Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 

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VOLUME 11

                NUMBER 5

                 SEPTEMBER 2006

CODEN: JIPRFG 11(5) 309-390 (2006)

 

               ISSN: 0971-5544

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 


Articles

 

 

 

The Requirement of Graphical Representability for Non-Conventional Trademarks

313

            Arka Majumdar, Subhojit Sadhu and Sunandan Majumdar

 

 

An Analysis of the Theory of Contributory Infringement

318

            Sneha Jha and Samar Jha

 

 

IPR, Plagiarism and the Text Data Security Pyramid

326

            Rakesh Kumar Mishra and Rohit Ramesh

 

 

Intellectual Property Management System: An Organizational Perspective

330

            Karuna Jain and Vandana Sharma

 

 

Block Me Not: How “Essential” are Patented Genes?

334

Shamnad Basheer

 

 

IP Case Law Developments

359

            Zakir Thomas

 

 

 

Technical Notes

 

 

 

The Protection of Confidential Information

364

            Ernie Pitchfork

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

IPR-General

368

 

 

· The evolving rights to IP protection in agricultural biosciences · Changing IP regimes: Implications for developing country agriculture · The anti-intellectual effects of IP · Innovation management and IP in knowledge-oriented economies · Marketing IP using electronic libraries

· The impact of stronger IPR on S&T in developing countries · IP protection mechanisms in research partnerships · IPR business management practices · Intangible asset & IP valuation

· IPRs and quality improvement · The problem of uniformity cost in IP law · Trade policy mix

· Should good patents come in small packages? · IP law case in biotechnology · International protection system of IPR

 

 

 

Patents

371

 

 

· What is the impact of software patent shifts?· The world before and after Bayh-Dole 

· Investigation of technological innovation strategies

 

 

Copyright and Trademark

 

372

· The making of a new copyright Lockean · Consumer protection and copyright law · Limits to database protection · Free software and copyright enforcement · An economic analysis of the contractual protection of databases · Software development: Implications of copyright protection and contract enforcement · Copyright failure and the protection for tables and compilation · Legal frameworks and technological protection of digital content · Obstacles to educational uses of copyrighted material in the digital age · Digital rights management and the process of fair use ·The generative Internet · Continuing commercial impression · The effects of corporate  diversification trend on trademarks · An economic analysis of expressive trademark use · Misappropriation of goodwill · Internet trademark infringement · International protection of India’s GIs · Trademark and cyberspace · The registration as designs of computer icons, graphical user interfaces and webpages

 

 

 

 

 

IPR News

 

IPR News—General

 

378

· Educating pirates · Ministry boosts India’s IP rights enforcement · India, France sign MoU on IP · Australia proposes inclusion of services, IP in FTA

 

 
 

Patent News

 

379

· Invented in US, drafted in India · Nokia charges Chinese companies over phone designs
· Fast track for US patent applications · Blackboard wins e-learning patent, sues competitor
· Novartis files petition · US Supreme Court to look at obviousness in patents · Sony refused peer-to-peer patents

 

 

 

 

Copyright and Trademark News

 

382

· Changes aired for Japan’s TV copyright laws · New French copyright law · 100 websites closed for copyright violation · Mobile domain opened up to trademark holders · UK to end relative grounds for refusal · Digital image watermarks could combat trademark theft

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Patents

 

384

· Patent for wireless communication structures · US patent for drug delivery · Hybrid propulsion technology patented · DDC technology awarded Japanese patent · Patent for mTOR inhibitors · Visual buttons to blend display and interface patented · New dressings for cleaner wounds

 

 

 

Book Review

 

 

 

The Copy/South Dossier: Issues in the Economics, Politics, and Ideology of copyright in the Global South

386

            Edited by Alan Story, Colin Darch and Debora Halbert

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                              Author Index

 

Basheer Shamnad

334

Jain Karuna

330

Jha Samar

318

Jha Sneha

318

Majumdar Arka

313

Majumdar Sunandan

313

Mishra Rakesh Kumar

326

Pitchfork Ernie

364

Ramesh Rohit

326

Sadhu Subhojit

313

Sharma Vandana

330

Thomas Zakir

359

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Agricultural biosciences

368

Bay Dole Act

372

Biopharmaceutical

334

Biotechnology

371

Colour marks

313

Competitive advantage

330

Confidential information

364

Contributory infringement

318

Copyright

318

Copyright enforcement

373

Database protection

372

Folklore

326

Gene patents

334

Genetic algorithm

326

Graphical representation

313

Intellectual property management

330

Intellectual property strategy

330

Non-analysis agreement

364

Non-conventional trademark

313

Odour marks

313

Organizational capabilities

330

Pattern recognition and matching

326

Peer-to-peer

318

Peer-to-peer patents

381

Plagiarism

326

Restricted access

334

Sound marks

313

Third party disclosure

364

Trade secret

364

Trademark infringement

376

Watermarking

326

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 313-317

 

The Requirement of Graphical Representability for Non-Conventional Trademarks

Arka Majumdar, Subhojit Sadhu and Sunandan Majumdar

Received 29 June 2006, revised 9 August 2006

Non-conventional trademarks are steadily gaining ground in today’s commercial world. This necessitates their registration and protection by legal machinery. The requirement of graphical representability may prove to be the greatest impediment in the way of getting such non-traditional marks like sound, smell and colour registered, for they cannot be put down in pen and paper. Consequently new methods of registering such trademarks need to be evolved, especially in view of the fact that the law in most countries today have expressly or otherwise accommodated such new types of marks as trademarks.

Keywords: Non-conventional trademark, graphical representation, odour marks, colour marks, sound marks

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 318-325

 

An Analysis of the Theory of Contributory Infringement

Sneha Jha and Samar Jha

Received 9 July 2006, revised 16 August 2006

The paper deals with contributory infringement of copyright which has recently been highlighted in various litigations involving P2P technology, one of the latest being the MGM v Grokster case. A comparison of this case with the Sony and Napster cases reveals a contradiction in the decisions taken by the US Supreme court. The pro-right holder decision in the Grokster case may curb innovators and tilt the balance between the conflicting interests of protection and innovation.

Keywords: Copyright, contributory infringement, peer-to-peer

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 326-329

IPR, Plagiarism and the Text Data Security Pyramid

Rakesh Kumar Mishra

and

Rohit Ramesh

Received 11 July 2006, revised 18 August 2006

Plagiarism is a critical issue of concern in modern times and a major threat for evolving and preexisting text literature available in public domain. Adding fuel to the existing threat is the absence of any legal framework for preserving folklore. IT being equipped with the capability of pattern matching and recognition supplemented by genetic algorithms can effectively be utilized for this purpose. It is the imperative need of society that these plagiaristic acts are restricted and the sanctity of existing work maintained. The paper discusses the predominant practices followed for data protection and modern methods of communication.

Keywords: Plagiarism, watermarking, pattern recognition and matching, genetic algorithm, folklore

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 330-333

Intellectual Property Management System: An Organizational Perspective

Karuna Jain and Vandana Sharma

Received 18 July 2006, revised 24 August 2006

In today’s knowledge driven economy intellectual property (IP), intellectual capital, and organizational capabilities are crucial for enhancing business performance and economic growth. Intellectual property rights as a key intellectual asset of the organization empowers innovators to collect full value of their invention. It has now become a prerequisite for organizations to develop expertise and capability not only to create intellectual property through R&D, but also to manage it and give it due weightage in strategic decision making. The paper evaluates the role of Intellectual Property Management System (IPMS) in building organizational capabilities to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. The paper also discusses case of an Indian academic institute, where IPMS helped in building organizational capabilities.

Keywords: Intellectual property management, intellectual property strategy, competitive advantage, organizational capabilities

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 334-358

 

Block Me Not: How “Essential” are Patented Genes?*

Shamnad Basheer

 

 

If the patented gene is not absolutely essential for use by a downstream researcher, in that there are substitutes available to work with or ways in which the patent in question could be circumvented, clearly the patented gene will not block the downstream researcher. In this sense, while the first part of the title, “Block Me Not,” expresses the blocking concern in general (the thousand-mile journey), the latter part, “How ‘Essential’ Are Patented Genes?” is the more specific question that this article seeks to address (the first step in this long and arduous journey)

 

Keywords: Gene patents, restricted access, biopharmaceutical

 

* Reproduced with permission from the Journal of Law, Technology & Policy, No 1, 2005, 55-96.

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 359-363

 

IP Case Law Developments

Zakir Thomas

 

Received 17 August 2006

 

This is an experimental column on case law analysis which will examine a few interesting cases with emphasis on how principles of law are applied to each individual case. Give us your views regarding this feature as well as feedback on the other regular features in the journal. Please send your feedback to the following email id.

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 11, September 2006, pp 364-367

 

The Protection of Confidential Information

Ernie Pitchfork

Received 4 August 2006

This article describes some ways of protecting confidential information and some of the associated problems that may arise. In particular, the areas of trade secrets, confidential information, confidentiality agreements and non analysis agreements are considered. The protection of confidential information is dealt with under two main categories: Protection in the employment situation and protection when dealing with third parties.

Keywords: Confidential information, trade secret, non-analysis agreement, third party disclosure