Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

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VOLUME 5

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2006

 

 

 

Special Issue on Traditional Agricultural Practices

 

CONTENTS

 

Editorial

5

 

 

Papers

 

Traditional agricultural practices in Meghalaya, North-East India

7

  Solomon Retna Dhas Nadar Jeeva, Roytre Christopher Laloo & Bhanu Prakash Mishra

 

 

 

Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge in Kumaon hills of Uttaranchal

19

        C PJoshi & B B Singh

 

 

 

Traditional technologies in soybean cultivation in Madhya Pradesh

25

        Senthil Vinaygam, Buddheshwar Umraoji Dupare & Om Prakash Joshi

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge and land use management in Indian Central Himalayas

34

        Basant Kumar Joshi

 

 

 

Traditional agricultural tools-a review

41

        P K Das & D Nag

 

 

 

Cow based Indigenous Technologies in dry farming

47

   C Karthikeyan , D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam & S Ayisha Firdouse

 

 

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge and resource utilization of Lisus in the southeastern part of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh

51

        R Sarmah, A Arunachalam, D Adhikari & M Majumder

 

 

 

Plant indicators for agricultural seasons amongst Pnar tribe of Meghalaya

57

        Hajal Samati & Samim Sofika Begum

 

 

 

Indigenous Technological Knowledge in fish farming

60

        B Goswami, S Mondal & S S Dana

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge of tribals in crop protection

64

        P Narayanasamy

 

 

 

Traditional pest management practices in Kanyakumari district, southern peninsular India

71

        S Kiruba, B P Mishra, S Israel Stalin, S Jeeva & S Sam Manohar Dhas

 

 

 

Traditional pest management practices of Assam

75

        M K Deka, M Bhuyan & L K Hazarika

 

 

 

Use of certain bio-products for insect-pest control

79

        Chaman Lal & L R Verma

 

 

 

Indigenous wisdom for the use of Giant weed in disease and pest management

83

        S K Srivastava, B L Attri & Hema Pandey

 

 

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge on pulses storage and processing practices in Andhra Pradesh

87

        B Sanjeeva Reddy

 

Fuhadaha-an indigenous dry fodder storage structure of Jammu region

95

        G R Bhagat, Narinder Paul & P S Slathia

 

 

 

Traditional storage structures prevalent in Himachali homes

98

        Promila Kanwar & Neetu Sharma

 

 

 

Indigenous storage practices in pulses

104

        C Karthikeyan, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam and S Ayisha Firdouse

 

 

 

Some Indigenous Knowledge Systems in parts of Central Nigeria

108

        Samuel Oluwole Ogundele

 

 

 

Indigenous grain structures and methods of storage

114

        Shobha Nagnur, Geeta Channal & N Channamma

 

 

 

Indigenous agricultural practices among tribal women

118

        M Natarajan & Santha Govind

 

 

 

Indian Traditional Knowledge for agro-ecosystem management

122

        S K Srivastava & Hema Pandey

 

 

 

Farmer and state managed hill irrigation systems in Kumaun Himalayas

132

        Kireet Kumar, G S Satyal & K D Kandpal

 

 

 

Organic farming- Tradition reinvented

139

        P K Sofia, Rajendra Prasad, & V K Vijay

 

 

 

Cultivation and conservation practices of Euryale ferox Salisb. in Manipur

143

        M Romeo Singh & Asha Gupta

 

 

 

Traditional method of rainfall prediction through Almanacs in Ladakh

145

        D Angchok & V K Dubey

 

 

 

Amta and Amti (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)- Cultural and agricultural dynamics of agro-biodiversity conservation

151

        Ranjay K Singh, Amish K Sureja & Dheeraj Singh

 

 

 

Empowerment through Traditional Knowledge System for Agricultural sustainability

158

        A Gopalam & P V R M Reddy

 

 

 

Author Index

162

 

 

Subject Index

163

 

 

Forthcoming Conferences / Seminars

164

 

The Papers published in Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge are covered by

 

·        CAB International, UK

·        NAPRALERT, USA

·        MANTIS Database, USA

·        Food Science and Technology Abstracts, UK

·        Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, India

·        Indian Science Abstracts, India


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge
Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 114-117

Indigenous grain structures and methods of storage

Shobha Nagnur*, Geeta Channal & N Channamma

AICRP Home Science Extension, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences,
Dharwad 580 005, Karnataka

E-mail: shoba_nagnur@yahoo.co.in

Received 20 September 2004; revised 20 December 2004

The present study was undertaken to identify the various indigenous grain storage structures and the methods of storing grains in these structures in Dharwad district of Karnataka state. The storage structures were found to vary depending upon the climatic conditions and rainfall. The study revealed the use of Kanaja / Galagi, a bamboo structure very common in paddy growing areas. Sandaka is a wooden structure used to store smaller quantities of grains especially pulses for household consumption. Kothi is a proper room for storing large quantities of grains. Utranis are mud pots for storing small quantity of grains. Hagevu is an underground storage structure used to store large quantity of grains, common in the dry agro climatic zone where moisture level is low. Of the storage methods used, the study revealed the use of natural products like neem leaves, ash, smearing of cooking oil, salt, Bengal gram leaves, turmeric, garlic, chilly seeds and castor seeds for effective storage. Rural folk have designed their own structures and methods for storing grains with locally available materials. These eco-friendly and safe storage structures in use since a very long period have withstood the test of time.

Keywords:   Indigenous grain storage structures, Indigenous grain storage, Traditional grain storage methods

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01F25/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 34-40

Traditional knowledge and land use management in Indian Central Himalayas

Basant Kumar Joshi

Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Kataramal, Almora 263 643, Uttaranchal

E-mail: basant_joshi@hotmail.com

Received 15 October 2004; revised 11 January 2005

The inhabitants of rain fed zone of Indian Central Himalayas have survived on their traditional management practices for their daily needs. A survey of 5 villages of the Garurganga-Bhetagad watershed, Indian Central Himalayas was made through personal interview schedules of farming community. By the documentation and assessment of the different land resources in the watershed area it was noticed that the rain fed agriculture is one of the sensitive and risky land uses for crop cultivation. These rain fed agriculture lands have been categorized by farming community according to variation in soil behaviour as per agriculture land. Such land categorization of the rain fed agriculture is more relevant to scientific knowledge (in terms of land capability). Furthermore the forest and grassland of the study area are also used and managed by these farming people in view of maximum utilization. Thus, the traditional land management practices are closely related with modern scientific tools and techniques i.e. soil depth, physiography, climatic conditions, accessibility, approaches, etc.

Keywords:   Traditional knowledge, Traditional land use management, Watershed, Rain fed zone, Indian Central                       Himalayas, Traditional management practices

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C1/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A09K17/00


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 83-86

Indigenous wisdom for the use of Giant weed in disease and pest management

S K Srivastava*, B L Attri  & Hema Pandey

National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (ICAR), Bhubaneswar 751003, Orissa

Received 19 October 2004; revised 24 November 2004

The Giant weed (Calotropis procera R Br, family Asclepiadaceae) widely distributed in West Bengal, Rajasthan, UP, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh is naturalized in the East and West Indies and Sri Lanka. Calotropis sp. is being used indigenously in the control of termite, paddy and ginger pests, stem and root borer, mustard saw fly, red hairy caterpillar, galo disease, bud necrosis disease, blight disease, various diseases in animals and poultry. Various microorganisms related to human beings are discussed.

Key words: Indigenous wisdom, Giant weed, Indigenous pest management, Traditional pest management

IPC Int. Cl.7: C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 79-82

Use of certain bio-products for insect-pest control

Chaman Lal* & L R Verma

Entomology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, H P University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171 005, Himachal Pradesh

E.mail: chaman_rao@yahoo.co.in

Received 29 November 2004; revised 23 March 2005

The present study was carried out in remote villages of the Mandi, Bilaspur, Shimla, Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti districts of the Himachal Pradesh to identify the important Indigenous Technology Knowledge (ITKs) in use, methods for managing the insect-pests of the different crops and to document the same.  Farmers commonly use ash against chewing and sucking type of insect pests. Use of cattle litter not only enriches the soil fertility but also reduces the insect-pests of the crops significantly. The bioproducts namely aged cow urine, Vitex negundo Linn., Ferula assafoetida Linn, Aloe barbadensis Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn. and whey were found to be very effective against the insect pests of cabbage, wheat, peas, grams and other crops. Such an assessment was essential because these are the innovative eco-friendly sprays, which are economically viable for small farmers and have already been adopted by the farmers in some locations. The choice of indigenous bio-insecticides has been found to be effective as well as eco-friendly. This will also help in reducing the load of insecticide on the ecosystem.

Key words: Bio-products, Indigenous Insect-Pest Control, Bio-insecticides, Traditional Pest Control Methods

IPC Int. Cl.7: C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 145-150

Traditional method of rainfall prediction through Almanacs in Ladakh

D Angchok* & V K Dubey

Division of Agricultural Extension, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi

E-mail:  achuk_iari@rediffmail.com

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Received 18 December 2004; revised 25 October 2005

Farmers in Ladakh (North-eastern part of J&K State) are still following the agronomic practices of crop production based on astrological facts of Lotho (Tibetan almanac), yet there is no systematic study or very few ever attempted to see the rationality of the ancient knowledge system. Like Indian Panchang (the religious calendar), the Tibetan Lotho also has a mathematical base for predicting the meteorological occurrences. An attempt has been made through this study to check the rationality of rainfall predictions made in lotho. The findings were quite encouraging and the rainfall predictions made in lotho were found to be going hand-in-hand with the predictions made by Government meteorological departments through modern techniques and procedures.

Keywords: Tibetan astrology, Ladakh, Almanacs, Lotho, Weather forecasting, Traditional rainfall prediction method

IPC Int. Cl.7: G01W1/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 139-142

Organic farming¾Tradition reinvented

P K Sofia*, Rajendra Prasad & V K Vijay

Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Haus Khaz, New Delhi 110 016
E-mail:sofiapk@rediffmail.com

Received 4 March 2004; revised 24 May 2005

Organic farming has been practised since ancient times.  The only diversion came when we blindly started using chemicals for agricultural purposes. Our forefathers used all the techniques that now we are reverting back to; coming close to nature again. So it would not be wrong in saying that we are reinventing tradition or traditional methods. Far too often organic agriculture is defined or described in terms of what it is not. The most common example of this is the notion that ‘organic farming is farming without chemicals’. The problem is not only one of logistics and supply chains though. Organic farming brings into picture a diverse, healthy and sustainable crop production system which is the need of the hour. The paper brings into focus a few traditional methods that were used for farming, which are now,once again coming back to the forefront.

Key words: Organic farming, Traditional farming methods

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C3/00, A01C5/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 143-144

Cultivation and conservation practices of Euryale ferox Salisb. in Manipur

M Romeo Singh* & Asha Gupta

Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003, Imphal

E-mail: millow_singhYahoo.com

Received 14 March 2005; revised 24 October 2005

Euryale ferox Salisb. is a subtropical plant available in most of the Asian countries. Euryale ferox Salisb. fruits due to its use in local delicacies and for medicinal values have demand in local market. The paper highlights the management and conservation practices of Euryale ferox Salisb. in Manipur with a note on cultivation. Some traditional medicinal uses of the plant are also mentioned.

Key words:  Aquatic herb, Local delicacy, Conservation practices, Cultivation practices, Manipur

IPC Int. Cl.7:    A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00,                            A01G25/00,C05G3/00, A01M1/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 98-103

 

Traditional storage structures prevalent in Himachali homes

Promila Kanwar* & Neetu Sharma

Department of Home Science Extension Education, College of Home Science, C S K Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur 176062, Himachal Pradesh

Received 13 July 2005; revised 24 October 2005

The Traditional knowledge of a community in a particular region is derived from the local people's farming experience and is handed down from previous generations to present generations. It entails many insights, perceptions, and intuitions, relating to agricultural practices, health, local environment, etc.

It is often stressed that traditional storage methods are the product of decades, if not centuries of development, perhaps by trial and error, but certainly as a result of experience of the users and their ancestors. Traditional storage methods based on local resources, at producer level are usually well adapted to all the types of grain and the environment in which they are employed. Consequently, storage losses are often already minimal. In this paper, traditional method of grain storing practices at producer level prevalent in Himachal Pradesh is briefly discussed.

Keywords:   Traditional storage structures, Traditional grain storage methods, Traditional grain storage structures, Himachal                    Pradesh

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01F25/00


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 151-157

Amta and Amti (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)¾Cultural and agricultural dynamics of agrobiodiversity conservation

Ranjay K Singh*, Amish K Sureja & Dheeraj Singh

College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-79001, Arunachal Pradesh

Email: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com; ranjay_jbp@yahoo.com

Received 30 May 2005; revised 5 October 2005

The local farmers possess an immense knowledge of their environment, based on the years of informal wisdom and close observations of the nature. By living in rich and variety of complex ecosystems, they have developed an understanding of the properties of the plants’ use, the functioning of ecosystem, food web, and techniques for their effective management. Equally, people’s knowledge and perceptions towards environment are important elements of cultural identity and biodiversity conservation. Looking to the importance of such knowledge systems, an effort has been made to carryout a research on use and conservation of Amta and Amti in purposively selected tribals’ villages of Madhya Pradesh. Tribal farmers have been found to develop the location specific practices to conserve Amta and Amti. These crops form an integral part of local medicines used for curing many diseases of human and animals, ethnic foods, culture, cropping systems, ecology and overall socioeconomic conditions of the farmers. The calyx and corolla of these crops are frequently used for preparing beverages. The tender leaves and stem are used as vegetable and for preparing chutney. Amta and Amti are significant and integral part of local cropping systems and are mixed with red gram, finger millet, kutki (millet), paddy and local vegetables. A synergistic relationship exists between Amta and Amti and these crops, thereby helping to control insect pest population, conserve natural resources and increase the productivity. The perception of women folk towards the different values related to Amta and Amti were found to be stronger than the male folk and similarly percentage of contribution in conservation of these crops women folk play a major role.

Keywords:   Amta, Amti, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., Indigenous knowledge, Women folk, Agrobiodiversity conservation,                          Indigenous pest control

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01G1/00, A01G3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 47-50

Cow based Indigenous Technologies in dry farming

Karthikeyan C*, D Veeraragavathatham , D Karpagam  & S Ayisha Firdouse

Directorate of Planning and Monitoring, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003, Tamil Nadu

Received 27 July 2005; revised 22 September 2005

Indigenous knowledge is the accumulated knowledge, skills and technology of the local people, derived from the direct interaction of human beings and their environment. The study was conducted at Coimbatore and Erode districts, in the western zone of Tamil Nadu with an objective of documenting the indigenous technologies adopted by the dry land farmers. Documentation of indigenous technologies was done adopting both individual and group approach. The paper describes five indigenous technologies involving cow-based products used by farmers for various purposes and an analysis on its impact. It is hoped to help the farmers to understand and exchange the cheaper, viable and reliable technologies in their areas.

Key words: Indigenous technologies, Cow based Indigenous technologies, Dry farming

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C3/00, A01C5/00

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 108-113

 

Some Indigenous Knowledge Systems in parts of Central Nigeria

Samuel Oluwole Ogundele

Deptartment of Archaeology & Anthropology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
E-mail: oluwoleogundele@yahoo.com

Received 5 January 2004; revised 25 October 2004

The paper deals with the mechanisms (social and technological), responsible for landscape transformation through time among the Tiv, Ungwai and Gwari of Central Nigeria. The research methods adopted are enshrined in oral history, ethnography and archaeology. The methods have enabled to develop an understanding and appreciation of such cultural traits or knowledge systems as architecture, building and subsistence practices particularly soil conservation. Research findings have also revealed that despite the fact that the peoples are located in the same Guinea Savanna zone, they differ to some degree, in terms of spatial behaviour and ecological adaptation. It seems that this development is connected to their different social values as well as histories. It is against this backdrop that research gains its relevance as a crossroads of social value systems, histories and ecology.

Keywords:   Central Nigeria, Ethnography, Oral traditions, Archaeology, Granaries, Traditional storage structures,                                   Traditional cultivation, Traditional houses

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01G1/00, A01F1/00, A01F13/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 19-24

 

Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge in Kumaon hills of Uttaranchal

C P Joshi1 & B B Singh2*

1Issue Department., R B I, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; 2Department of Agricultural Communication, Communication Centre,
G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 315, Uttaranchal

Received 5 January 2004; revised 25 October 2004

Application of high inputs in agriculture, in terms of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has endangered the sustainability of production system. Indigenous knowledge of agriculture, is the result of farmers’ thousands years of experience with nature. Indigenous practices are known to the farmers and are helpful in maintaining and enhancing the quality of the environment. With the dissemination of modern practices the indigenous practices have started to loose their ground and have been eroded to a large extent. In the hills of the Uttaranchal, farmers still practice farming by following indigenous practices. The study identifies indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK) of the farmers regarding various aspects of crop production.

Keywords: Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge, Crop Production, Kumaon hills, Uttaranchal

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00, A01G25/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 87-94

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge on pulses storage and processing practices in Andhra Pradesh

B Sanjeeva Reddy

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad 500 059, Andhra Pradesh

Received 29 November 2004; revised 21June 2005

Pulses are cheap source of protein supplement to the majority of the Indian population. An attempt has been made in the present study to document Indigenous Technical Knowledge related to practices that are followed in pulses storage and processing in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. Data was collected from 125 pulses growers and 30 processors with the help of a structured questionnaire. In all, broadly classified 13 Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) were identified in the study area.

Keywords: Indigenous Technical Knowledge, Traditional storage practices, Pulses storage, Andhra Pradesh

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01F25/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 95-97

Fuhadaha-an indigenous dry fodder storage structure of Jammu region

 

G R Bhagat*, Narinder Paul & P S Slathia

Division of Extension Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology,
Main Campus Chatha, Jammu 180009, Jammu & Kashmir

E-Mail: extnedn@yahoo.com; salathia2005@yahoo.com

Received 28 December 2004; revised 24 May 2005

Fuhadaha, the traditional dry fodder storage structure being used in the Jammu region has its origin from Dogri language, the local dialect. It is a low cost and durable dry fodder storage structure constructed since the time immemorial using the locally available material. It holds wide potential to store dry fodder for many years. Slight modifications have occurred from time to time in the construction technology. But now days, there is a serious threat to the further transfer of this structure to the succeeding generations. This documentation of construction technology of Fuhadaha will surely help to preserve the fast disappearing constituent component of livestock raising in Jammu and Kashmir. This technology can be slightly modified and adapted to various situations. Here, cost-effectiveness of Fuhadaha has also been discussed.

Key words: Fuhadaha, Indigenous fodder storage, Jammu, Traditional storage structure, Livestock, Dry fodder storage

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01F25/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 60-63

 

Indigenous Technological Knowledge in fish farming

 

B Goswami*, S Mondal & S S Dana

Department of Fishery Extension, Department of Fishery Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Fishery Sciences,
West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 7000064, West Bengal

E-mail: bisug2003@yahoo.co.in

Received 1 March 2005; revised 5 August 2005

The indigenous technological knowledge (ITK) innovated by the farmers is stored in people’s memories and activities, and supposed to be the thumb rule in combating different situations and constrains faced during the culture practices. A study was conducted for documentation of indigenous technological knowledge in fish farming in district 24 Parganas (South), West Bengal. The innovations are socially and ecologically acceptable, economically viable and involve little risk. The indigenous technological knowledge can be promoted through scientific approach as a mean of higher and sustainable fish production, which will be ecofriendly, too.

Keywords: Fish farming, Traditional fish farming, Indigenous Technological Knowledge

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01K61/00

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 75-78

 

Traditional pest management practices of Assam

 

M K Deka, M Bhuyan & L K Hazarika*

Department of Entomology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam
E-mail: lkhazarika@yahoo.com; lkhazarika@aau.ac.in.

Received 19 March 2005; revised 22 July 2005

The paper describes the Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) of pest management prevalent among the farmers of Golaghat, Jorhat and Sivasagar districts of Assam. The information was collected on the basis of personal interview to each of the farmers through a questionnaire. Mosaic of ITKs appeared from the farmer’s practices and many of them may serve as the input for valid scientific investigation for large scale use of insect pest management.

Keywords: Indigenous technical knowledge, Rice pests, Fruit pests, Assam, Traditional pest management, Pest management

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 158-161

 

Empowerment through Traditional Knowledge System for

Agricultural sustainability

 

A Gopalam* & P V R M Reddy

Educational Psychology Department, National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad 500 030, Andhra Pradesh

E-mail: naarm.hyd@naarm.ernet.in

Received 19 April 2005; revised 28 July 2005

Developing agricultural sustainability by harnessing Indigenous Knowledge often referred to as Traditional Knowledge. Innovations and practices derived out of success stories from rural locale provided zeal to research scholars to probe into these systems of empowerment. Educational initiatives ranging from classroom culture to farmer centered knowledge require a thorough research investigation and ultimately need to be introduced in higher education. Rich cultural heritage and knowledge dimensions, which have natural tendency to diminish with spatio-temporal changes need to be protected and is required to be brought back either in its native form or slightly modified form. Either of these may be, advantageous for agricultural productivity. Indigenous knowledge, which is centered on beliefs, practices and traditional technologies, is required to be documented through systematic planned approach by educational initiatives.

As a prelude to educational initiatives, documenting Indigenous Knowledge, through established protocols may be the primary requirement. This includes community, individual and public domain knowledge systems, so that the existing data structures and efforts of organizations working to document this knowledge system are strengthened.

Keywords: Traditional Knowledge System, Agricultural sustainability

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01B1/00, A01B3/00, A01C3/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 104-107

Indigenous storage practices in pulses

Karthikeyan C*, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam & S Ayisha Firdouse

Directorate of Planning and Monitoring, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003, Tamil Nadu
E-mail: karthikeyanextn@yahoo.com

Received 27 July 2005; revised 22 September 2005

Indigenous knowledge is the accumulated knowledge, skills and technology of the local people, derived from the direct interaction of human beings and their environment. An investigation was undertaken to document the indigenous post harvest technologies in pulses. The study was conducted in dry farming tracts of Tamil Nadu. Documentation of indigenous storage technologies was done by direct interview and group discussion methods. In this paper, the indigenous storage practices adopted by the dry land farmers were identified and documented.

Key Words:    Indigenous technologies, Indigenous storage practices, Traditional storage, Pulses storage, Dry farming,

                        Indigenous pest management, Pulses storage pests control

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01F25/00


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 51-56

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge and resource utilization of Lisus in the
South eastern part of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh

 

R Sarmah, A Arunachalam*, D Adhikari & M Majumder

Restoration Ecology Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology,
Nirjuli 791109, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: arunachalam_in@yahoo.com

Received 25 May 2004; revised 3 October 2005

The Lisus, also known as Yobin are the dominant tribe in the South eastern periphery of Namdapha national park in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh. They spend most of their time in the forests where they practice jhum cultivation and hunt wild animals. The hilly terrain and inaccessibility have forced them to innovate things to save time and energy. Through time, the Lisu people have earned good knowledge of agricultural as well horticultural crop production. They also know the technique of grafting horticultural plants. Using this knowledge they get fruits they wish to grow in a short duration of time, eg.Diospyros kaki (Thaj), a fruit tree commonly grown by the Lisus. Fruiting is made only when it is grafted with a specific wild plant (Slani in Lisu), which is abundant in the jhum fallows. Different horticultural fruits like Diospyros kaki Linn. f. (Thaj), Citrus reticulata Blanco, (orange), Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., (pineapple), Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava) etc. are also cultivated permanently in the abandoned jhum lands for rehabilitation of fallow agricultural lands, which is generally not observed among other tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. The Lisu tribe has rich traditional as well as technical knowledge due to the numerous hardships they face, which have compelled them to innovate things and make new gadgets. Most of the households at Vijaynagar and Gandhigram have the flowing-water operated gadget used for milling rice without applying manpower. Due to difficult terrains, consisting of mountains and rivers they have built hanging bridges completely made of wood, bamboos and canes to connect village to village and to the agricultural fields. Thus, the indigenous knowledge systems and traditional technologies help in natural resource utilization among the indigenous (Lisu) tribe. However, such eco-friendly technologies that are energy efficient should be promoted for conservation and further replications elsewhere.

Key words:  Namdapha, Natural resources, Biodiversity, Lisu tribe, Indigenous Technologies, Conservation, Traditional Horticultural Practices, Arunachal Pradesh

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00, A01G25/00,C05G3/00, A01M1/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 122-131

Traditional Knowledge for Agro-ecosystem management

S K Srivastava * & Hema Pandey

National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (ICAR), Bhubaneswar 751 003, Orissa

Received 2 June 2005; revised 29 July 2005

Indigenous people have evolved Traditional Knowledge, which are ecologically sound low cost sustainable technologies to deal with issues related to various agro-eco-systems. Growing commercialization and industrialization over the last two decades has eroded this commitment adversely affecting the quality of care in the context of the global change. Common characteristics of traditional knowledge, key facts and figures of traditional wisdom, successful examples of traditional knowledge for soil and water conservation, food and medicines, insect pests management, and future of traditional knowledge in the global scenario are discussed.

Key words: Traditional Knowledge, Agro-ecosystem Management, Traditional Agriculture, Water conservation,

Soil conservation, Insect pests management

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C7/00, A01C15/00, A01N25/00,A01N27/00,E02B5/00, E02B7/00, E02B11/00, E02B13/00

 


 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 132-138

 

Farmer and state managed hill irrigation systems in Kumaun Himalayas

Kireet Kumar*, G S Satyal & K D Kandpal

Land and Water Resource Management Core,G B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263643, Uttaranchal

Emails: kireetpan@yahoo.com; satyal_gs@yahoo.com; chemist_soil@yahoo.com

Received 21 June 2005; revised 28 September 2005

The present study was conducted to make comparative assessment of traditional farmer managed small hill irrigation systems and State managed irrigation systems in Kumaun (Central) Himalaya. Ten randomly selected canal systems in each category in Almora district were studied in terms of their operational characteristics. Different irrigation parameters (i.e. canal ratio, duty, irrigation intensity and conveyance losses, etc.) of their management systems have been compared to assess its influence on the performance of irrigation system in the region. The farmer schemes are small in size, but they are sound in terms of land and water utilization as indicated by the high irrigation intensity and conveyance efficiencies. The state managed schemes are less efficient mainly due to their static management, poor maintenance and absence of location specific technology.

Key words: Irrigation systems, Traditional irrigation systems Irrigation intensity, Kumaun Himalayas

IPC Int. Cl.7: E02B17/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 7-18

 

Traditional agricultural practices in Meghalaya, North East India

Solomon Retna Dhas Nadar Jeeva, Roytre Christopher Laloo & Bhanu Prakash Mishra*

Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Northeastern Hill University,
NEHU Permanent Campus, Umshing, Mawkynroh, Mawlai, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya,
Email: mishrabp111@yahoo.com

Received 27 September 2005; revised 24 October 2005

The paper deals with traditional farming systems practiced by indigenous communities of Meghalaya. Majority of tribal people (ca. 83 per cent) in the state is engaged in agriculture. The shifting cultivation and terrace (bun) agriculture are two major farming systems, prevalent in Meghalaya. Tree based farming practices are also prevalent in the state. The crops are grown in association with tree species like alder, Aquilaria, areca nut, coconut, bamboo, Khasi pine, etc. Due to undulating topography and hilly terrain, the farmers predominantly use bamboo drip irrigation practice. The harvesting of crops adds a new dimension towards improvement of soil fertility. The farmers pick up ear heads of crops only, other parts of plant are left on cultivated land. The farmers store grains in structures, made of soil and plant materials. The seed storage structures are traditional and resistant to insects.

Keywords:   Bamboo drip irrigation, Bun agriculture, Indigenous agricultural practices, Shifting cultivation, Traditional agriculture system, Traditional storage system, Terrace cultivation

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00, A01G25/00,C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00, A01F25/00

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 41-46

Traditional agricultural tools—A review

P K Das & D Nag*

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology (ICAR), 12 Regent Park, Kolkata 700 040, West Bengal
E-mail: dnagin@yahoo.com

Received 5 September 2005; revised 30 September 2005

Agricultural tools are as old as the Stone age. They were required to facilitate working and to increase the productivity of human workers. New tools were developed during copper, bronze and iron ages. Besides stones, other non-metals like wood, leather, bamboo and fibres were used in tools but most of them became extinct with the introduction of iron.

Starting with the earliest iron Bakhar blade for tillage in central India after the discovery of iron smelting in mud hearth in Bastar of Chattisgarh state, agricultural tools were designed and produced in scores by village blacksmiths. Some of the hand tools made of iron are now being mass-produced in small-scale industries using modern system of production for economy and quality.

All trades of village artisanship in black-smithy, carpentry, cobblery, pottery and other craft in bamboo, stone, etc. contributed to the design and development of agricultural tools through artisan’s ingenuity. Examples have been cited here covering large trades of artisanship. Sickles, Khurpi and other small hand tools were the age-old traditional devices developed by blacksmiths. Carpenters made the counterpoise to lift water from wells to irrigate crops. Big size earthenware was made by potters to store grains for months to be safe from insects and pests. Cobblers were not left behind. They used whole skins of animals to carry water to irrigate horticultural crops besides watering dusty roads. Bamboo craftsman also contributed in developing entire range of food processing and storage structures like sieve to clean grains, baskets to transport and store vegetables, etc. Stones craftsman also made mills to grind wheat to make flours and pulses to make Dhal and similarly mortar and pestle to make paste of spices, etc. Today big mills are making these pastes to re-introduce the traditional taste and flavour of recipes. A dozen of precision hand tools are being manufactured for improved quality and finish by a score of small scale industries; traditional sickles and Khurpi by a million artisan shops in country side and several manual and animal drawn tools by about 18 thousand small industries.

Keywords: Traditional agricultural tools, Review, Agricultural tools, Traditional artisans

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01B21/00, A01B39/00, A01B39/18, A01B59/00, A01D1/04, E02B11/00, E02B13/00, A01G25/14

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 57-59

Plant indicators for agricultural seasons amongst Pnar tribe of Meghalaya

Hajal Samati & Samim Sofika Begum*

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong 793003, Meghalaya

E-mail:Samimbegum@rediffmail.com

Received 5 October 2005; revised 15 November 2005

The work relates to Pnar tribe of Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya, whose main occupation is agriculture. Even today they depend on plant species as indicators, such as Butea buteiformis (Voigt) Grier. & Long, Castanopsis indica A. DC., Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) DC., Phoenix humilis Royle ex Becc. & Hook. f., Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gord., Quercus serrata Thunb., Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. for systematizing steps they followed season wise for achieving the best productivity of rice and other agricultural crops. Each plant indicator is provided with vernacular name, relevant plant parts indicative of agricultural seasons and their significant role in agricultural productivity.

Keywords: Plant indicators, Agricultural seasons, Pnar tribes, Meghalaya

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01G1/00

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 71-74

 

Traditional pest management practices in Kanyakumari district,
southern peninsular India

 

S Kiruba1, B P Mishra2, S Israel Stalin1, S Jeeva2 - 4 & S Sam Manohar Dhas1*

1Department of PG Studies and Research Centre in Zoology, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, Tamil Nadu
E-mail: sam_biocontrol@yahoo.com

2Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, North – Eastern Hill University, Mawlai Umshing Mawkynroh, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya

3Department of PG Studies and Research Centre in Botany, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, Tamil Nadu

4Department of PG Studies and Research Centre in Botany, Virudhunagar Hindu Nadars’ Senthikumara Nadar College,
Virudhunagar 626 001, Tamil Nadu

Received 6 October 2005; revised 18 November 2005

The paper deals with pests of paddy crop and coconut plantation, and their management through traditional methods by indigenous people of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu. A total of 10 insect pests and 2 non-insect pests were identified in paddy fields. In coconut plantation, only 3 insect pests were recorded. The farmers use lime, fly ash and some plant species, namely Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Aloe barbadensis Mill., Coleus amboinicus Lour. and Pongamia pinnata Pierre as pest deterrent materials as well as fertilizer. Different types of traps used against insect pests such as fire trap, meat trap, plant trap and pot trap are effective in controlling pests.

Key words: Coconut plantation, Pest deterrent, Insect pest control, Paddy field, Traditional pest management

IPC Int. Cl.7: C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 118-126

 

Indigenous agricultural practices among tribal women

M Natarajan & Santha Govind*

Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: santhagovind2003@yahoo.co.in; mnrajpriya@yahoo.com

Received 20 October 2005; revised 5 November 2005

The tribal women living In the Kalrayan Hills have rich knowledge about the indigenous practices, especially in post harvest and cultivation aspects on paddy (Oryza sativa Linn.) and tapioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Indigenous knowledge has evolved within the community and has been passed on from one generation to another. The role of indigenous knowledge in sustainable agricultural production in developing countries is beginning to gain recognition within scientific circles. Tribal women are generally noted for the wealth of indigenous knowledge. Hence, a study on adoption of indigenous farm practices among tribal women of the Kalrayan hills was taken up to assess the extent of adoption of identified indigenous farm practices in paddy and tapioca. The study was conducted in the Kalrayan hills of district Villupuram, Tamil Nadu. A total of 120 tribal women selected based on proportionate random sampling technique. The data were collected from the respondents with the help of a well-structured pre-tested interview schedule and suitable statistical tools were used to analyze the data.

Keywords: Indigenous agricultural practices, Tribal women, Kalrayan hills

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00, A01G25/00, C05G3/00, A01M1/00


 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 25-33

Traditional technologies in soybean cultivation in Madhya Pradesh

Senthil Vinaygam*, Buddheshwar Umraoji Dupare & Om Prakash Joshi

National Research Centre for Soybean (ICAR), Khandwa Road, Indore 452017, Madhya Pradesh
E-mail: ssvinay1@rediffmail.com

Received 31 October 2005; revised 14 November 2005

This paper reports the age-old technologies followed by soybean growers in Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh contributes about 67 & 56% in total area and production of soybean, respectively in the country. Soybean is known to Indians since ages as food plant and was in cultivation in hills of Kumaon and Garhwal region of Uttaranchal state, foothills of Himalayan and scattered pockets of central India. Historical records, however, reveals that small seeded black soybean was in cultivation in central province, somewhere in 1882 at Nagpur.

Soybean was introduced at Adhartal farm (Jabalpur) during 1935-36 and in 1937-38 at Hoshangabad district in Madhya Pradesh. Since then the soybean is being grown in the farmers field. The farmers practice a large number of production technologies developed by different research organization. Added to this, 34 traditional practices followed by soybean growers in Madhya Pradesh have been reported in many secondary sources of data collection. Traditional technologies adopted by 100 farmers of Indore, Dewas and Jhabua districts of Madhya Pradesh have been documented in the present work. Of these, 16 traditional technologies or practices are being practiced by more than one third of total respondents. Small and marginal farmers, in spite of introduction of improved technologies, commonly resort to few traditional technologies. This calls for renewed thrust to disseminate the blend of effective, cheap and eco-friendly indigenous traditional practices with modern technologies in agriculture to provide sustainability to their fragmented holdings.

Keywords:        Soybean cultivation, Soil management, Seed treatment, Traditional pest management, Traditional seed storage, Traditional cultivation

IPC Int. Cl.7:               A01B1/00, A01B15/00, A01B19/00, A01C3/00, A01C5/00, A01C7/00, A01G1/00, A01G13/00, A01G25/00A01F25/00, C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 5(1), January 2006, pp. 64-70

 

Traditional knowledge of tribals in crop protection

P Narayanasamy

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu

Email: drpnsamy@yahoo.com

Received 8 November 2005; revised 18 November 2005

The paper reviews the scenario of pest control activities adopted by the tribals envisioned towards pursuing organic agriculture in the light of the hazards of chemical pesticides posing serious threat to human, animal and environmental life. Pioneering investigations were undertaken at Annamalai University to cover major tribal groups of Tamil Nadu like Malayali Gounder, Irulas, etc. living in hills, namely Kalrayan, Kolli, Nilgris, Pachamalai, Javvadu, Elagiri, Yercaud and Varusanadu brought in to focus plethora of pest control techniques and innovative pest control devices adopted by them. Certain potential practices were tested and potentiated by suitable amendments in the dosages and timings of application for attaining best plant protection. This culminated in evolution of packages of practices known as Tribal Pest Management Systems for important pests in rice and vegetables.

Keywords:   Tribal pesticides, Tribal rat trap, Atti, Ethnopesticides, Crop protection, Traditional Knowledge, Tribal Pest Management, Traditional Pest Management

IPC Int. Cl.7: C05G3/00, A01M1/00, A01M5/00, A01M31/00, A01N3/00