Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

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VOLUME 10

                NUMBER 6

                 NOVEMBER 2005

CODEN: JIPRFG 10(6) 457-540 (2005)

 

  ISSN: 0971-5544

 

 CONTENTS

Articles

 

Role of Intellectual Property in Economic Growth

465

            Kaushik Laik 

 

Integrated Circuits and Intellectual Property Rights in India

474

            Atul Gupta

 

Passing off and the Law on ‘Trade Dress’ Protection: Reflections on Colgate v Anchor

480

            Anu Tiwari

 

Digital Alteration of Photographs and Intellectual Property Rights

491

            Suvrajyoti Gupta

 

Nontraditional Areas of Intellectual Property Protection: Colour, Sound, Taste, Smell, Shape, Slogan and Trade Dress

499

          M M S Karki 

 

 

Literature Review 

 

IPR General

507

 

 

· IP management of biosequence information from a patent searching perspective · IPR indemnities in the open source and proprietary software worlds · Technology transfer in nanotechnology · The nanotech intellectual property landscape · World-wide idea registration in a global idea bank is a sine qua non to protect present IP ideas for posterity · Determinants of high-royalty contracts and the impact of stronger protection of IPRs in Japan · Culture matters to multinationals’ intellectual property businesses · The “Bermuda triangle” of pharmaceutical law—is data protection a lost ship? · Intellectual property strategy in bioinformatics and biochips · Automated silicon IP trade using mobile agent technology
· International trade, economic growth and IPR · Biodiversity, ownership, and indigenous knowledge: Exploring legal frameworks for community, farmers, and IPR in Africa · Do not put too much value on conventional medicines · Knowledge production from an African perspective: International information flows and IP · Intellectual property and genetically modified seeds · Integrating intellectual property concepts into MIS education · Developing countries' need for coordination in international intellectual property standard setting · IPR and innovation in developing countries · Software protection in China—Towards better days?
· Traditional medicines and medicinal plants, and their protection modalities from an intellectual property rights perspective · Inter-firm migration of tacit knowledge: Law and policy · P2P leisure exchange: Net banditry and the policing of intellectual property
· Intellectual property—Rights or privileges? · Japonica rice: Intellectual property, scientific publishing and data sharing · Intellectual property litigation system reform in Japan

 

 

Patents

513

 

 

· Rapid patenting growth by academic institutes in the People's Republic of China · Reissue patent applications · Patentability and enforcement issues related to nanotechnology inventions · Nanotechnology-related inventions: infringement issues · Does insurance have a patent?
· The challenge of sustaining the research and innovation process · The journey of Indian Patent Law towards TRIPS compliance · Nanotechnology and the best mode
· Nanotechnology in India: Government support, market acceptance and patent profile
· Patents on compatibility standards and open source · How do patent laws influence innovation? Evidence from nineteenth-century world's fairs

 

 

 

Copyright and Trademark 

515

· Digital copyright and the ‘new’ controversy: Is the law moulding technology and innovation? · Modeling and implementation of digital rights · Should law protect the technologies that protect copyright?· Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions · The copyright implications of BitTorrent · Contractual and technological approaches for protecting digital works · International copyright law and ‘fair dealing’ as a ‘user right’· Trademarks or copyrights: Which IPR affords its owner the greatest protection of architectural ingenuity? · Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change

 

 

 

IPR News

 

 

 

IPR News—General 

519

· WIPO begins on-line publication of the WIPO gazette of international marks · Director General of WIPO welcomes signs of progress in recognition of indigenous people’s rights
· Myanmar to enact intellectual property protection law · Intellectual property rights and human rights · US discloses moves to stop piracy of intellectual property

 
 
 

Patent News 

521

· New ways to fight AIDS in Brazil · Eight-year data protection for brand names would handicap efforts · Court rejects debt-escaping patent · Patent threat looms over dynamic web pages · Gene patents threaten research · Cyberview Technology issued patent to enhance server-based downloadable games system · Apple faces iPod patent challenge · EU assembly votes for drug patent extension · Microsoft patent filings up 5 times in 2004 · Patent infringement exemption · MCX seeks patent for contracts · PERD Centre files patent application for 12 drugs · World IP Body acknowledges Korea as leading innovator

 

 

Copyright and Trademark News 

525

· Claim to copyright Barramundi name fails · Supreme Court backs copyright owners · India decides to join Madrid Protocol on trademarks · China expands list of well-known marks
· European Court of Justice deals blow to Picasso family · WIPO evicts cyber squatter from India’s SBI domain · Basmati patents

 

 

  Key Patents 

528

· Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV) issued US patent · CSIR gets US patent for green mussel extract to treat osteoporosis · US patent awarded to CSIR for antibacterial formulation for drinking water · Arena Pharmaceuticals issued patent for 5-HT2C receptor · Nanobarriers
· Cool platelets

 

 

List of Referees

531

 

 

Annual Author Index

533

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

534

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 465-473

 

Role of Intellectual Property in Economic Growth

Kaushik Laik

Received 16 August 2005, revised 4 October 2005

In spite of substantial economic growth of nations, there still persist conflicting views among developed and developing countries in retaining a strong intellectual property regime in the domestic realms. For instance, the debate on competition laws and feasibility of having monopolistic tendencies as emphasized by the jurisprudence of IP laws, still appears to haunt the think-tank of developing nations like India. The fact that developing countries vary widely in the quality and capacity of their scientific and technical infrastructures, poses a major hurdle to the extent of applicability of IP, particularly, patent laws, to each of them. Having a uniform IP standard across the globe undoubtedly seems to be an easy solution, but the issue certainly involves numerous micro and macro considerations which need to be taken heed of.

  The aim of the present paper is to investigate the impact of a strong IP regime in the economic development of a nation. As well known and beyond any doubts, IP protection is an important determinant of economic growth. It helps entrepreneurs to recover costs of their innovative expenses. Undoubtedly, IP systems must be developed so as to bring in socio-economic well-being. However, the incentives for the same need to be analysed critically, as the duplicity of stands of various parties to the WTO and TRIPS are clearly evident. The fact that strong IPR actually provoke IPR infringements in many developing nations also seems to be an issue which needs to be analysed while comprehending the need for the former. The trade-off between unfair competition laws and IP also assumes importance of high magnitude and hence needs to be particularly emphasized.

 

           Keywords: Intellectual property, traditional knowledge, geographical indications, economic growth, 

                            competition act

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 474-479

 

Integrated Circuits and Intellectual Property Rights in India

Atul Gupta

Received 2 May 2005, revised 8 September 2005

The Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Layout-Design Act, 2000, protects original, inherently distinctive layout-designs that have not been previously commercially exploited and registration is a necessary pre-requisite for protection. A layout-design is original if it is not merely a copy of all, or substantial part of another layout-design, and is the result of the creator’s own intellectual effort. Registration of a layout-design shall be available to the registered proprietor irrespective of the fact whether the layout-design is incorporated in an article or not. The Act makes provision for a registry to be headed by a Registrar for the purpose of registration of layout-designs. Protection under the Act extends for ten years and commences from the date of application for registration in case of layout-designs which have not been commercially exploited. For layout-designs, which have been commercially exploited (for less than two years) before the date of application for registration, protection commences retrospectively from date of first commercial exploitation. The registered-proprietor has the exclusive right to reproduce by any means the registered layout-design or any substantial portion of it. But the Act permits ‘reverse-engineering’ of a layout-design for limited purposes. The registered-proprietor also has the exclusive right to import, sell or distribute for commercial purpose any semiconductor chip products in which the registered layout-design is embodied. The Act provides for criminal remedies for the infringement of a layout-design expressly, civil remedies too are available to enforce rights under the Act. A registered layout-design can be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned. Registration of assignment or transmission is necessary to establish title to the registered layout-design. The Act also provides for reciprocal arrangements between convention countries. This article endeavours to examine the nature of the intellectual property involved in layout-designs, their use in semiconductor integrated circuits and the other relevant provisions of the Act.

Keywords: Integrated circuits, layout designs, semiconductors, TRIPS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 480-490

 

Passing off and the Law on ‘Trade Dress’ Protection: Reflections on
Colgate v Anchor

Anu Tiwari

Received 20 April 2005, revised 16 August 2005

The trade dress or ‘get-up’ of goods has long been recognized as protected from any form of unauthorised appropriation traditionally under the law of passing off and more recently under the tort of unfair trading. The paper principally relies on case analysis in order to ascertain the approach of the courts with regard to this species of protection. This has been essential because statutory law on trademark lacks express provisions, which could comprehensively bring within its sweep trade dress protection of articles of commerce. This paper assesses impact of a recent judgment of Delhi High Court in Colgate v Anchor, on the course law takes in future on this subject. This ruling has considerably widened the net of protection available to the external appearance and configuration of goods—together constituting the ‘trade dress’ of goods. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the Colgate ruling and assess its merits on the touchstone of the principles extracted from the existing corpus of case laws on trade dress protection, in the process arguing against a liberal protectionist regime.

           Keywords: Passing off, trade dress

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 491-498

 

Digital Alteration of Photographs and Intellectual Property Rights

Suvrajyoti Gupta

Received 10 August 2005, revised 28 September 2005

Advancement in technology has made it easier to digitally alter a photograph. This along with faster dissemination of text and images through the Internet has elevated morphing or digital alteration of images to the status of a cottage industry. This paper discusses how such alteration interferes variously with the intellectual property rights of the author, owner, or the subject of the photograph. Digital alteration of photograph has consequences in copyright law, passing off, celebrity’s right to publicity as well as areas like criminal law, law of defamation, etc., where the injured party needs to have proper remedy. The paper also discusses law in USA and UK as well as the relevant laws in India.

           Keywords: Digital alteration, morphing, image, fake photograph, right to publicity, passing off

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10 November 2005, pp 499-506

 

 

Nontraditional Areas of Intellectual Property Protection: Colour, Sound, Taste, Smell, Shape, Slogan and Trade Dress

M M S Karki

Received 6 December 2004, revised 14 October 2005

In the recent years, the industry is registering more and more trademarks in unconventional areas like colour, sound and smell. Specially, sounds and colours are commonly trademarked today. Smell, shape and slogan are also gaining grounds slowly and gradually. Besides unconventional trademarks, copyright protection in areas like smell has also been reported. This paper reviews the developments in such nontraditional areas of intellectual property protection.

          Keywords: Nontraditional marks, unconventional trademarks, colour marks, sound marks, scent marks,

                             smell trademarks, olfactory trademarks, shape marks, slogans, trade dress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Laik Kaushik

465

Gupta Atul

474

Tiwari Anu

480

Gupta Suvrajyoti

491

Karki M M S

499

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Competition act

465

Economic growth

465

Geographical indications

465

Intellectual property

465

Traditional knowledge

465

Integrated circuits

474

Layout designs

474

Semiconductors

474

TRIPS

474

Passing off

480

Trade dress

480

Digital alteration

491

Fake photograph

491

Image

491

Morphing

491

Passing off

491

Right to publicity

491

Colour marks

499

Nontraditional marks

499

Olfactory trademarks

499

Scent marks

499

Shape marks

499

Slogans

499

Smell trademarks

499

Sound marks

499

Trade dress

499

Unconventional trademarks

499

Intellectual property management

507

Licensing

507

Open source

507

Technology transfer

507

Bioinformatics

508

Data protection

508

Global idea bank

508

Biodiversity

509

Indigenous knowledge

509

Software protection

511

Traditional medicines

511

Digital copyright

515

Digital rights

516

Trademark

518

International marks

519

Gene patents

522

Well-known marks

526

 

                  


List of Referees

 

 

  The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2005.

 

Balaravi S

M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), 3rd Cross Street,
Institutional Area, Taramani,Chennai

Birnhack Michael

Haifa Center of Law & Technology, Faculty of Law, University of Haifa,
Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel

Bloch Edouard

Denton Wilde Sapte, 43 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré - 27 rue de Surène, 75008 Paris France

Bhadbhade Nilima

ILS Law College, Pune

Burrone Esteban

SMEs Division, WIPO, 34, Chemin des Colombettes, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Chari K S

Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Department of Information Technology, Electronics Niketan, 6 CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi

Chawla H S 

Patent Information Centre, Deptt. of Genetics & Plant Breeding College of  Agriculture, G B Pant University of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, UP  

Field Thomas G

Franklin Pierce Law Center, 2 White Street, Concord NH, UK

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin

Gupta V K

NISTADS, New Delhi

Hauser Hans

Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Industrial Electronics & Material Science, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/3667, A-1040 Vienna, Austria, EU

Hirwani R R

R&D Planning & Business Division, NCL, Pune

Iyer Chid S

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA

James T C

Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20- D, Examiner Press, Building, Dalal Street, Fort, Mumbai

Justice D Y Chandrachud

Bombay High Court, Mumbai

Kochhar Sudhir 

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Lindquist Leigh Ann

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA

Mahoney Richard T

Biodesign Institute,Arizona State University,PO Box 874501, Tempe,
AZ 85287, USA

Mazumder Anirban 

The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, NUJS Bhavan,
12 Lb Block, Salt Lake City, Calcutta

Mitra N L

Former Vice Chancellor, National Law University, Jodhpur, Flat # 512, Block III, Skyline Apartment, Nagarbhavi First Stage, Bangalore

Mukherjee Santanu

South Centre, 17 Ch. du Champ-d'Anier, Post Box 228, Geneva 19,
Switzerland 1211.

Nair M D

A-11, Sagarica, 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmikinagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Pillai Manoj

Lex Orbis, Intellectual Property Practice, Solicitors & Advocates, 709/710,
Tolstoy House, 15-17, Tolstoy Marg, New Delhi

Rajan Mira

Faculty of Law, The University of British Columbia, 1822 East Mall, Vancouver, BC,Canada V6T 1Z1

Saha Alok M

Trade Mark Registration Bureau, 1, Netaji Subhash Road, Calcutta

Smith Simon

Managing Partner,Schillings,Royalty House,72-74 Dean Street, London,W1D 3TL

Srivastava Sonali

Madison, Godfrey & Kahn, 780 North Water Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Suthersanen Uma

Intellectual Property Law Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ,UK

Thomas Zakir

Income Tax Department, Directorate of Systems, ARA Center, Jhandevalan Extn, New Delhi

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet,
R.R. District Andhra Pradesh

Verma S K

Law Faculty, University of Delhi, Delhi

 

 

    

  

 

Annual Author Index

 

Ananthan P S

52

Aoki Reiko

206

Baechtold Philippe

177

Bawa Raj

426

Bawa S R

426

Bhattacharjee Sudipta

119

Bhattacharya Partha

413

Bhuvaneshwar G S

417

Burrone Esteban

34

Chandran Sajeev 

269

Chawla H S 

44

Dharam Veer Singh

21

Domingo Represa-Sánchez

382

Dwivedi Anurag

308

Elena Castro-Martínez  

382 

Ganley Paul 

188

Geller Paul Edward

133 

Goddar Heinz

389

Gruskin Steven M

399

Gupta Atul

474

Gupta R K

406

Gupta Suvrajyoti 

491

Hirwani R R

221

Hyndman Kelly G

399

Ignacio Fernández-de-Lucio 

382

Jain Lokesh 

269

Kalyan Chakravarthy Kankanala 

300

Karki M M S

 59

Karki M M S

499 

Krishnan Arjun

 9

Kumar Harsh

 112

Laik Kaushik

465

Madhukar A

  99

Maebius Stephen B

426

Mehlwal Geetanjali

214 

Mendonça Sandro

 281

Mitra A

  99

Mittal Rekha 

 315

Miyamoto Tomoko

 177

Narasani Arun Kishore

 300

Narayanan Nair K

 441

Ninan Sunitha  

 52

Ojha S N

 52

Pal S K

 99

Pankaj Kumar

 21

Park Yongtae      

 198

Peters Ruud

 421

Phadnis Rashmi

 221

Pillai Manoj

 235

Prakash V  

 434

Praveen Raj R S

 232

Pushpangadan P 

 441

Ramesh Kumar P

 434

Ranjit D

 417

Rao Ganesh

119

Roy Archna 

269

Saha R 

369

Saroha Monika 

308

Sharma Arpita 

52

Shin Juneseuk 

198

Singh Gian

 315

Swenson David W

 361

Tansinsin Lydia G 

 394

Tiwari Anu

 480

Torremans Paul Leo Carl

127

Tulzapurkar Veerendra

106

Wang Benjamin

376

Zekos Georgios I

287

 

 

     

      


 

Annual Keyword Index

 

 

 


Abstraction    9
Academic publishing 246
Access and benefit-sharing  441

Agriculture  

315

Agri-resources                  434

 

Agro biodiversity  321

 

Amateurs     188

 

Aquaculture   52

 

Automated patent classification  67

 

 

 

Bayh-Dole Act                  399

 

Benefit-sharing             65, 323

 

Berlin contract                  389

 

Berne Convention  308

 

Best mode requirement 287

 

Biodiversity 441, 509

 

Bioinformatics       44, 66, 508

 

Bioprospecting                  441

 

Biotechnology patents        287

 

Biotechnology                    44

 

Building designs                  119

 

Business method patents                    68

 

 

 

Capacity building       369

 

CBD           441

 

Catechin biosynthesis pathway      221

 

Chemical patenting     287

 

Classroom guidelines      21

 

Cloning         44

 

Club merchandise 119

 

Colour marks           127, 499

 

Competition act                  465

 

Competitor  198

 

Computer programs     300

 

Computer software programs         9

 

Conflicts of laws            133

 

Conventions 133

 

Copyright Act                  106

 

Copyright infringement  80

 

Copyright law             21, 148

 

Copyright wars                    69

 

Copyright       9, 188, 308

 

Counterfeiters             255

 

Counterfeiting           149, 239

 

Creativity    188

 

Cyber squatting                  162

 

 

 

Data privacy  59

 

Data protection       59, 71, 508

 

Database protection    329

 

Developing countries     141

 

Digital alteration                  491

 

Digital copyright             70, 515

 

Digital libraries                    67

 

Digital rights management 188

 

Digital rights 516

 

Digital watermarking                  149

 

DNA probes  82

 

DNA             44

 

DPN technology                    83

 

 

 

Economic growth        465

 

Economics of remix          106

 

Embedded software        76

 

Employees’ copyright     112

 

Employees’ inventions    389

 

Endangered species        141

 

European trademark    127

 

 

 

Fair use 21, 246

 

Fake photograph  491

 

Fishing sector 52

 

Fishing technology     52

 

Flux gate sensor                    99

 

Folklore       308

 

Food processing                  434

 

Food safety 434

 

Form - function – test           300

 

Free databases                    66

 

Free rider problems     206

 

Freelancer’s copyright     112

 

 

 

Gene patents           325, 522

 

Geographical Indication    163

 

Geographical indications   465

 

German law 389

 

Giant magneto-resistance sensor           99

 

Global idea bank           508

 

Global market system        361

 

Globall aspect                  214

 

Gold-rush mentality     426

 

 

 

Hall magnetic sensor           99

 

Herbal antibiotic drug              81

 

Heterogeneity                  206

 

 

 

Idea – expression dichotomy       9

 

IIT              413

 

Image          491

 

Indian Patent Act             269

 

Indian patent                  315

 

Indigenous knowledge  241, 509

 

Indigenous people         308

 

Information age                    65

 

Information privacy          59

 

Infringement           106, 133

 

Innovation economy     361

 

Innovation   434

 

Intangible assets                  322

 

Integrated circuits        474

 

Intellectual assets          240

 

Intellectual economy     421

 

Intellectual property licence agreements  214

 

Intellectual property management           376, 507

 

Intellectual property rights               34, 44

 

Intellectual property       59, 133, 239, 413, 434, 465

 

International harmonization                  177

 

International marks          519

 

International public policy 133

 

Internet patents                  147

 

Internet       188

 

Inventive step                  235

 

IP code       394

 

IP management                  144

 

IP ownership                  399

 

IP system      34

 

IPR management 382

 

IPR 394, 434, 441

 

 

 

Large firms  281

 

Layout designs                  474

 

Licensing policies        417

 

Licensing     507

 

 

 

Magneto-resistance sensor           99

 

Management of intellectual property rights                  369

 

Metadata       67

 

Micromagnetic sensor           99

 

Moral rights  59, 106

 

Morphing    491

 

Munich contract                  389

 

 

 

Nanotechnology                  426

 

Network analysis       198

 

New inventions                  235

 

New patent regime         269

 

New technology-based firms    34

 

Non-literal infringement    9

 

Non-obviousness 232

 

Nontraditional marks          499

 

 

 

Olfactory marks                  127

 

Olfactory trademarks  499

 

Open access  65

 

Open innovation                  421

 

Open source 69, 507

 

Open source licensing      327

 

Open source software      149

 

Ordre public international 133

 

 

 

P2P technology                  188

 

Passing off 480, 491

 

Patent activity                  315

 

Patent analysis             66, 221

 

Patent archives                  242

 

Patent claim 198

 

Patent infringement            157, 245

 

Patent law   177

 

Patent licensing                  421

 

Patent mechanics   145

 

Patent Ordinance 2004 ,                 154

 

Patent pools 206

 

Patent thicket                  426

 

Patentability 300

 

Patenting activity          52

 

Patents        281

 

Personal data 59

 

Petty patents 79

 

Pharmaceutical industry      269

 

Private international law                  133

 

Processing technology     52

 

Product patent                  269

 

Public research                  382

 

Publicly funded institutions   369

 

Publicly funded organizations                  406

 

Public-private partnerships 406

 

 

 

Remedies    133

 

Remix of an old song            106

 

Research tool patents        244

 

Revenue generation ability          214

 

Right to publicity      491

 

 

 

Scent marks 499

 

Science and Technology Policy 2003, 369

 

Semiconductors                  474

 

Shape marks 499

 

Skilled person                  232

 

Slogans       499

 

 Smell trademarks  499

 

SMEs           34

 

Software patent                  326

 

Software patents        235

 

Software piracy                  324

 

Software protection    511

 

Software     300

 

Sound marks           127, 499

 

Spine patents                  254

 

Stem cell       77

 

Strategic IP management 281

 

Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT)                  177

 

Swiss-type ‘new use’ claims  235

 

 

 

Tasini          112

 

Tea phytochemicals                  221

 

Technological diversification                  281

 

Technology business incubation    413

 

Technology development 417

 

Technology licensing agreements  394

 

Technology licensing     413, 421

 

Technology Transfer Centre (TTC)         376

 

Technology transfer offices                  382

 

Technology transfer      394, 399, 413,417, 441, 507

 

Techno-prove facility         417

 

Territoriality 133

 

Text mining 198

 

Trade dress 480, 499

 

Trade secrecy 59

 

Trade secret 145

 

Trademark databases     249

 

Trademark dispute        249

 

Trademark infringement  72

 

Trademark law           119, 150

 

Trademark misuse          80

 

Trademark  518

 

Trademarkability                 127

 

Traditional foods          434

 

Traditional knowledge    64, 74, 142, 323, 441, 465

 

Traditional medicines    511

 

TRIPS Agreement  127, 269

 

TRIPS compliant    235

 

TRIPS 44, 441, 474

 

Types of licenses       214

 

 

 

Unconventional trademarks  499

 

UNESCO    308

 

Unregistered trademarks  119

 

 

 

Valorization of IP               406

 

Valuation     198

 

Value addition            434,441

 

Value-added strategy       376

 

 

 

Well-known marks          526

 

Well-known trademarks  330

 

WIPO         308

 

Written description   287

 

WTO            44