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Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 

 

 

ISSN: 0971-5544  

CODEN : JIPRFG 9(6) 507-614 (2004)

VOLUME 9

NUMBER 6

NOVEMBER 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Articles

 

 

Intellectual Property in Software: Insights for Indian Business

515

Mary Mathew, Malati Hegde and Gopi Garge

 

 

Effectiveness of Indian Sui Generis Law on Plant Variety Protection and its Potential to Attract Private Investment in Crop Improvement

 

533

S Bala Ravi

 

 

 

Experimental Use Exception: An International and Comparative Overview with a Possible Answer to The Forthcoming Indian Patent Legislation

 

549

Aditya Nagarsheth

 

 

The Long Arm Jurisdiction of Courts Regarding Copyright Law in India

557

Praveen Dalal

 

 

 

Intellectual Property and E-commerce: How to Take Care of a Company’s Website?

 

568

Lien Verbauwhede

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

IPR¾General

 

581

· The political economy of intellectual property treaties · Inventors and pirates: Creative activity and IPR · Property, intellectual property, and free riding · Intellectual property and E-commerce · India: Data exclusivity – The Indian perspective · India: Cyber crimes an unlawful act where in the computer is either a tool or a target or both’

 

 

 

Patents

583

· Assessing the R&D management of firms by patent citation · The level of disclosure necessary for patent protection of genetic innovations · Exploring the evolution of biotechnology using patent citation information · A formulation for patenting content-based retrieval processes in digital libraries · Software patents and open source: The battle over intellectual property rights · Patents for genetic inventions

 

 

Copyright and Trademarks

585

· Databases: Is sui generis a stronger bet than copyright? · Technological creativity and moral rights: A comparative perspective · Licensing agreements for information resources and copyright limitations and exceptions · Copyright and commerce · Evolution of open source networks in industry · Using technology to protect copyright works · Modeling and implementation of digital rights · SDMI-based rights management systems · Licensing agreements for information resources and copyright limitations and exceptions · The open digital rights language · Domain names: Has trademark law strayed from its path? ·Enforcement costs and trademark puzzles

 

 

IPR News

 

 

 

IPR News—General

591

· The European Commission proposes more competition in car spare parts market · Benitec obtains exclusive licence to unique RNAi non-viral delivery technology · US plans crackdown on piracy, counterfeiting · Recording industry tunes up for IPR

 

 

 

Patent News

594

· China challenging drug patents · Canadian drugs patent law for poor countries · India wins jute patent war · Kemin wins lutein patent case  · Monsanto wins key patent dispute regarding Dicot plant transformation · PalmSource settles patent infringement case · Nikon to get 145 million in patent case · New South Wales (NSW) government wants Linux IP, patent protection

 

 

 

Copyright and Trademark News

 

600

· P2P blow for copyright holders · P2P partner charges RIAA with patent infringement · Applications with multiple marks can be refused · Chinese company registers 'Happy Birthday' as its trademark

 

 

Key Patents

 

603

· Film specialist patents new dissolving capsule · Stressgen granted additional patent covering use of lead compound, HspE7 · Microsoft granted 'Tabbed Browsing' patent ·A process for preparation of formulation useful for rearing silkworm patented · A process for the preparation of sugarcane beverage base patented · Moisture sensor manufacturing process patented

 

 

 

List of Referees

606

 

 

Annual Author Index

607

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

608

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 Vol 9, November 2004, pp 515-532

 

 

Intellectual Property in Software: Insights for Indian Business

Mary Mathew, Malati Hegde and Gopi Garge

 

Amongst the challenges that actors in the software side of information technology are experiencing, none is more contentious than the issues it raises for intellectual property. The controversy pits administration against faculty, scientists against humanists and academic values against financial interests, employees against management, and software developers against corporate houses. The conflicting global intellectual property practice in the case of software has resulted in multiple schools of thought, each providing their way of how it must be managed. In this paper, three areas of concern in intellectual property practice, business, technology and legal in nature, are addressed .The paper aims to describe these concerns and provides clarity regarding the polarization of schools of thought in intellectual property practice. Through a better understanding of the global and domestic situation, the authors hope to motivate a note of concern amongst those with a weak intellectual property focus in the Indian software sector.

 

Keywords: IP in software, IP ownership, TRIPS Agreement, patent, copyright, open source, closed source

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 Vol 9, November 2004, pp 533-548

 

Effectiveness of Indian Sui Generis Law on Plant Variety Protection and its Potential to Attract Private Investment in Crop Improvement

S Bala Ravi

 

Effectiveness of sui generis system of plant variety protection has become contentious in the absence of its definition in Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. India legislated the sui generis law, the Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers’ Rights in 2001 and notified its rule in 2003. However, the Act is yet to be enforced. Effectiveness of legislation depends on the clarity and scope of its legal provisions, associated rules and regulations. The manner in which these are implemented also contributes to the effectiveness. An examination of this Act and its rules by applying certain de minimis requirements essential to ensure effectiveness of an IPR system, concludes that the Act is effective in design and scope. Certain omissions in the rules may affect this effectiveness. The Act, apart from being effective under the flexibility allowed by TRIPS Agreement, also harmonizes other national commitments India has from international agreements on domestic biodiversity, plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, economic, social and cultural rights, human rights and right to development. This paper examines the potential of this legislation in spurring private investment in Indian plant breeding, strengthening seed industry and making available quality seed to farmers for achieving all round agricultural development. The Act may facilitate enhanced private investment in selected crops and seed supply systems, while strengthening of public research is imperative to achieve balanced agricultural growth and access of technology to farmers at competitive cost.

 

Keywords: Sui generis, plant variety protection, TRIPS Agreement, PBR, CBD, PPVFR Act

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 Vol 9, November 2004, pp 549-556

 

Experimental Use Exception: An International and Comparative Overview with a Possible Answer to The Forthcoming Indian Patent Legislation

Aditya Nagarsheth

 

Experimental use exception allows researchers to use patented inventions for carrying out experiments and research without taking the licence from the patent holder. Experimental use exception is a recognized exception to patent laws across the globe. However, differences arise on the nature and scope of the exception. These differences are largely dependent on the nation’s economic circumstances, capability and level of existing science and technology standards and its prospects of exploitation. Hence, United States, being an economic superpower and global leader in most of the technologies provides for an extremely limited experimental use exception to patent rights. However, for countries like India, where science and innovation is still at a nascent stage, it would be prudent to learn from history of Japan and allow an extremely broad experimental use exception to bolster research and innovation. This paper deals with the international position of exceptions to patent laws. An experimental use exception and its importance is also explained. Comparison of the present legal position in England, United States, Germany, Japan and India on experimental use exception to patent laws is also given in detail. In the end, it draws out the rationale for a broad experimental use exception for India and concludes with some emerging issues where further research is required.

 

Keywords: Experimental use exception, Indian patent legislation

 

 

 

 Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 9, November 2004, pp 557-567

 

The Long Arm Jurisdiction of Courts Regarding Copyright Law in India

Praveen Dalal

 

The aim of the article is to expound the scope of territorial jurisdictional powers of the courts, tribunals or other authorities constituted under various enactments and dealing with copyright violations in India. A holistic approach has been adopted so that real space and on-line copyright violations can be appropriately dealt with. The article further suggests a possible course to deal with violations occurring outside India through the mode of information technology and having an adverse effect on the copyright of the concerned person residing in India.

 

Keywords: Jurisdictional issues, cyber space jurisdiction, online copyright issues

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 Vol 9, November 2004, pp 568-580

 

Intellectual Property and E-commerce: How to Take Care of a Company’s Website?

Lien Verbauwhede

 

A company’s website can be a great tool for promoting business online and for generating sales. However, as web commerce increases, so does the risk that others may copy the look and feel, some features or contents of the company’s website. The risk also increases that the company may be accused of unauthorised use of other people’s intellectual assets. This article deals with some of the basic issues that should be borne in mind before launching a website.

 

Keywords: Intellectual property, E-commerce, website launching, online agreements

 

 

 

List of Referees

 

The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2004.

 

Bhadbhade Nilima

ILS Law College, Pune

Chakravarti A K

Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, New Delhi

Dave Raj S

Morrison & Foerster, Washington, DC

Doris Estelle Long

The John Marshall Law School, Chicago, Illinois

Durant Steven

Morrison & Foerster, Washington, DC

Ganguli Prabuddha

Vision IPR, Mumbai

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin

Jaiya G S

Small and Medium -sized Enterprises Division, WIPO, Geneva, Switzerland

James T C

Department of Industrial Policy& Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, New Delhi

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, Mumbai

Keayla B K

National Working Group on Patent Laws, New Delhi

Kochhar Sudhir

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi

Lalitha N

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad

Majumdar S

Majumdar & Co, Patent & Trademark Attorneys, Calcutta

Mitra N L

National Law University, Jodhpur

Mittal A K

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Nagarajan S

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

Nair Gopakumar G

Gopakumar Nair Associates, Bombay

Nair M D

Consultant to Pharmaceutical Industry, Chennai

Narayanswamy Harini

Narayanswamy Associates, Hyderabad

Raut Bimal Kumar

School of Law, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Sampath Kumar K P

IPR Attorney & Patent Agent, Secunderabad

Sathynarayana Rao K S

Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore

Saxena J P

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

Sharma N K

National Research Development Corporation of India, New Delhi

Suthersanen Uma

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, London, UK

Swaminathan K V

Waterfalls Institute of Technology Transfer, New Delhi

Thacker Shardul

Mulla & Mulla & Craigie Blunt & Caroe, Mumbai

Thomas Zakir

Income Tax Office, New Delhi

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Verma S K

Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi

Vijayashankar Na

Naavi’s Portal on Indian Cyber Law, Chennai, Madras

Zekos Georgios I

Department of International Economics, Democritos University of Thrace, Greece

 

 

 

Annual Author Index

 

 

Bala Ravi S

533

James T C

207

Pandey Sanjay

356

Bhattacharjee Sudipta

260

 

 

Pendsey Nandan

332

Biswas Sourav Kanti De

 148

Kochar Sudhir

342

 

 

 

 

Kumar Harsh

43

Raju K D

226

Chakravarti A K

313

Kumar Jidesh

471

Rao N H

242

Chakravarthy Kalyan

332

 

 

Ravindran Sudhir Raja

 462

 

 

Mathew Mary

515

 

 

Dalal Praveen

557

Mittal Raman

440

Sastry R Kalpana

242

 

 

Mukherjee Srijit

260

Singh Amarjit

56

Ganguli Prabuddha

 24

Mukherjee Sunando

136

Srivastava Suresh C

 9,105

Ghatak P

 313

 

 

 

 

Ghosh Sourabh

424

Nagarsheth Aditya

549

Tripathi R C

313

Gopi Garge

 515

Nair M D

415

 

 

Gupta V K

34

 

 

Verbauwhede Lien

 568

Hegde Malati

 515

 

 

Vidya Kumari T

120

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

 

Agricultural research

242

Genetic patenting

486

Patent Cooperation Treaty

157

Agriculture

58

Genetic resources

162

Patent database

165

Anti-competitive practices

415

Geographic disparity

164

Patent dispute

298, 598

Antimicrobial nanoemulsion technology

190

Geographical indications

9,105,

169,481

Patent doctrine

471

Artherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

193

GI protection

493

Patent expiration

186

Audiovisual industry

440

Global patent system

157

Patent information

37

Augmentin patent

73

Gmail

300

Patent infringement

74, 183,

296, 598

 

 

Gnutella

440

Patent invention

332

Bibliographic citation

166

Graphic characters

148

Patent law

332

Biodegradable polymers

191

 

 

Patent Law Treaty

157

Biodiscovery

162

Hacking

51

Patent litigation

183

Biodiversity

281, 291

Hardware taxation

63

Patent prosecution

61

Biopiracy

164

Human dignity

120

Patent rights

164

Bioprospecting

162,486

 

 

PBR

533

Biotechnology

471

ICANN

424

PCT-SAFE

488

Biotechnology innovation

162

Idle curiosity

332

Peer-to-peer technology

490

Border measures

43

Indian patent legislation

549

Performers’ right

356

Brand names

189

Indian Trademarks Act

67

Personality rights

120

 

 

Industrial designs

170

Pharmaceutical industry

277, 371

Cancer gene

192

Information age

482

Philosophical use

332

Capacity building for innovation

462

Information technology

166 , 285

Photoreceptor

182

Caseino glyco macro peptide

79

Infringement

136

Pigeon pea extracts

193

CBD

342, 533

Innovations

462

Piracy

592

Celebrity rights

120

Intellectual property

162,260,

288, 279,

462,481,

568

Pirated software

188

Closed source

515

Intellectual property law

162

Plant gene

190

Collective management

285

Intellectual property law protection

148

Plant genetic resources

58

Competition law

286

Intellectual property management

161, 289

Plant intellectual property

62

Compulsory licence

173, 415

Intellectual property policy

24

Plant technology

189

Compulsory licensing

281

Intellectual property protection

57

Plant variety protection

62, 533

Computer programming

168

Intellectual property rights

34, 242,

275,

Plasma patents

298

Computer software

282

 

471, 492, 581

Polylon turf

80

Computer virus

51

Intellectual property rights protection

161

Polymeric materials

191

Convention on Biological Diversity

58

Intellectual property system

24, 43

PPVFR Act

  342, 533

Copy protection techniques

313

Intellectual property treaties

581

Prior art

164

Copyright

78, 285,

292, 515

Intellectual repository

184

Prior art searching

60

Copyright brochure

79

International patent filings

174

Privacy rights

120

Copyright industries

440

Internet

278, 440

Product patent

371

Copyright infringement

189, 498

Internet defamation

51

Protein products

80

Copyright law

207, 440

Internet domain names

136

Proteomics

61

Copyright ownership

207

Inventive step

471

Public health issues

415

Copyright protection

63

IP awareness

171

Publicity rights

120

Copyright-profiting

168

IP disputes

68, 189

PVP system

342

Copyright regime

207

IP in software

515

 

 

Copyrightability

148

IP ownership

515

R&D

34

Counterfeit trademark

43

IPR

34, 342,

462

R&D investment

161

Counterfeiters

69

IPR regime

495

Research and experiment

332

Counterfeiting

592

 

 

Research exemptions

332

Cyber crimes

51, 583

Joint patenting

59

Rights management systems

588

Cyber parasites

424

Jurisdictional issues

557

Role of IP infrastructure

462

Cyber scams and frauds

51

 

 

 

 

Cyber space jurisdiction

557

Kazaa

440

Software patents

168, 283,

584

Cyber squatters

424

Know-how

260

Software piracy

51

Cyber squatting

51,136

 

 

Software technologies

276

Cyber twins

424

Lead-free alloy patents

163

Soybean lipoxygenase inhibitor

81

Cyberspace

167, 278

Legal regime

356

Stem cells

282

 

 

Legal rights

207

Sui generis

58, 342,

471, 533

Data exclusivity

288, 582

Legislative protection

105

 

 

Data extract format

187

Lisbon Agreement

169

TB therapy

178

Decryption method

191

 

 

Technology development

34

Dependent patents

415

Mailbox

226

Technology transfer

242,275

Developing countries

24, 164,

242,260,

462

Memory device

191

Telephone tones

78

Digital environment

285

Microorganisms

283

Terminator technology

275

Digital medium

313

Modified wheat flour

194

Toner technology

182

Digital Millennium Copyright Act

63

Moral rights

207, 285

Trade barriers

169

Digital rights

587

MP3 movement

440

Trademark law

64, 136,

 589

Digital technologies

207

Music piracy

78

Trademarks

9,65,

105,242,

277,300

Digital watermarking

313

Music rights

286

Trade perspective

356

Digitally transmitted materials

167

 

 

Traditional cultural expressions

287

Dignitary rights

120

Nanotechnology

166

Traditional knowledge

162, 290

Doha Declaration

162, 415

Napster

440

Transgenic crops

57

Domain name disputes

136

Naringinase enzyme

81

TRIPS Agreement

9,43,

105,157,

226,280,

342,415,

482,515,

533

 

Domain names

64, 424,

 589

Nasal delivery system

80

TRIPS compliant patent system

371

Drug approval

332

Neighbouring rights

285, 356

TRIPS compliance

483

 

 

Non-commercial use

415

TRIPS Council

291

E-commerce

568

Non-obviousness

471

TRIPS enforcement

43

Economic growth

24

Non-patentable items

176

 

 

Economic rights

120, 207

North – South technology transfer

260

UDRP

424

Educational institutions

207

Novelty

471

Unfair competition

168

Electronic database protection

286

 

 

UPOV

342

Electronic filing

175

Online agreements

568

Utility

471

Electronic patent application

295

Online copyright issues

557

Utility models

181

EMR

226

Online patent access

494

Utility patents

62, 179

Encryption

191

Online piracy

440

 

 

European Directive

63

Online pirates

77

Value of innovation

165

Exclusive marketing rights

17, 173

Open source

515

 

 

Exclusive rights

207

Open source software

490

Webcasting

356

Experimental use exception

549

Optical disk

192

Web patent

72

 

 

Optical silicon

192

Website launching

568

Fair use

440

P2P networking

440

Wines and spirits

9

Fictional characters

148

Parallel importation

287

WIPO member states

170

Food security

60

Parallel imports

172, 278

WIPO patent agenda

157

Foreign direct investment

59, 161

7.3    Passing off

7.4 ,105,

7.5,  136

WO documents

177

Franchisee

260

Patent

260,342, 471, 515

World patent

157

Gene silencing technology

297

Patent amendment

226

World Trade Organization

67

Generic copies

185

Patent analysis software

163

Xerox's document security

182

Generic top level domain

75

Patent backlog

181

   

Genetic materials

62, 283

Patent citations

583, 166