Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 

http://www.niscair.res.in

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VOLUME 13

NUMBER 6

NOVEMBER 2008

CODEN: JIPRFG13(6) 557-662 (2008)

 

ISSN: 0971-5544

 

          CONTENTS

 

Articles

 

 

Intellectual Property Taxation: Need for a Comprehensive Policy and Law in India

563

        K D Raju

 

 

Protecting Performers’ Rights: Does India Need Law Reform?

574

        Sanhita Ambast

 

 

An Insight into the Nature of Offence of Copyright Infringement

583

        Shivendra Singh and Aprajita

 

 

Practical Insights into Intellectual Property Strategy for a Technical Institute

590

        Shefalika Ghosh Samaddar and Banshi D Chaudhary

 

 

Analysis of Patents Pertaining to Superdisintegrants used in Tablet Manufacturing

601

        Mrudula H Bele and Dilip V Derle

 

 

Institutions and Capacity Building for the Evolution of Intellectual Property Rights Regime in India: VI – Obligations and Opportunities in Handling Plant Varieties and Agricultural Biotechnology

 

605

        Sudhir Kochhar

 

 

IP Case Law Developments

612

        Zakir Thomas

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

IPR―General

 

622

● Innovative activity of foreign subsidiaries in the Spanish innovation systemIP in investment banking China´s National IP Strategy 2008 Upstart startupGlobalization and income inequality A comparison of IPR in US and ChinaKey policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countriesNorth–South trade and directed technical changeAnti-competitive conduct, in-house R&D, and growthThinking bioethicsPreserving IPRInstitutionalization of IPR in China

 

 

Patents

 

625

When is a search not a search? US patent policy and the criterion of non-obviousness ● Tool to optimize patent current awareness bulletinsDo patent holdup and royalty stacking lead to systematically excessive royalties? Analysing patents by chemical structure Revisiting injunctive relief Patent journalismSoftware patents in Europe Assessment of technological capability in science industry linkage in China by patent databasePatent damages: The European landscapeAdvanced document retrieval techniques for patent researchResearch tool patents and free-libre biotechnology A comparative study of patent sequence databases A pro patent view of process claims as patent-eligible subject matter Policy recommendations for the Belgian patent system Need for public participation in patent examination and beyond Patent Informatics services at UK-IPO Post-quanta, post-sale patentee controls

 

Copyright and Trademark

 

629

Opel/Autec: Does the ECJ realize what it has done? Intangible assets for intangible deliverablesParallel imports Reviving fair use Architecture and copyright Piracy in China Brand ‘free riding’ ● Patentable subject matter requirements ● An argument for copyright preemption of Georgia's unauthorized reproduction lawUnfair competition and the financing of public-knowledge goodsInterpretation of the term ‘product’ in EU Council Sui generis plant variety protection systemsIP in nanomedicine The challenge of the criminalization of online piracy in Hong KongRe-examining functions of trademark law

 

 

IPR News

 

 

IPR News—General

 

635

WIPO assemblies conclude Kyrgyzstan managed to build strong IP protection system IP in Kazakhstan NASA at 30th October live IP auction Research says global IP system has collapsed 41st World IP Congress Shanghai to establish IPR protection fund WIPO and ARIPO sign MOU to expand cooperation APEDA Act amendments get Cabinet approval

 

 

Patent News

 

638

Draft rules of cheaper medicines law IP strategies for innovations in biotechnology Spain introduces important amendments to IPR applications procedures China's new draft patent law India sees an increase in patent and trademark applications

 

 

Copyright and Trademark News

 

641

Anti-piracy bill headed for the White House Hong Kong cracks down on piracy Internet copyright treaties imposed Ministry fights intellectual, fine arts piracy Open Source Research Programme launched by CSIR Kuwait: Battling piracy Registration of titles of films Bahrain intensifies anti-piracy collaboration New bill would tighten rules for DHS border laptop searches Copyright lifespan may be expanded IT groups slam New Zealand Copyright Act VANOC vies to take part of ‘O Canada’ for its own anthem US-India Copyright Treaty Notice to Moser Baer over copyright violation Warner Brothers loses suit against Indian film company Copyright board leaves royalty rate unchanged Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement South African artist in copyright suit against BMW Ugandan Government sued for copyright infringement NZIPP supports copyright amendment China, US eye deal on copyright enforcement news Harry Potter back in the news NBI raids HCG for alleged software piracy Duplicate goods worth crores seized in Colaba Global Trademark Treaty Kashmir Pashmina gets geographical indication

 

 

Key Patents

 

650

● A binder composition for ready to eat snack food ● Uses of the Celution(R) system output ● Friction tapes ● Anti-reflective coating technology ● Battery energy management and monitoring system ● An herbal vitamin beverage ● China's first ARJ21 aircraft to take maiden flight

 

 

Book Review

 

 

Intellectual Property and TRIPS Compliance in China

653

            P Torremans, S Hailing and J Erauw

 

 

List of Referees

 

655

Annual Author Index

 

657

Annual Keyword Index

658

 

 

 


Author Index

Ambast Sanhita

574

Aprajita

583

 

 

Bele Mrudula H

601

 

 

Chaudhary Banshi D

590

 

 

Derle Dilip V

601

 

 

Kochhar Sudhir

605

 

 

Raju K D

563

 

 

Samaddar Shefalika Ghosh

590

 

 

Singh Shivendra

583

 

 

Thomas Zakir

612

 

 

Keyword Index

Access and benefit sharing

605

Activity index

601

 

 

Bailable

583

Biodiversity

605

Biosafety

605

 

 

CBD

605

Central excise

563

Cognizable

583

Copyright infringement

583

Copyright law

574

Customs duties

563

 

 

Economic rights

574

 

 

Income tax

563

Intellectual property

563

IP policy and management

590

IP taxation

563

IPR

605

ITPGRFA

605

 

 

Moral rights

574

 

 

Names of movies

612

Non-bailable

583

Non-cognizable

583

Non-obviousness

612

Non-tangible rights

574

 

 

Ownership of IP

590

 

 

Patent analysis

601

Patents

612

Performers’ rights

574

 

 

Researcher IP strategy

590

Sales tax

563

 

 

Section 3(d) of Indian Patent Act

612

Stamp duty

563

Sui generis

574

Superdisintegrants

601

 

 

Technical institute

590

Temporary injunction

612

Trademark

612

TRIPS

605

 

 

Value added tax

563

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 563-573

 

 

Intellectual Property Taxation: Need for a Comprehensive Policy and Law in India

K D Raju

Received 9 July 2008

Taxation of goods, services and income is a concept that has been prevalent for a long time, all over the world. Different categories are taxed with different objectives and purpose. Sometimes economies may want to discourage use of foreign goods within their countries and consequently therefore the tax on imported goods will be high. However, interestingly, taxing of intellectual property is a recent phenomenon across the globe. Developments in science and technology and rapid communication have made it accessible to every country. In India, intellectual property is taxed in many ways, though indirectly. This paper examines various provisions of intellectual property taxation under different legislations in India. It argues that the lack of a comprehensive policy on intellectual property taxation acts as a disincentive to technology transfer and IP creation in India.

Keywords: Intellectual property, IP taxation, income tax, sales tax, value added tax, customs duties, central excise,
stamp duty

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 574-582

 

 

Protecting Performers’ Rights: Does India Need Law Reform?

Sanhita Ambast

Received 28 March 2008, revised 29 September 2008

The rapid growth in technology combined with an increased awareness of intellectual property has led to many countries recognizing importance of a well-developed performer protection regime. Such regimes, involving a combination of legal policy making and pragmatic placation of myriad interest groups has resulted in a nebulous, but growing body of jurisprudence in different domestic jurisdictions. India, for one, has large stakes in creating strong performer protection laws, given the quantum of Indian entertainment exports and folklore which must be protected.

Indian law today protects rights of performers through the mechanism of copyright law. This article critically evaluates this regime, and demonstrates that the performer protection regime in India today is inadequate in the context of what performers’ rights purport to protect and accomplish. This article begins by understanding the terminology of the jurisprudence of performers’ rights. It then compares prevailing American, English and international performer protection regimes to existing Indian law, and concludes by arguing that reform in the nature of sui generis protection for performers’ rights in India is essential.

Keywords: Performers’ rights, copyright law, sui generis, economic rights, moral rights, non-tangible rights

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 583-589

 

 

Insight into the Nature of Offence of Copyright Infringement

Shivendra Singh and Aprajita

Received 8 July 2008, revised 2 October 2008

The paper discusses judicial decisions rendered on interpretation of offence of copyright infringement under Section 63 of the Copyright Act, 1957 in the backdrop of two recent conflicting decisions of the Andhra Pradesh High Court and the Kerala High Court on the same matter. The paper attempts to clear confusion, which has arisen post-Amarnath Vyas regarding cognizabilty and bailability of the offence of copyright infringement. The authors highlight intention of the legislature in enacting the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1984 to argue that the decision of the Andhra Pradesh High Court is erroneous.

Keywords: Copyright infringement, cognizable, non-cognizable, non-bailable, bailable

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 590-600

 

 

Practical Insights into Intellectual Property Strategy for a Technical Institute

Shefalika Ghosh Samaddar and Banshi D Chaudhary

Received 23 April 2008, revised 24 September 2008

The paper presents key issues of techno-legal management of intellectual property in a technical institute. It outlines strategies and processes, which may be adopted by the technical institute to generate and protect their intellectual properties through an effective policy formulation. Suggested strategies are process centric and focus on the intellectual output of human resource or results of collective intellectual labour of the institute. It also features management of generated intellectual property (IP) at each stage. It highlights rights and responsibilities of all the participants. A case study based on the activities undertaken by a Ph D student as a participant in the process is presented.

With growing emphasis and importance of knowledge and IP in academic institutions, it is desirable to develop a comprehensive understanding of IP generated by students through interactions with teachers and develop appropriate guidelines to rationalize IP strategy in technical institutes. The interests of faculty, students and researchers as well as of the technical institute need to be delineated and balanced in order to provide a practical IP policy and management framework. The technical institutes should also evolve requisite guidelines for managing any IP produced by faculty, students or researchers and sharing of revenue from exploitation of such IP. It suggests a framework to guide IP policy and management in a technical institute, which may involve delineation of (i) Researcher’s approach to IP strategy, (ii) institute’s approach to IP strategy, and (iii) faculty guidance on student intellectual property rights. It indicates some select schemes, which the technical institutes can take advantage of for seeking support for developing IP management capacity.

Keywords: IP policy and management, technical institute, researcher IP strategy, ownership of IP

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 601-604

 

 

Analysis of Patents Pertaining to Superdisintegrants used in Tablet Manufacturing

Mrudula H Bele and Dilip V Derle

Received 19 October 2007, revised 3 October 2008

The objective of the present investigation is application of patent analysis tool in planning research on superdisintegrants in pharmaceutical tablets. Tablet disintegration has received considerable attention as an essential step in obtaining fast drug release. The major function of the disintegrants is to appose efficiency of the tablet binder and physical forces that act under compression to form the tablet. Superdisintegrants generally are used at low level in solid dosage form, typically 1-10% by weight relative to the total weight of the dosage unit. They are important in formulation of novel tablet dosage forms like mouth disintegrating tablets. Not all research gets published in papers and a lot of information is made available to the public through patents. A detailed analysis of the granted patents as well as patent applications can provide information that may otherwise be found critical however, missing. By analysing patents on superdisintegrants, research gaps can be identified and the research work to be taken up can be focused. A complete analysis of the patents granted on superdisintegrants was done using various criteria such as patenting trends over the years, country wise distribution and different classes of superdisintegrants.

Keywords: Patent analysis, superdisintegrants, activity index

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 605-611

 

 

Institutions and Capacity Building for the Evolution of Intellectual Property Rights Regime in India: VI – Obligations and Opportunities in Handling Plant Varieties and Agricultural Biotechnology*

Sudhir Kochhar

Received 28 September 2008

The evolving IPR regime is catered by government obligations and public opportunities as well as responsibilities. The central government timely enacted/amended various IPR laws conforming to the corresponding international agreements. But interception of IPR infringements for suitable action under the law is the prerogative of the title holders themselves rather than being a responsibility of the government. The IPR grants are territorial. Civil remedies may also come to the rescue or assertion in business. But holders of foreign IPR titles are generally in favour of stronger IPR regime. The small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the public research organizations, particularly face the challenge of adaptation to the new regime. The invaluable extant material proposed to be protected and utilized for further growth, by the Indian law makers needs to be IPR-enabled on priority. Lack of sufficient experience in cross-sectoral partnerships in research and development in the country also poses limitations for appropriate growth and development under the IPR regime. Suitable remedial measures are called for. Also concerns of equity and biosafety are discussed.

Keywords: IPR, TRIPS, biodiversity, CBD, ITPGRFA, biosafety, access & benefit sharing

*The feedback regarding the series of this article can be sent to the editor, Madhu Sahni (email: sahnim@niscair.res.in) or to the author:  skochhar.icar@nic.in; skochhar2000@hotmail.com

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 13, November 2008, pp 612-621

 

 

IP Case Law Developments*

Zakir Thomas

Received 20 October 2008

This article attempts to summarize some of the recently reported cases on intellectual property law to enable readers to understand how the courts have applied the principles of intellectual property law to actual IP disputes. In this article two widely discussed cases, one on trademark law and another on patent law are discussed.

Keywords: Trademark, names of movies, patents, Section 3(d) of Indian Patent Act, non-obviousness, temporary injunction

*The feedback regarding this column can be sent to the editor, Madhu Sahni (email: sahnim@niscair.res.in) or to the author: zthomas@piercelaw.edu

 

 

List of Referees

 

  The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2008.

 

Aggarwal Sumit

Suri & Company, Law Firm, 12, Golf Apartments, Sujan Singh Park,
New Delhi  110 003

Basheer Shamnad

Oxford IP Research Center (OIPRC), UK

Camp Ronald

Kilburn & Strode, 20 Red Lion Street, London, C1R 4PJ

Chawla H S

Patent Information Centre, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
College of Agriculture, G B Pant University of Agric. & Tech, Pantnagar

Cook Trevor

Bird& Bird, 90 Fetter Lane, London, EC4A 1JP,UK

Dalal Praveen  

Perry4Law, New Delhi

Gallagher William T

Golden Gate University School of Law, 36 Mission Street, San Francisco,
CA 94105 ,USA

Gibson Johanna

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute,
John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ,
United Kingdom

Gopakumar K M

Centre for Trade & Development (CENTAD), A1/304 Safdarjung Enclave,
New Delhi 110 029

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology,
Cochin 682 022, Kerala

Gupta V K

National Institute of National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS), New Delhi 110 012

Iyer Chid S

Sughrue Mion PLLC 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20-D, Examiner Press Building, Dalal Street,
Fort, Mumbai

Kandan Dato V L

Shearn Delamore & Co, 7th Floor, Wisma Hamzah-Kwong Hing,
No 1 Leboh Ampang, 50100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Kankanala Kalyan C

“Nurturing Genius”, Brain League IP Services, No. 18, 2nd Floor,
5A Cross, 24th Main, J P Nagar 2nd Phase, Bangalore

Kardam K S

Delhi Patent Office, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, Plot No 32, Sector 14,
Dwarka, New Delhi 110 075

Karjala Dennis S

College of Law, Arizona State University-ASU, Tempe, Arizona 85287-7906

Khader Feroz Ali

A4 Al Hafiz Residency, 7, Cathedral Road, Nungambakkam. Chennai 600 034.

Klint Paul

Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, Kruislaan 413, NL-1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Kochhar Sudhir

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan,
New Delhi 110 114

Lakshmi Kumaran V

Lakshmi Kumaran & Sridharan, B-6/10, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110 029

Lindquist Leigh Ann

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Mendes Philip

Innovation Law, Level 3 ,33 Queen St, Brisbane QLD 4000, Australia

Na Vijayashankar

No 37, “Ujvala”, 20th Main, B S K stage I, Bangalore 560 050

Nair M D

A 11, Sagarica 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmiki Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Ohly D Christopher

Schiff Hardin LLP, 1666 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20036

Padmavati M

Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law, C/o. Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT campus, Kharagpur 721 302

Pushpangadan P

Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech Products Development (AIHBPD),  Thiruvananthapuram 695 005, Kerala

Raghavender G R

Department of Higher Education, B2/W3, Curzon Road Barracks,
Kasturiba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110 001

Roberts Gwilym 

Kilburn & Strode, 20 Red Lion Street, London WC1R 4PJ

Taubman Antony

Global Intellectual Property Issues Division (including the Traditional Knowledge Division and Life Sciences Program),
World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Thambisetty Sivaramjani

London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE

Thomas Zakir

Director General’s Technical Cell and Open Source Drug Discovery project of CSIR, CSIR, New Delhi 110 001

Torremans Paul

School of Law, University of Nottingham, University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet, R R District, Andhra Pradesh 500 078

Vivekanandan V C

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad ,3-4-761, Barkatpura,
Hyderabad, 500 027

Wendland Wend

Traditional Creativity, Cultural Expressions and Cultural Heritage Section, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

 

 

 

 

Annual Author Index

Abhinav Kumar

129

Ambast Sanhita

574

Aprajita

583

 

 

Basheer Shamnad

486

Bele Mrudula H

601

Bergstra Jan A

293

Bhatnagar Pratishtha

139

 

 

Chakravarty Sumit

225

Chaudhary Banshi D

590

Chauhan Ajay

442

Chindalia Sanjanaa

218

 

 

Damodaran A

509

Damodaran A D

414

Derle Dilip V

601

 

 

Gopalakrishnan N S

395

Gupta V K

318

 

 

Hakak Shuaib M

442

Harshwardhan

208

 

 

Janodia Manthan D

28, 442

 

 

Keshri Saurav

35, 208

Khader Feroz Ali

424

Klint Paul

293

Kochhar Sudhir

 

51, 152, 239,
336,
536,605

Kochupillai Mrinalini

486

Kuanpoth Jakkrit

447

Kumar Jayant

234

Lalitha N

401

Ligade V S

28, 442

 

 

Maheshwari Vidhan

139

Malla Suman

225

Mathur Harshita

464

Mishra Neha

43

Mitra Saswata

145

Mittal Rajat

19

 

 

Nair Gopakumar G

432

Nair M D

456

 

 

Ohly D Christopher

498

 

 

Pareek Ashish

7

Patel Mayuri

118

Pise Ajay

28

Pohl Mark

473

 

 

Ragavan Srividhya

514

Rai Rajnish Kumar

301

Raju K D

563

Ramanujan Adarsh

111

 

 

Saha Subhasis

35, 118

Sai Deepak J

197

Samaddar Shefalika Ghosh

590

Shukla Gopal

225

Singh Aishwarya

19

Singh Amit

351

Singh Shivendra

583, 7

Sreedhar D

28, 442

Suresh C P

225

Swarna Latha S

326

 

 

Thomas Zakir

 

57, 157, 245,
344, 523, 612

 

 

Udupa N

28, 442

 

 

Venkataraman K

326

Vivekanandan V C

480

 

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

 

Access and benefit sharing

239, 536, 605

Access to medicines

401

Activity index

601

Advertiser

19

ANDA

473

Arbitrage

464

Article 39.3 of TRIPS

442

Atomic Energy Act

318

 

 

Bailable

583

Banner advertising

118

Bayh-Dole Act

480

Biodiversity

326, 514, 605

Bio-prospecting

509, 514

Biosafety

605

Biotechnology

129

Brazilian patent law

456

Business strategies

301

 

 

Case law reports

245

CBD

51, 536, 605

Central excise

563

Cognizable

583

Colour of tablets

245

Common sense

7

Comparative advertising

19

Competitor

19

Compilation

245

Compulsory license

395, 447

Compulsory licensing

401, 432, 464

Concept notes

344

Confidential information

208, 344

Conformity

239

Conservation

326

Consumer

19

Copyleft

218

Copyright infringement

583

Copyright law

218, 574

Copyright

57, 245, 344

Copyrightable work

35

Copyrights

197

Corrective advertising

19

Cross licensing

351

Customs duties

563

Cyberspace

35

Cybersquatting

118

 

 

Data exclusivity

432 , 442

Defence R & D

318

Derivative works

245

Designs

197

Developing countries

208

Digital era

118

Dilution

118

Distinctive trademark

43

Doha Declaration

395, 401

Domain name

118

Domain names

35

Drug patent

473

Dual use inventions

318

Early neutral evaluation

58

Economic rights

574

Economic significance

245, 344

Enforcement

239

Essentially biological processes

129

Exclusive marketing rights

432

Exclusive rights exhaustion

486

 

 

Farmers’ right

225

Food security

145

Forum convenience

57

Framing

118

Free Software Foundation

218

Freedom to operate

351

Functional trademark

43

 

 

Generic name

523

Geographical indications

197, 336

GI

336

Globalization

139

GNU GPL

218

Graham factors

7

Graphical representation

43

 

 

HA Declaration

456

Hindsight bias

7

HIV/AIDS

401

Income tax

563

 

 

Indian Patents Act 2005

480

Indian Patents law

414

Indian pharmaceutical industry

301

Infringement

57, 118, 523

Initial interest confusion

118

Injunction

19, 57

In-licensing

351

Institutional capacity building

51

Insurance

234

Intellectual property litigation

234

Intellectual property rights

152

Intellectual property

28, 563

International exhaustion

447

Internet

118

Interregional exhaustion

486

Inventive step

245, 344, 498

IP management

152

IP policy and management

590

IP taxation

563

IPR laws

318

IPR on software

293

IPR ownership

152

IPR regime

51

IPR                                                                                   

239, 326, 336, 395, 605

ITPGRFA

605

 

 

Jurisdiction

58, 118

 

 

Legislation

208

Liability

35

Licensing

28

Linking

118

Literary works

245, 344

 

 

Madrid Agreement

111

Madrid Protocol

111

Merck-INBio

514

Meta-tagging

118

Microbiological process

129

Moral rights

574

 

 

Names of movies

612

Napster

35

National security

318

National

486

NBA

326

Newness

498

Non-bailable

583

Non-cognizable

583

Non-obviousness

7, 612

Non-tangible rights

574

Non-traditional trademark

43

North East India

225

Novel

498

Novelty

498

 

 

Obviousness

344

Open source software

218

Originality

245

Ownership of IP

590

 

 

Para 6

395

Parallel imports

447, 486

Paris Convention

395

Passing off

523

Patent analysis

601

Patent infringement insurance

351

Patent infringement issues

351

Patent pool

351

Patent

129, 145

Patentability issue

424

Patentability

432

Patentable subject matter

498

Patented portents

486

Patents                                                                              

57, 245, 344, 464, 612

PCT

424

Performers’ rights

574

Pharmaceutical branding

523

Pharmaceutical economics

473

Pharmaceutical industry

432

Pharmaceutical patent

473

Phishing

118

Plant biodiversity conservation

225

Post-2005 appraisal

414

PPV & FR Act of India

51

PPV & FR Authority

51

PPV&FR Act

239

PPV&FR

336

Pre/post grant oppositions

432

Pre-grant opposition

424

Prior informed consent

536

Process patents

57

Protection

208

PVP

239

 

 

R & D

301, 464

R&D in agriculture

536

Regional

486

Registrability

43

Registration

43

Reproduction rights

35

Research and development

28

Research exemptions

432

Researcher IP strategy

590

 

 

S&T policies

414

Sales tax

563

Secondary meaning

43

Section 3(d) of Indian Patent Act

612

Section 92A

464

Securitization

234

Shape of tablets

245

Small scale industries

139

Software engineering lifecycle

293

Software inventions

293

Software patents

293

Spamming

118

Stamp duty

563

Sui generis

145, 336, 509, 574

Superdisintegrants

601

Synergism test

7

Synthetic intermediate

473

 

 

Technical institute

590

Technology development

28

Technology transfer

28

Temporary injunction

612

Thai Patent Act

447

Therapeutic efficacy

498

Trademark

19, 111

Trademark issues

118

Trademark law

523

Trademark

612

Trademarks Registry Office

43

Trademarks

57

Traditional handicrafts

197

Traditional knowledge

129, 245, 326

TRIPS Agreement

51, 432, 442, 536

TRIPS and AIDS drugs

456

TRIPS

 

139, 301, 395, 424,
447,456, 464, 486, 605

TSM test

7

 

 

UPOV

51

 

 

Valuation of biodiversity

514

Valuation

509

Value added tax

563