from algae, sponges, coelenterates such as seafans and soft corals, other representatives such as ascidians, opisthobranch mollusks, echinoderms and bryozoans.
The search for marine drugs dates back to 1950s when Burgmann et al. isolated nucleotides, spongothymidine and spongouridine from Carrabean sponge Tethya crypta (Tethylidae). These nucleotides contained rare arabinose sugar rather than ribose, which is a quite ubiquitous sugar in nucleosides. This discovery lead researchers to synthesize anlogues, Ara-A and Ara-C which improved antiviral activity. Cytarabine (AraC) is a commercially available chemotherapy drug that is active against leukemia and used routinely when the disease is first diagnosed.
Since the mid-1970s, academic, government, industrial, and private research laboratories have devoted varying levels of effort to the discovery of marine-derived pharmaceuticals. The major emphasis has been on the discovery of anti-cancer compounds, due in large part to the availability of funding to support marine-based drug discovery. Currently, there are 14 small molecule marine natural products in clinical development as anticancer drugs. Although, there are only a few marine derived products currently on the market, several robust new compounds derived from marine natural products are now in the clinical pipeline, with more clinical development.
Didemnin, the first marine compound subjected to phase II clinical trials was proved toxic, hence, it was rejected as a therapeutic drug source. Nevertheless, its development laid the foundation for large-scale cultivation and extraction of marine organisms, which proved essential for development of other drugs from the sea. Didemnin has now been replaced by aplidin, obtained from tunicate Aplidium albicans. It is being manufactured by PharmaMar and currently in Phase II of clinical development. US Food and Drug- Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan drug status for the treatment of multiple myeloma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
One of the most notable compounds discovered at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution (HBOI) is discodermolide, a potent antitumor agent from sponge Discodermia spp. This compound has been licensed to Novartis and is in phase I clinical trials for the anticancer treatment. Another compound of interest is ecteinascidian (ET-743), a potent antitumor agent that is in phase III clinical trials. Yondelis or Ecteinascidian-743 is a tetrahydrosoquinone alkaloid derived from the colonial tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. It is the first treatment for the soft tissue sarcoma to be released on the market in 30 years and offers an excellent example of the kind of drug that can be developed through marine organism research.
Bryostatin isolated from marine bryozoan Bugulla
neritina has been licensed to Bristol-Mayers Squibb and is currently in
Phase II clinical trials. It has been reported that Bryostatin-1 is not
effective in cancer treatment by itself, but it seems to enhance the activity
of such chemotherapies as taxol and cisplatin. Dolastatin 10 isolated from the sea
hare Dolabella auricularia from the
Kahalalide F is a desipeptide isolated from Elysia rubefescens from
Manolide isolated from Palauan sponge Luffariella variabilis, is a potent
analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Manoline was licensed by Allergan
Pharmaceuticals who took compound through phase I clinical trials for the
treatment of psoriasis. Manolide is however commercially available as a
standard probe for PLA2 inhibition. IPL
Sqalamine lactate, a novel antiangiogenic aminosteroid from the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias is currently in Phase II clinical trials for ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer and was granted Orphan drug status by the FDA.
The high potency of cone snail venoms has inspired pharmacologists to investigate their potential use as adjuncts in anaesthesia, analgesia or as antiepileptic, cardiac and antipshychotic drugs. More than 100 patents and patent applications reflect the strong commercial interest in these molecules. Ziconitide, which is the venom of predatory snail, Conus magnus is licensed by Elan Pharmaceuticals under the name Prialt® and is used for intratracheal treatment for chronic pain.
High amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoc acid (DHA) makes fish oil unique compared to other lipid sources. These omega-3 fatty acids have been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It has been found to protect against various cancers. Astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant agent from marine algae and crustaceans is gaining importance as a powerful chemopreventive agent.
Microbiologists are highly fascinated by sponges, as they are associated with enormous amounts of microorganisms. They can be considered as 'microbial fermenters' that hold a largely untapped potential for therapeutics. Numerous bioactive compounds of invertebrate origin are in fact microbial metabolites originating from dietary, commensalic or "endosymbiotic" microorganisms. Striking structural similarities that are frequently observed between natural products from marine invertebrates and compounds isolated from microorganisms support this hypothesis. Further, support for this hypothesis comes from molecular biological studies which has led to the isolation and characterization of putative biosynthetic gene clusters from microorganisms, associated with marine invertebrates. This can be well illustrated by didemnin B and dolastatin, which were firstly isolated from marine invertebrates and later discovered to be of bacterial origin.
With the inclusion of the known unique adaptations of microorganisms to high salt environments and high hydrostatic pressure, the immense diversity of the microorganisms in marine habitats becomes apparent. Hence, there is an urgent need to tap this marine resource not only for antibiotic and cancer study, but AIDS, tuberculosis, osteoporosis and infectious diseases as well.
One important application of the many bioactive compounds derived from the marine environment is their use as molecular probes, molecules broadly defined as non-drug substances, which can be used to probe the foundations of important biochemical events. A gene coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish A. Victoria has been developed for use as a reporter gene in numerous studies on the regulation of gene expression. Due to GFP fluorescence in living tissues, it is now possible to monitor gene expression continuously, a property of particular value in the study of differentiation in both embryos and tissue culture cells. There are many other marine products that have contributed to basic and clinical research including enzymes for molecular biology. A marine microorganism isolated from the deep-sea hydrothermal vents yielded the Vent DNA polymerase, which is used in high fidelity PCR reactions common to both diagnostic procedures and the gene mapping studies of the Human Genome Project.
As a result of ocean exploration research, genomic libraries of marine organisms can be made which preserve all the genes found in that organism. From genomic libraries, a gene that makes an important biomedical compound can be cloned and expressed as a chemical compound in an artificial system- metagenomics.
recent developments in the
To boost domestic
production of certain indigenously made drugs, government of
In summary, the marine world has become an important source of therapeutic agents with novel mechanisms of action. Even though thousands of new molecules are discovered every year only small number of candidates is incorporated in clinical trials. The main problem underlying this is sustainable supply of these compounds from natural sources. To battle this problem various strategies are developed, such as mariculture or aquaculture of source organisms, development of synthetic analogues of active compounds, fermentation of microorganisms producing the compound, etc. Another possible solution is the use of genetic engineering to transfer the genes encoding the synthetic enzymes that produce the desired compound to microorganisms that can be grown in huge quantities. Development of these products and services, as well as the fundamental research from which they must be derived will be enhanced by greater dependence on interdisciplinary sciences such as pharmacology, chemical ecology, molecular biology, genomics, metagenomics, computational and combinatorial chemistry and biology.
The field of marine natural products is passing its discovery phase and moving to the second phase where understanding relationships and processes is driving the research towards novel drugs from the sea. Marine plants, animals and microorganisms will be the basis of new products and services important to technology in the future.
With rich biodiversity and vast marine resources along the Indian coast, in the form of estuaries, creeks, deep seas and continental shelf, the opportunities for research in the area of marine drug development are endless.
Madhavi M. Indap
Madhavi M Indap is the former Head, Dept. of Zoology, D.G.
Mahim, Mumbai 400 016, India
Marine ecosystems provide a number of goods and services to humans. Increased exploitation such as overfishing, coastal development, pollution and urbanization have caused immense damage and pose serious threats to marine ecosystems. Human activities, directly and indirectly, are now the primary cause of changes to marine ecosystems. Natural perturbations have always occurred in the oceans (such as storms, tsunamis), but the resulting changes are mostly reversible. However, effects of many human activities are often irreversible, at least over the span of a human life. Analyzing anthropogenic effects on 20 marine ecosystems using 17 types of human impacts, a team of marine scientists reported in Science in 2008 that there is no part of the ocean that is free from at least one type of human impact; and 41% of the ocean is affected by multiple factors. They concluded that two of the biggest threats to marine ecosystems are climate change and overfishing. Human activities have led to global extinction of several marine species although little is known about the exact number. Many species have been hunted to commercial and ecological extinction. More than 25% of fish stocks in the world oceans are stated to be overexploited and another 50% fully exploited.
address these issues and recommend strategies to convert the challenges into
opportunities an international symposium was organized by the
50-year-old Marine Biological Association of India (MBAI) at
A perusal of the abstracts indicated the topics prioritized for research in this region. When the first announcement of the Symposium was made, seven sessions were proposed, but abstracts were received for only six sessions. There was no abstract for the session on Economics of Ecosystem Restoration. For the special session on Climate Change, we received only 15 abstracts. These two important areas of research should receive increased attention of institutions and universities in the future. Abstracts on several marine plant and animal groups including dinoflagellates, yeast, bacteria, fungi, corals, mangroves, seagrass, finfish, shellfish and cetaceans were received and were presented. Abstracts on sea snakes and sea birds were conspicuously absent. In general, abstracts on linkages between organism-climatic/ oceanographic factors and populations- ecosystems were, to a large extent, missing.
and recommendations on the International Symposium
In his keynote address on
the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems, Keith Brander (
Prasanna Kumar (National Institute of Oceanography, Goa) showed that the impact
of global warming on the
According to E. Vivekanandan (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin), the potential outcome of climate change for fisheries may be decrease in production and value of coastal and inland fisheries, and decline in the economic returns from fishing operations. The potential outcome for aquaculture may be higher capital, operating and insurance costs, loss of fish stocks, damage to facilities, conflicts with other water users, reduced production capacity and increased per unit production costs.
his presentation, J. Sundaresan (National Institute of Science Communication
and Information Resources,
Marine ecosystem assessment
V. N. Sanjeevan (Centre for
Marine Living Resources and Ecology, Cochin) and his team have identified two
distinct marine ecosystems in the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India.
The northern ecosystem is along Gujarat and Maharashtra coasts and the southern
ecosystem is along
Marine ecosystem health
Commenting on the health of
marine ecosystems in
exploitation of commercial marine species along the Kerala coast has led to
threats of species loss, for example, depletion of some species of marine
catfish and goatfish. Protection of biodiversity is possible by demarcating
marine protected areas (MPA). A study by K.S. Mohamed (Central Marine Fisheries
The discovery of using
cadaveric sperm to successfully generate progenies has opened the possibility
of adopting a widely practicable method of drawing sperm from freshly dead specimens
of fishes preserved at -20oC. In his
keynote address on opportunities, T.J. Pandian (
presentations stressed the mariculture prospects for sea plants, bivalves,
crustaceans, and edible and ornamental fishes in farms and cages. N.G.K. Pillai
and his team (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute,
After considering the challenges facing the marine ecosystems, and recognizing that the goods and services provided by marine ecosystems are not adequately utilized, the participants of MECOS 09 developed the following 16 recommendations to mobilize the government and non-government institutions, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders to convert the challenges into opportunities:
1. Considering that the marine ecosystems are served by other ecosystems upland such as the terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine and coastal zone ecosystems and vice versa, a comprehensive policy may be developed by establishing a coordinating organization integrating all the service providing ecosystems and dependent stakeholders.
2. The anthropogenic impacts including fishing, development of coastal corridors, climate change on marine ecosystems and their inter-related marine habitats such as coral reefs, mangroves and sea plants need to be mapped to device conservation measures.
3. As the oceans have no boundary, and are bordered by several countries, it is important to establish collaborations with international organizations and programmes such as Ramsar Convention to safeguard and derive maximum sustainable services from the marine ecosystems.
4. The nodal Ministry may establish a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in consultation with research institutions and other organizations with due consideration to livelihood concerns and alternatives. The impacts of MPAs on restoration of biodiversity and stock recovery need to be assessed.
5. Considering the absence of estimates on ecosystem costs and values, and the need to revise the species in the IUCN Red List, a detailed assessment in consultation with marine research institutions is urgently required.
6. Taking into account the paucity of information on the endangered fauna and flora, it is important to strengthen research on cetaceans, sirenian, sea birds, marine reptiles, corals, echinoderms, gastropods, sponges and mangrove vegetation; and marine research institutions may be encouraged to develop a cadre of researchers with diving skills.
7. Technology development for extracting beneficial drugs and chemicals from marine species and sea may be strengthened with due consideration to biodiversity concerns.
8. Fisheries prediction models need to be standardized and optimized for addressing specific characteristics and issues in different tropical oceanic realms. Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management may be adopted, to ensure long-term sustainability of fish stocks.
9. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries may be implemented in full scale and National Plans of Action on Excess capacity; Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing, Bycatch Reduction and Energy Conservation in fisheries may be adopted and implemented.
10. Taking into account the services provided by the deep sea organisms on oceanic and deep sea ecosystems, research on these organisms should be strengthened for optimal utilization of resources.
11. Considering that the marine ecosystems are affected by long-term climatic changes, continuous monitoring of the impact on the physical, chemical and biological processes is necessary. Options for adaptation to climate change and mitigation have to be developed on a priority basis with international collaboration, and by establishing strategic disaster management systems.
12. Basic research on taxonomy and biology of candidate species for mariculture may be further promoted by colleges and universities.
13. Recognizing the potential of mariculture to supplement and increase food production, and for ornamental trade, new programmes on mariculture with additional emphasis on stock recovery and replenishment may be initiated. To achieve this, hatchery and growout technologies for several candidate species need to be developed with proper policy support.
State-of-the-Art technologies such as remote sensing, DNA barcoding and
metagenomic approach may be adopted for assessing the marine biodiversity and
15. Benign educational tourism may be promoted by establishing oceanaria, marine parks and marine mammal and sea turtle watch etc.
16. The concerned Ministries and Departments should create posts of trained Aquatic Resource Conservators for fulfilling the conservation objectives in respect of the marine ecosystems similar to those of forest ecosystems.
K.S. Mohamed* and
*Principal Scientists, Central Marine Fisheries
Research Institute (CMFRI)
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 14-21
Identification and fermentation
optimization of a marine-derived
Streptomyces Griseorubens with anti-tumor activity
Liang Ye, Qingfeng Zhou, Chunhui Liu, Xuegang Luo, Guangshui Na, Tao Xi*
Received 30 May 2007; revised 25 April 2008
The purpose is an attempt to investigate a
potential anti-tumor actinomycete WBF9 isolated from Chinese marine sediment.
MTT assay was firstly used to evaluate anti-tumor activity and ID50
value was defined as dilution fold of fermentation broth (FB) that caused 50%
inhibition of cell growth. The results reveal its strong anti-tumor activity
against Hela, KB and SMMC7721 cells with the ID50
values of 750.3, 921.2 and 803.5, respectively. The strain was
identified as Streptomyces griseorubens according to the 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis, along with the morphological, physiological and biochemical
present study also reveals the strain WBF9 required natural seawater for
good growth and production of anti-tumor metabolites. This implies some degree
of marine adaptation of the strain. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to
investigate the enhanced anti-tumor activity of nutrients. The concentration of
the four nutritional components was optimized by the orthogonal matrix method.
The effects of the nutritional components for improving anti-tumor activity were found to be in the order of CaCl2>potato extract>yeast extract>glucose and the
optimal concentrations were determined as glucose (1% w/v), potato extract (15%
w/v), yeast extract (0.6% w/v) and CaCl2 (0.12% w/v). With the
optimized medium, ID50 value of FB reached the maximum level of
[Keywords: Anti-tumor activity; Identification; ID50; Marine actinomycete; Optimization; Streptomyces griseorubens]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 22-27
Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of extracts from marine animals
Aditya S Akerkar1, Chetan A Ponkshe2 & Madhavi M Indap1*
1Department of Zoology, D G
2Department of Zoology,
Received 16 August 2007; revised 21 November 2007
The whole body ether extracts of a marine prawn Nematopaleamon tenuipes (PEP), two gastropods viz. Euchelus asper (EAE) and Hemifusus pugilinus (HPE), and acetone extract of a fish Rastrelliger kanagurta (MA), were tested for their effects on Delayed type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and Plaque Forming Cell (PFC) assay. The Delayed type Hypersensitive reaction assay for HPE and PEP as well as MA showed stimulation but EAE was found to be less effective. In the PFC assay HPE and MA showed immunostimulation whereas PEP and EAE showed immunosuppression. PEP was further resolved into two fractions, which were tested for in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay as well as antiproliferative assay. It is concluded that the test extracts possess immunomodulatory property.
[Keywords: Animal extracts, Delayed Type Hypersensitivity, Plaque Forming Cells
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 28-37
Evaluation of antiangiogenic activity through tubulin interaction of chloroform fraction of the feather star, Lamprometra palmata palmata
Reena Pandit1, Annamma Anil2, Arvind Lali2, Madhavi Indap1*
Zoology, The D. G. Ruparel College, Senapti Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai 400016,
2 Bioprocessing Lab, Chemical Engineering Division, University Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India
Received 6 August 2007, revised 21 November 2007
Tubulin binding agents have received
considerable interest as potential tumour-selective angiogenesis-targeting
drugs. The present study elucidates that chloroform fraction (CC) isolated from
methanol extract of the feather star Lamprometra
palmata palmata has a tubulin
binding property. With the quantification of chick chorioallantoic (
[Key words: Bioactive, tubulin, antiangiogenic, sea, cell]
Vol. 38(1) March 2009, pp. 38-44
Batch culture fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum and a report on the isolation, purification, identification and antibiotic activity of citrinin
Prabha Devi*, Lisette D'Souza, Tonima Kamat, Celina Rodrigues and Chandrakant G. Naik
Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory, Chemical
Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography,
CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India
Received 7 Jan 2007, revised 29 October 2007
Batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum, MTCC 5108 was carried out using potato dextrose broth medium prepared in seawater: distilled water (1:1). Biomass as dry weight was determined by gravimetric analysis. Citrinin, the main secondary metabolite, is produced in large quantities during the stationary phase of growth. The yield amounted to approximately 530 mg l-1. After optimization of culture conditions, P. chrysogenum was mass cultured and citrinin was isolated and purified from the medium using a combination of chromatographic techniques (Thin layer and column chromatography). Citrinin, thus obtained was characterized on the basis of its spectral data (UV, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electrospray Ionization Mass spectra). The present study consists report on the effect of the concentration of citrinin on the growth of the culture and antibiotic activities assayed by disc diffusion method using clinical pathogens.
[Key words: Citrinin, secondary metabolite production, isolation, spectral identification, antibiotic activity]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 45-51
Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopic (DRIFTS) investigation of E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.
Lisette D'Souza*, Prabha Devi, Tonima Kamat & Chandrakant G Naik
laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004,
The present study consists of a refined method for obtaining Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopic (DRIFTS) data for biological samples in the mid infrared region (4000 - 600 cm-1). The biological cells used in the study included identified clinical strains of E. coli (Gram negative bacterium), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The method for obtaining DRIFTS data is described herein, which may be useful for studying the biochemical composition of microbial cells as well as for species-specific identification. The raw spectrum for each culture was treated using various algorithms (Kubelka Munk algorithm and Savitzky-Golay algorithm) and converted into its second derivative (2D). Hierarchical cluster analysis of 2D data, using Ward's algorithm produced dendrogram, which was distinct for each strain under study. Principal component analysis provided clusters of groups used in the study.
[Keywords: Fourier transform spectroscopy; biochemical composition; biological samples; E. coli; C. albicans; S. aureus]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 52-56
Detection of genetic variation in four Ulva species based on RAPD technique
Umashankar prasad1, Geetanjali Deshmukhe*2, Alkesh Dwivedi2 & S. D. Singh2
lnstitute of Fisheries Education, Yari Road Campus, Versova, Mumbai 400 061,
Received 18 July 2007, revised 20 November 2007
DNA yield was obtained by using 2 protocols, CTAB (Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and modified Wattier et al; out of which the latter yielded more quantity of DNA (0.85 mg/g). Out of total amplified product 53% bands were shown monomorphic and remaining of the bands were polymorphic. The high frequency of polymorphic bands suggests that the isolates of Ulva represented in our collection have sufficient genetic diversity for conducting a valid heterosis experiment. The intra species genetic similarity (GS) value was found highest for U. lobata and lowest for U. fasciata. The interspecies GS value was found highest between U. fasciata/U. lactuca and lowest between U. lobata/U. reticulata. The large number of differences among isolates revealed by the RAPD technique indicate that it would be possible to establish a unique “fingerprint” for individual plants based on the combined results generated from a small collection of primers.
[Key words: seaweed, Ulva, DNA isolation, genetic variation, RAPD]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 57-68
Population structure, growth, mortality and yield per recruit of segestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus (Decapoda: Sergestidae) from the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia
S. M. Nurul Amin1, A. Arshad1, 2, S. S. Siraj2 and B. Japar Sidik3
1Laboratory of Marine Science and Aquaculture, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Universiti Putra
3Department of Animal Science and Fishery,
Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra
Received 7 June 2007; 16 November 2007
Present study consists the
population structure, growth, mortality and relative yield recruit of A.
japonicus from the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. FISAT
software has been used to examine the monthly data. The asymptotic length (La) and growth co-efficient (K) was estimated as
[Keywords: Population dynamics,
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 69-76
Prediction and modelling of marine fishery yields from the
K.S. Mohamed* and P.U. Zacharia**
Research Centre of Central Marine Fisheries
Research Institute, PO Box: 244, Bolar, Mangalore 575001,
Ecosim simulation exercise was carried out for predicting
over 10 years the changes in fishery yields in the multi-species and multi-gear
marine fisheries of the
[Keywords: Species, Shrimp, Predator, Ecosim, Biomass]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 77-88
Effect of Chattonella marina [(Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara 1982] bloom on the
coastal fishery resources along Kerala coast,
R Jugnu & V Kripa*
[Email: kripa_v@ yahoo.com]
Received 30 August 2007; revised 3 December 2007
Chattonella marina, a marine raphidophyte algae which produces haemolytic compounds is capable of damaging
fish gills. Blooms of this algae were observed along
[Keywords: Chattonella marina, bloom, fishery impact, drift net, ring seine, taxonomic distinctness]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 89-96
Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary
Anirudh Ram*, M. A. Rokade & M. D. Zingde
Regional Centre, National Institute of Oceanography, Lokhandwala Road, 4- Bungalows, Andheri (w), Mumbai - 400 053, India
Received 29 March 2007, revised 23 June 2008
Concentrations of Hg, total organic carbon
(TOC), Al, Fe and Mn were determined in sediment of the Amba Estuary between
the mouth and the head over a distance of
[Key words: Amba Estuary, mercury, geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 97-103
Occurrence and distribution of some enteric
along the southern coast of
P. P. Ouseph, V. Prasanthan*, P. P. Abhilash & P. Udayakumar
Chemical Sciences Division, Centre for Earth
Science Studies Thiruvananthapuram, 695 031,
Received 6 March 2007; revised 25 August 2008
Six major groups of enteric bacteria, viz, Faecal coliforms, E. coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were screened for the present study. The overall percentage occurrence of enteric bacteria in water and sediment was maximum accounted for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (81.7%) and minimum for Salmonella spp. (9.6%) and moderate reported against Vibrio cholerae (60.6%). The distribution of enteric bacteria was more in the water sample than sediment except Vibrio spp. and the highest occurrence was found to be at Cochin transect, which is the most polluted transect due to enteric microbes. Relationship between the stations on the occurrence of enteric bacteria was linear and significant variations was observed (R2=0.899) and the same pattern of linear regression model was also obtained in source wise occurrence (R2=0.777). The present study elucidates that the health status of the Kerala coast may deteriorates and will be detrimental to the coastal community.
[Keywords: Enteric bacteria, allochthonous, bioindicators, indigenous, storm water]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 104-109
Seasonal variation of Zn, Cu and Pb in the estuarine stretch of
R. Chakraborty, S. Zaman,
Received 30 April 2007; revised 15 October 2007
Zn, Cu and Pb levels
in the aquatic phase and underlying surface sediment from three stations (viz.
Shankarpur, Canning and
[Key words: Heavy metal, coastal zone, correlation]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 110-115
Heat flow variation from bottom
simulating reflector in the Kerala-Konkan basin of the western continental
Uma Shankar and Kalachand Sain
Scientific and Industrial Research,
[E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com]
The base of the gas-hydrate
stability field, representing the bottom simulating reflector or BSR, is
observed over a closely spaced grid of multichannel seismic data in the
Kerala-Konkan (KK) basin of the western continental margin of India (WCMI). The
data reveal that gas-hydrates occur in the KK basin at places where water depth
[Keywords: WCMI, Kerala-Konkan, Gas-hydrates, BSR, Geothermal gradient, Heat flow]
Vol. 38(1), March 2009, pp. 116-125
High resolution satellite geoids/gravity over the western Indian offshore for tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration
R. Bhattacharyya1, P. K. Verma2 and T. J. Majumdar1*
1Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division, Marine and Earth Sciences
Group, Remote Sensing Applications Area
Space Applications Centre (ISRO),
2School of Studies in Earth Sciences,
Received 22 May 2008; revised 15 September 2008
The present study consists of various satellite geoid/gravity maps of the western Indian offshore region and correlated with known tectonic features such as Bombay High, Chagos – Laccadive ridge complex, Laxmi ridge. The satellite-derived gravity maps have been compared with those of ship-borne gravity for validation purpose. Spectral analyses of gravity data over the study area brings out various components of interest, which could be correlated with subsurface features. The interpreted results indicate a positive correlation between the known geological elements and gravity field.
[Keywords: Satellite altimetry, Geoid and gravity anomaly data, Hydrocarbon prospects, Bombay High, Laxmi Ridge, Carlsberg Ridge, Spectral analysis]