Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Total visitors: 1,246     since 08-11-06

 

VOLUME 11

NUMBER 6

NOVEMBER 2006

CODEN: JIPRFG 11(6) 391-478 (2006)

 

ISSN: 0971-5544

 

CONTENTS

Articles

 

 

 

Legal Protection of Trade Secrets: Towards a Codified Regime

397

            Abhinav Kumar, Pramit Mohanty and Rashmi Nandakumar

 

 

Comparative Advertising and Product Disparagement vis-à-vis Trademark Law

409

            Uphar Shukla

 

 

Protection of Celebrity Rights – The Problems and the Solutions

415

            Anurag Pareek and Arka Majumdar

 

 

Bootlegging – Its Impact on Sound Recording Industry and Legal Responses

424

            Hima Lawrence

 

 

Impacts of a Patent on Euryale ferox on Biodiversity at Micro Level: A Case Study

 

430

            Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri and Chaitali Dutta

 

 

IP Case Law Developments

436

            Zakir Thomas

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

IPR¾General

443

 

 

· The behavioral foundations of trade secrets · Indigenous knowledge and IP · Commercial speech, IPR and advertising · The scope of IPR and interface with competition law and policy · The protection of geographical indications · Implementing eGovernment without promoting dependence · Compulsory licences in developing countries · The greed of innovators · The impact of FTAs on public health policies and TRIPS flexibilities · Historical commons and modern IP · Free trade agreements and TRIPS-plus measures · A north–south model of IPR protection and skill accumulation · Protection of TK · Biodiversity, biopiracy and benefits about IP · A perspective from US–China IPR disputes · Benefit sharing arrangements in bioprospecting and genetic research · A strategy to optimize business value of IP · IPR in Internet era · The IP market place · TRIPS-plus · Conditioning functionality · Cyber law and its discontents · IP developments in biochip nanotechnology

 

 

 

Patents

448

 

 

· Is granting of a patent justified? · India's product patent protection regime · Patent drafting considerations for nanotechnology · The impact of software patent shifts · Nanotechnology and US patents · Recent developments in patent law · Nanotechnology improvements · PCT – Implementation v US Law · The viability of patent pools for nanotechnology

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright and Trademark

 

450

· Comparing indefinitely renewable copyright versus fixed-length copyright · Digital object identifier system · Anomalies in copyright law · Contractual protection of databases

 

· Copyright ownership in academic works · Targets for the recording industry's file sharing litigation · Trademark law and economic theory · Corporate diversification trend on trademarks · Design protection for technical products

 

 

 

IPR News

 

 

 

IPR News—General

454

· The largest IP practice firm · IP seminar 2006 · India plans legislation on IP to scientists · Data exclusivity provisions in Indian law· IPR course at NIT

 

 

 

Patent News

 

455

· UW among top biotech patent producers · IBM to make all patent applications public · South Korea ranks 5th in patent applications worldwide · Ariad patent · Stratagene expands rights to molecular diagnostics · Taro patents to Hawaii's indigenous people · Google's new patent translated · Utility patent application on discovery · ImClone and Sanofi lose patent lawsuit · Ericsson's sensor patent ·Patent dispute over cancer drug

 

 

 

 

Copyright and Trademark News 

458

· Copyright as artistic expression · Theft of TV signals · Anti-piracy drive · New laws target modchip users · Copyright hindering scholarship · Cartoon use ruled a copyright infringement
· Sculptor sues over copyright · iCopyright launches copyright education website · Consumer groups decry copyright bill · IP theft still a threat · Australia's favourite trademarks· Pakistan to counter India's 'super basmati' claim · Trademark applications in China increase · Touch messenger for blind users in braille

 

 

 

 

Key Patents

 

463

· Patent for anti-cancer drug · Online marketplace software · Patent for wireless miner-tracking solution · Patent for technological variant of midge · High-speed thermal cycler · Patent for presentation method · MediGene wins cancer drug patent· Core technology in nanofabrication and nanomanufacturing · Patent for VLPR switches and encoders· Patent for the effect of drugs · Isis pharmaceutical’s key patent · Netuitive extends technology lead
· 13th location related patent · Patent covering human bitter taste receptors

 

 

 

Book Review

 

 

 

Shaping the Future-A Guide on Intellectual Property Rights for the Indian Machine Tool Industry

 

468

            Prabuddha Ganguli

 

 

 

Text book on Intellectual Property Rights, 3rd Edition

468

            N K Acharya

 

 

 

List of Referees           

471

 

 

Annual Author Index

473

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

474

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Chaudhuri Sabuj Kumar

430

Dutta Chaitali

430

Kumar Abhinav

397

Lawrence Hima

424

Majumdar Arka

415

Mohanty Pramit

397

Nandakumar Rashmi

397

Pareek Anurag

415

Shukla Uphar

409

Thomas Zakir

436

 

 

Keyword Index

Anti-piracy

459

Biodiversity

430

Biopiracy

446

Bootlegging

424

Celebrity rights

415

Comparative advertising

409

Compulsory licensing

444

Copyright

424

Copyright infringement

460

Data exclusivity

454

Databases

451

Ecological impact

430

Employer-employee conflict

397

Fixation concept

424

Geographical indications

444

Indigenous knowledge

457

Intellectual property

443

Mass culture

430

Merchandising rights

415

Nanotechnology

449

Patent pools

450

Piracy

446

Product disparagement

409

Right to privacy

415

Right to publicity

415

Software patent

449

Trade secret

443

Trade secrets

397

Trademarks

463

Traditional knowledge

446

TRIPS

445

Undisclosed information

397

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 397-408

 

Legal Protection of Trade Secrets: Towards a Codified Regime

Abhinav Kumar†, Pramit Mohanty and Rashmi Nandakumar

Received 31 July 2006, revised 18 October 2006

Trade secrets protection has acquired increased significance in the present scenario especially in view of the opening up of the world market and enhanced competition worldwide. Moreover, the fact that trade secret protection is increasingly being preferred over patent protection as a method for protecting undisclosed information has added to its significance. This paper sketches the broad outline of the trade secret protection law that exists in India and highlights its inadequacy especially in view of the legal regime existing in other countries such as the US. The paper also focuses on the ambiguity of the common law remedy that is available for infringement of trade secrets which is manifested in the inconsistent line of principles laid down by the courts. It also deals with India’s obligation under TRIPS to legislate on the question of ‘undisclosed information’. The article attempts to underline the need to enforce a codified regime by analysing the law as it exists in various other countries.

Keywords: Trade secrets, undisclosed information, employer-employee conflict

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 409-414

 

Comparative Advertising and Product Disparagement vis-à-vis Trademark Law

Uphar Shukla†

Received 18 August 2006

Comparative advertising by means of using another’s trademark is permissible, however while doing so the advertiser cannot disparage the goods or services of another. Any such act disparaging the goods or services of another shall not only be an act constituting infringement of the trademark, but shall also be an act constituting product disparagement.

This paper analyses the trite law on comparative advertising and product disparagement, in relation to trademark law; in the light of Sections 29(8) and 30(1), of The Trademarks Act, 1999. Section 29(8) enunciates situations, where use of another’s mark in advertising can amount to infringement, if such use does not comply with the conditions laid down under the section. At the same time, Section 30(1) makes such use, an exception, if it is in accordance with the conditions provided under this section. The conditions given under these two legal provisions are identical. The intent of the legislature in enacting the aforementioned provisions is quite apparent: To impose the leniencies of permitted comparative advertising over the stringencies of trademark protection.

Keywords: Comparative advertising, product disparagement

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 415-423

 

Protection of Celebrity Rights – The Problems and the Solutions

Anurag Pareek and Arka Majumdar

Received 19 August 2006, revised 9 October 2006

Celebrity rights are unique rights, which are distinct from others. It is a form of property, which can be exclusively enjoyed by the celebrity himself. Being a property, it is also susceptible to unauthorized trespasses. This ‘trespass’ takes place mainly in two ways- when the privacy of the celebrity is sought to be compromised for the sake of money, and secondly, when the celebrity’s right to publicity is defeated by its unauthorized use. Both the situations require law and the judiciary to intervene and ensure justice. In the absence of any specific regulatory mechanism to address these issues, it often becomes difficult to protect various celebrity rights like personality/moral rights, privacy rights & the publicity/merchandising right. In India, there is no specific legal remedy for infringement of celebrity rights. Thus the authors identified merits and demerits of various approaches, which protect the publicity rights of a celebrity and recommended appropriate legal regime suited to India.

Keywords: Celebrity rights, right to publicity, merchandising rights, right to privacy

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 424-429

 

Bootlegging – Its Impact on Sound Recording Industry and Legal Responses

Hima Lawrence

Received 19 September 2006, revised 30 October 2006

As is known to all sound recording is considered a subject matter for copyright protection. But it is also a known fact that fixation in a tangible form is a prerequisite to be eligible for protection under the copyright law. This paper looks at the legal standpoint on unauthorized recordings of unfixed performances in the conflicting scenario existing due to the aforementioned stipulations.

Keywords: Bootlegging, copyright, fixation concept

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 430-435

 

Impacts of a Patent on Euryale ferox on Biodiversity at Micro Level:A Case Study

Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri† and Chaitali Dutta

Received 28 August 2006, revised 10 October 2006

A patent on a process for making storage - stable edible food materials from kernels of gorgon nuts or fox nut (Euryale ferox) has tremendous impact on biodiversity resulting in triggered mass culture and commercialization of this aquatic macrophyte. Besides ecological impact, it has social and economic impacts too. This paper studied the impact of the patent on biodiversity at micro level. The study reveals that mass culture of these plants in water bodies instead of fishes has created an interlinked ecological, social and economic imbalance. Sustainable culture of both fish and the concerned macrophyte is the need of the hour so that biodiversity is not damaged further and equilibrium of ecology, society and economy is sustained. The paper concludes with the suggestion of people’s awareness and further research for better understanding.

Keywords: Biodiversity, mass culture, ecological impact

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, November 2006, pp 436-442

 

IP Case Law Developments

Zakir Thomas

 

Received 20 October 2006

 

Dear Readers,

This is an experimental column on case law analysis which will examine a few interesting cases with emphasis on how principles of law are applied to each individual case. Give us your views regarding this feature as well as feedback on the other regular features in the journal. Please send your feedback to the following email id.

-----Editor

sahnim@niscair.res.in

 

 

List of Referees

 

  The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2006.

 

Baroncelli Eugenia

The World Bank Social and Economic Development Group, Middle East and North Africa Region, 600, 19th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433

Basheer Shamnad

St Peters College, New Inn Hall Street, Oxford, OX1 2DL, UK

Bhadbhade Nilima

ILS Law College, Pune

Bhatti Shakeel

Genetic Resources, Biotechnology and Associated Traditional Knowledge Section, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Bulck Paul Van den

Chargé d'enseignement à l'Université R. Schuman (Strasbourg),
Av. De la Couronne 224, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium

Burrone Esteban

SMEs Division, WIPO, 34, Chemin des Colombettes 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Chawla H S

Patent Information Centre, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G B Pant University of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar

Clarke Peter

UCD Accountancy, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin

Drahos Peter

Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia

Feldman Yuval

Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900, Israel

Ganguli Prabuddha

VISION-IPR, 101-201 Sunview Heights, Plot No. 262, Sher-e-Punjab, Andheri East, Mumbai

Garon Jon

Hamline University, School of Law, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55104-1237

Gibson Johanna

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom

Goddar Heinz

Boehmert & Boehmert, Pettenkoferstrasse 20 – 22, D-80336 Munich, Germany

Hegde V G

Centre for International Legal Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Iyer Chid S

Sughrue Mion PLLC 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

James T C

Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20- D, Examiner Press Building, Dalal Street, Fort, Mumbai

Johnson Howard

Cardiff Law School, Law Building, Museum Avenue,
Cardiff Cf10 3xj 029 20874343

Kameri-Mbote Patricia

International Environmental Law Research Centre (Kenya),
PO Box 2394 KNH 00202 Nairobi, Kenya

Karjala Dennis S

College of Law, Arizona State University - ASU, Tempe, Arizona

Kochhar Sudhir

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan,
New Delhi

Kunzendorf Kevin C

Sughrue Mion PLLC 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Lindquist Leigh Ann

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Macaroni Bostjan

Legal expert, Telekom Slovenije, External advisor to the
Slovenian Ministry of Justice

Mazumder Anirban

National University of Juridical Sciences, NUJS Bhavan, 12 Lb Block,
Salt Lake City, Calcutta

Nair M D

A 11, Sagarica 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmiki Nagar,
Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Nair R Latha

K&S Partners, 84-C, C-6 Street, Sainik Farms, New Delhi

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Pandey Sanjay

National Law University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Ragavan Srividhya

University of Oklahoma Law Center, Andrew M Coats Hall,
300 Timberdell Road, Norman, OK 73019-0701

Raje Monica

National Law University, Bhopal

Randhawa Gurinder Jit

NRC on DNA Fingerprinting, NBPGR, PUSA Campus, New Delhi

Rathinam Renita S

Sughrue Mion PLLC 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Sagar Rajesh

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ

Saha Tushar Kanti

41/1-A, D P P Road, Kolkata

Srivastava S C

Indian Law Institute, Bhagwan Das Road, New Delhi

Srivastava Sonali

Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA.

Sundara Rajan Mira T

Faculty of Law, The University of British Columbia, 1822 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z1

Suthersanen Uma

Intellectual Property Law Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square,
London EC1M 6BQ,UK

Thomas Zakir

Income Tax Department, Directorate of Systems, ARA Center,
Jhandevalan Extn, New Delhi

Torremans Paul

School of Law, University of Nottingham, University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet, R.R. District, Andhra Pradesh

Varaprasad K S

Head, NBPGR, Hyderabad

Verma S K

Indian Law Institute, Bhagwandas Road, New Delhi

Xu G Gann

DuPont Performance Coatings, BMP21/2358, 4417 Lancaster Ave,
Rt 141 & 48, Wilmington, DE19805-1523

Yang Deli

Bradford University School of Management, Emm Lane Bradford,
West Yorkshire BD9 4JL

Yar Majid

School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research (SPSSR) Cornwallis Building,University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury,
Kent, UK, CT2 7NF

Zekos Georgios

Riga Graduate School of Law , Riga, Latvia

 

 

Annual Author Index

 

Agarwal Pallavi

53

Amin Tahir

113

Banerjee Soumya

274

Basheer Shamnad

113, 334

Bharti Nalin

89

Bosworth Derek

15

Chaudhuri Sabuj Kumar

430

Cullet Philippe

7

Dalal Praveen

125

Dutta Chaitali

430

Ghosh Abhimanyu

175

Gibson Johanna

103

Hu Ruifa

260

Huang Jie

260

Huang Jikun

260

Jain Karuna

330

Jha Samar

318

Jha Sneha

318

Kumar Abhinav

397

Kumar Jayant

98

Kumar Rajeev

53

Kumar Sushil

53

Lawrence Hima

424

Maggon Harsh

140

Majumdar Arka

313, 415

Majumdar Sunandan

313

Mangàni Andrea

249

Mishra Rakesh Kumar

326

Moerman Lee

243

Mohanty Pramit

397

Nair Latha R

185

Nandakumar Rashmi

397

Pareek Anurag

415

Pillai Manoj

53

Pitchfork Ernie

364

Pray Carl

260

Puttitanun Thitima

269

Rajan Shruti S

33

Ramesh Rohit

326

Rana Rajat

132

Rashmi H B

207

Roy Abhik Guha

192

Sadhu Subhojit

313

Saha Tushar Kanti

89

Sahay Shantanu

201

Sharma Vandana

330

Shukla Uphar

409

Singhania Ankita

43

Soam S K

207

Thomas Zakir

280, 359, 436

Tiwari Anu

33

van der Laan Sandra

243

Verma S K

22

Yang Deli

15

 

Annual Keyword Index

 

Acquisition of patents       

11

Agricultural biosciences

368

Anti-piracy

459

Appellation of origin

8

Avian flu

302

Bay Dole Act

372

Biodiversity

65, 103, 430

Bioinformatics

152

Biopharmaceutical

334

Biopiracy

446

Bioprospectors

159

Biotechnology

103, 145, 148, 371

Biotechnology innovations

57

Bootlegging

424

Business method patents

175

Capacity building

22

Case-law reporters

33

Celebrity rights

415

China

260

Colour marks

313

Comparative advertising

409

Competition policy

146

Competitive advantage

330

Compulsory licensing

113, 444

Confidential information

364

Constitution of India

43

Contributory infringement

318

Copyright

33, 293, 318, 424

Copyright enforcement

373

Copyright infringement

460

Copyright laws

43

Copyright protection

140

Copyright term

43

Counterfeiting

15

Crop

260

Culture  

132

Data

125

Data exclusivity

295, 454

Data protection

61, 125

Data protection rights

125

Database protection

372

Databases

451

Digital rights management

222

EC Regulation 2081/92

185

Ecological impact

430

Economics

15

Employer-employee conflict

397

Entry modes

269

ESCR Covenant

7

Financial asset

98

Fixation concept

424

Folklore

326

Foreign direct investment

269

Gene doping

66

Gene patents

334

Generic term

185

Genetic algorithm

326

Genetic resources

103,287

Genetically modified

103, 146

Genome patents

217

Geographical indications

64, 89, 185, 224,444

Globalisation

15

Goodwill

274

Government use

113

Graphical representation

313

Human right to intellectual property

7

Human rights

132

Indication of source

89

Indigenous knowledge

132, 457

Inevitable disclosure doctrine

192

Intangible assets

243

Intellectual capital

57,58

Intellectual property

192, 214, 243, 287, 443

Intellectual property management

330

Intellectual property rights

132, 146, 154, 269, 286

Intellectual property strategy

330

International accounting standards

243

IP financing

22

IP infrastructure

22

IP securitization

98

IPR

207

Jatropha

89

Jeevani

159

Layout designs

147

Licensing

269

Licensing strategies

145

Life forms

103

Management

15

Mass culture

430

Medicinal plants

207

Melton Mowbray

185

Merchandising rights

415

Microorganisms

53

Misappropriation

103

Monopoly

43

Multinational firms

269

Nano-aerobics

61

Nanotechnology

216, 449

NCEs

53

NMEs

53

Non-analysis agreement

364

Non-conventional trademark

313

Non-creative databases

140

Non-governmental organization

103

Odour marks

313

Organizational capabilities

330

Parallel imports

113

Passing off

201

Patent pools

215, 450

Patent search

207

Patentability

53

Pattern recognition and matching

326

Peer-to-peer

318

Peer-to-peer patents

381

Perfection

98

Pharmaceutical patents

148

Piracy

446

Plagiarism

326

Plant variety protection

260, 285

Privacy rights

125

Product disparagement

409

Proprietary rights

33

Public international law

125

Restricted access

334

Right to privacy

415

Right to publicity

415

Securitization

22

Security interest

98

Service marks

249

Software

175

Software patent

215, 290, 449

Sound marks

313

Spillover

274

State Street case

175

Structural change

249

Sui generis protection

140

Tamiflu

113

Third party disclosure

364

Trade dress

201

Trade secret

443

Trade secrets

192, 364, 397

Trademark infringement

376

Trademarks

8, 201, 249, 463

Traditional knowledge

7, 10, 185, 285, 446

Transborder reputation

274

TRIPS

53, 57, 286, 287, 445

TRIPS Agreement

125, 185

Undisclosed information

397

Unfair competition

201

Unfair competition model

140

Watermarking

326

Welfare State

43

Wines and spirits

89