Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

 

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VOLUME 14

NUMBER 6

NOVEMBER 2009

CODEN: JIPRFG14(6) 483-582 (2009)

 

ISSN: 0971-5544

 

CONTENTS

 

Articles

 

 

War on Words in Cyberspace- Legal Constraints and Conflicts between Rights of Privacy and Freedom of Speech

489

Tushar Kanti Saha

 

Implications of Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (DPCPTRA) on Indian Pharma Industry

501

Y Srihari, S Padmaja and G Srinivasa Rao

 

Importance of Assignment Agreements under Intellectual Property Laws in India

513

Sindhura Chakravarty

 

Indian Perspective of Fair Dealing under Copyright Law: Lex Lata or Lex Ferenda?

523

Ayush Sharma

 

IP Case Law Developments

532

Zakir Thomas

 

Opinion

 

TRIPS, WTO and IPR – How far have we gone with the DOHA Round?

542

M D Nair

 

Literature Review

 

IPR―General

544

IPR & research disclosure in university environment ● Public health & preservation of economic competitiveness ● Integrated management of marine biodiversity in Europe ● Developing new innovation models ● IP and joint ventures ● The role of IP in creating, sharing and repurposing virtual patients ● A review of IPR in biotechnology ● Does plant variety protection contribute to crop productivity? ● Limitations to inter-organizational knowledge acquisition ● Identification of threshold value for the DEMATEL ● For whose benefit is trade in medicines in EU? ● What factors determine innovation performance in emerging economies? ● The TRIPS Agreement and transfer of climate-change-related technologies to developing countries ● IPR & access rules for germplasm ● Problems related to computer ethics ● IP in services sector ● Post-Soviet science ● Bringing converging technologies closer to civil society ● Compensation of damages for infringements of IPR in France, under Directive 2004/48/EC ● IPR & US information goods exports

 

Patents

550

Determinants of patent withdrawalsDesign patent map visualization display ● Patent holders' contractual restrictions on downstream purchasers in US & EU through Quanta Prism ● Determinants of licensing activities of local public technology centers in JapanPatent analyses in the changed legal regime of the US Patent Law since 2001 ● Reflections on lack of a patent system throughout China's long history ● Microbicide development ● Columbia University's Axel patents ● Implementing Bayh-Dole-like laws ● Patents as technological information in Latin America ● Eulogy for copying ● Changing landscape in biotechnology patenting The influences of the structure and activity of biologically active compounds on assessment of inventive step ● An introduction to destructive coordination ● The characteristics of technical character and ongoing saga in EPO & English courts ● Patentability of pharmaceutical products in India ● Supporting patent retrieval in the context of innovation-processes by means of information dialogue

 

Copyright and Trademark

555

● How prepared is the Indian entertainment industry to tackle the challenges posed by Web 2.0? ● Publication ethics ● Lucasfilm v Ainsworth ● Harry Potter and the simulacrum ● The influence of achievement goal orientation on plagiarism ● The shape of the Lego brick is free for all to use ● Design and development challenges for an E2E DRM content business integration platform ● Protection of IP based on a skeleton model in product design collaboration ● The governance of university knowledge transfer ● Building trade secrets system in Jordan Cybersquatting: Prevention better than cure? Impact of brand recognition and brand reputation on firm performance: US perspective

 

IPR News

 

IPR News—General

559

● China bans foreign investment in online games ● USIBC’s coalition for healthy India ● Kotak Mahindra Bank wins cybersquatting case at WIPO WIPO Applauds Lebanon’s IP EffortsWIPO marks 10th anniversary of UDRP ● EU, Asean move to strengthen IPR protection ● UK-IPO on IP Supplement to UNCITRAL Guide ● Banarasi silk weavers’ skills count for IP ● Fake N95 (swine flu) facemasks seized in Pune

 

Patent News

563

Kappos awards 600,000th design patent ● Patents for data de-duplication, encryption & delivery of cloud services ● Mashelkar clarifies on patent report conclusions ● India refuses patent protection for AIDS drug of US Company ● Chinese government to subsidize foreign patent applications ● Israel acknowledged as international patent center LG Electronics wins patent dispute with Whirlpool ● USPTO rescinds controversial new patent rules ● China way ahead of India in patent filings

 

Copyright and Trademark News

567

● Proposal to amend Copyright Act, 1957 ● EU wants book digitization based on European copyright law ● Nicolas Sarkozy gets caught pirating his own documentary ● Revon infringes Revlon copyright ● Trademark registration applications in Taiwan set new record ● Google co-founder defends Google Books deal ● Coke wins case against Bisleri for Maaza brand name

 

Key Patents

570

Patent for LiverPool hepatocytes Patent on Corn Oil Extraction Genes in intestinal inflammatory diseases ● EPO patent on TaxanesAudible magic awarded four new patents ● Patent on wireless biometric and biomechanical data ● Japanese patent for optical biopsy forceps system ● Patent for enhanced directory assistance services

 

Book Review

 

Copyright Law - Desk Book (Knowledge, Access & Development)

573

Akhil Prasad and Aditi Agarwala

 

Enforcing Intellectual Property Rights

573

Lambert Jane

 

Innovation for the 21st Century: Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Property and Antitrust Law

574

A Carrier Michael

 

 

 

 

 

                              Author Index

 

Chakravarty Sindhura

513

Nair M D

542

Padmaja S

501

Saha Tushar Kanti

489

Sharma Ayush

523

Srihari Y

501

Srinivasa Rao G

501

Thomas Zakir

532

 

                              Keyword Index

 

ANDA

501

Assignment Agreement

513

   

Biological resources

513

   

Comparative advertising

532

Contract Act

513

Copyright

513, 523

Cyber

489

   

Database

489

Defamation

489

Defence

523, 532

Designs

513

DMF

501

   

Exception

523

Fair dealing

523

Fair use

523

FDA

501

First-to-file

501

Freedom of speech

489

   

Generic drug

501

Geographical indications

513

   

Hatch-Waxman

501

   

Infringement

523, 532

   

Paragraph IV

501

Patents

501, 513

Plant varieties

513

Privacy

489

   

Recordal procedure

513

   

Section 52

523

Semiconductor integrated circuit layout design

513

Stamp Act

513

   

Trademark

513, 532

   

Validity

532

 

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 489-500

 

 

War on Words in Cyberspace- Legal Constraints and Conflicts between Rights of Privacy and Freedom of Speech

Tushar Kanti Saha

National University of Lesotho, Roma 180, Lesotho

Received 29 April 2009, revised 14 October 2009

Cyber is understood as computer and mathematical analysis of the flow of information. The word ‘Cyber’ comes from the Greek word for navigator originating in kybernété meaning ‘helmsman’. Cyberspace is the virtual (nonphysical) space created by computer systems that is, a shared virtual or metaphorical environment whose inhabitants, objects, and spaces comprise data that is visualized, heard and touched by surfing Internet. In other words, it is an artificial, virtual, conceptually constructed mental environment or notional space developed using computers. This very idyllic conception of imaginary locale which is not a land of utopia but a realm of experience was crafted by a futuristic designer author William Gibson who coined the term cyberspace in his ‘Burning Chrome’ in 1982 and later popularized by his sci-fi Hugo Award winning novel Neuromancer in 1984. The credit of Gibson had been acknowledged by John Perry Barlow in his works, ‘Crime and Puzzlement’ published in 1990. He writes, ‘In this silent world, all conversation is typed. To enter it, one forsakes both body and place and becomes a thing of words alone. You can see what your neighbours are saying (or recently said), but not what either they or their physical surroundings look like. Town meetings are continuous and discussions rage on everything from sexual kinks to depreciation schedules. Whether by one telephonic tendril or millions, they are all connected to one another. Collectively, they form what their inhabitants call the ‘Net’. It extends across that immense region of electron states, microwaves, magnetic fields, light pulses and thought which sci-fi writer William Gibson named Cyberspace.’ The problem is how to reconcile all the conflicting claims arising out of the issues of privacy in the context of Internet exposure vis-à-vis the right to freedom of speech. The paper will raise all these issues cropping up in a number of fields and discuss the legal implications on the encroachment of the freedom of speech.

Keywords: Cyber, freedom of speech, privacy, defamation, database

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 501-512

 

 

Implications of Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (DPCPTRA) on Indian Pharma Industry

Y Srihari S Padmaja and G Srinivasa Rao

Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, 313 Bachupally, Qutubullapur Mandal, Hyderabad 500 072

Received 10 June 2009, revised 15 September 2009

The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (DPCPTRA), informally known as the ‘Hatch-Waxman Act’, introduced in 1984, modified the Patent Act of 1952 and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Section 21 U.S.C. 355(j) to simplify approval process of generic drugs by FDA by filing Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs). This Act also provided some incentives to innovators as well as generic companies by way of patent extension based on regulatory delays as well as 180-day exclusivity to generic companies that have the first-to-file (FTF) ANDA against patents listed in Orange Book. This paper reports the first-time generic drugs approved by FDA during 2004-08 and the number of ANDAs receiving 180-day exclusivities as well as the impact of DPCPTRA on Indian pharma industry.

Keywords: Patent, Hatch-Waxman, generic drug, Paragraph IV, FDA, ANDA, DMF, first-to-file

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 513-522

 

 

Importance of Assignment Agreements under Intellectual Property Laws in India*

Sindhura Chakravarty

Hidayatullah National Law University, HNLU Bhawan, Civil Lines, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492 001

Received 20 August 2009, revised 29 October 2009

A well-established statutory, administrative and judicial framework exists in India to safeguard intellectual property, relating to patents, trademarks, copyright or industrial designs.1 An important aspect of these laws deals with assignment agreements. An assignment agreement is an intellectual property (IP) transaction that deals with the ownership and disposition of intellectual property rights as well as with the control over the use of or access to intellectual property. This paper attempts to briefly explain assignment agreements in general terms as well as the essential requirements for assignment agreements under the Indian Contract Act, 1872, and the Indian Stamp Act, 1899. It discusses in detail the sections pertaining to assignment agreements in the legislations on Intellectual Property Law in India. It also provides information regarding the forms through which assignment of the intellectual property can be registered. The Madrid protocol and the rules regarding assignment of trademarks in the international forum have also been discussed.

Keywords: Assignment Agreement, Contract Act, copyrights, patents, trademark, geographical indications, designs, semiconductor integrated circuit layout design, plant varieties, biological resources, Stamp Act, recordal procedure

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 523-531

 

Indian Perspective of Fair Dealing under Copyright Law: Lex Lata or
Lex Ferenda?

Ayush Sharma

National Law Institute University, Kerwa Dam Road, Bhopal 462 044

Received 6 August 2009, revised 12 October 2009

Fair dealing is an important concept in Indian copyright law. However, despite its importance in the copyright regime and the importance of the copyright regime to advancement of technology, the concept remains relatively unexplored in India. The Americans, on the other hand, have been rapidly refining their concept of fair use over the past decades. Has the Indian Judiciary benefited from the American experience? This article attempts to explore the historical roots of copyright law and fair dealing in India, its raison d'àtre, the statutory and primarily the judicial treatment of the concept. It also discusses the attitude of the Indian judiciary to the defence of fair dealing, in the light of American jurisprudence.

The article concludes to say that though the Indian courts have borrowed the factor analysis method in the assessment of fair dealing from US and have also adopted a disciplined approach in dealing with this defence, Indian copyright jurisprudence is still awaiting its watershed equivalent of Folsom v Marsh to address fundamental issues about the purpose, meaning and application of the Indian law on fair dealing. The role of fair dealing in the overall scheme of Indian copyright law regime remains to be defined.

Keywords: Fair dealing, fair use, copyright, exception, defence, infringement, Section 52

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 532-541

 

 

IP Case Law Developments*

Zakir Thomas

Open Source Drug Discovery (OSDD) & DG's Technical Cell, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110 001

Received 4 November 2009

This article attempts to summarize some of the recently reported cases on intellectual property law to enable readers to understand how the Courts have applied the principles of intellectual property law to actual IP disputes. In this article, widely discussed cases on, copyright law and patent law are covered.

Keywords: Patents, infringement, validity, defences, trademark, comparative advertising

*The feedback regarding this column can be sent to the editor, Madhu Sahni (email: sahnim@niscair.res.in) or to the author (zthomas@piercelaw.edu).

 

 

 

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 14, November 2009, pp 542-543

 

 

TRIPS, WTO and IPR - How Far Have We Gone With the
DOHA Round?

M D Nair

A-11, Sagarica, 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmiki Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai 600 041

Received 4 October 2009

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was set up in 1995 and has been the custodian of  all matters related to the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement endorsed by the 152 member countries.  WTO is therefore the most important body which monitors and influences working of global intellectual property rights protection in all the member countries. This issue covers how far we have gone with the
DOHA round.

 

 

 

List of Referees

 

The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2009.

 

Alam Ghayur

National Law Institute University, Bhopal 462 003

Basheer Shamnad

National University of Juridical Sciences, NUJS Bhavan, Calcutta 700 098

Chakravarty Kalyan

‘Nurturing Genius’, Brain League IP Services, Bangalore

Christopher Ohly D

Schiff Hardin LLP, 1666 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20036

Cook Trevor

Bird& Bird, 90 Fetter Lane, London, EC4A 1JP,UK

Dalal Praveen

Perry4Law, New Delhi

Damodaran A D

‘SUDHARMA’, 9 Mangalam Lane, Sasthamangalam, P O Trivandrum 695 010

Dhar Biswajit

Research and Information System for Developing Countries, Zone IV-B, 4th Floor, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003

Gangjee Dev

London School of Economics, Room A303, Department of Law, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE

Gopakumar K M

Centre for Trade & Development (CENTAD), A1/304 Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110 029

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022

Guan Yuying

Intellectual Center of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,
Beijing 100 720

Gupta Amit

21, Lawyers Chamber, Supreme Court of India, New Delhi 110 001

Gupta V K

Former Scientist, NISTADS, New Delhi 110 012

Gwilym Roberts

Kilburn & Strode, 20 Red Lion Street, London WC1R 4PJ

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20-D, Examiner Press Building, Dalal Street, Fort, Mumbai

Kardam K S

Delhi Patent Office, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, Plot No 32, Sector 14, Dwarka, New Delhi 110 075

Karjala Dennis S

College of Law, Arizona State University-ASU, Tempe, Arizona 85287-7906

Khader Feroz Ali

A4 Al Hafiz Residency, 7, Cathedral Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai 600 034

Kochhar Sudhir

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan,
New Delhi 110 114

Malvina Major

ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F D Roosevelt 50, CP139, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

Nair Gopakumar

Gopakumar Nair Associates, 3rd Floor, Shivmangal, Akurli Road, Kandivli (East), Mumbai 400 101

Nair M D

A 11, Sagarica 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmiki Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Narayanswamy Harini

41, Nava Nirman Nagar, Road No. 71,  Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad 500 033

Padmavati M

Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Campus, Kharagpur 721 302

Parmar P S

Delhi Patent Office, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, Plot No 32, Sector 14, Dwarka, New Delhi 110 075

Qanungo Kushal

Department of Applied Science and Humanities, Mody Institute of Technology and Science, Laksmangargh, Dist Sikar, 332 311

Raghavan Sridhya

University of Oklahoma College of Law, Norman, OK

Raghavender G R

Department of Higher Education, B2/W3, Curzon Road Barracks, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110 001

Rajesh Sagar

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London,

John Vane Science Building , Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ

Rangnekar Dwijen

CSGR/Law, University of Warwick, UK

Ryder Rodney D

Kochhar & Co, 3rd Floor, Tower – B,

Technopolis Building, Sector – 54, DLF Golf Course Road, Gurgaon 122 002

Singh S S

Delhi Patent Office, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, Plot No 32, Sector 14, Dwarka, New Delhi 110 075

Sinha Madukar

Centre for WTO Studies , #721, IIFT Bhawan, B-21, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 016

Springman Christopher

University of Virginia, School of Law, United States

Suthersanen Uma

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ,UK

Torremans Paul

School of Law, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet, R R District, Andhra Pradesh 500 078

Vijayashankar Na

Cyber Law Educationist and E-Business, Ujvala Consultants Pvt Ltd, Bangalore

Vivekanandan V C

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad ,3-4-761, Barkatpura,
Hyderabad 500 027

Yang Deli

Bradford University School of Management, Emm Lane, Bradford ,West Yorkshire, BD9 4JL

 

 

                      Annual Author Index

 

 

Bakshi Gautam

299

Bansal Inderjit Singh

299

Baruah Anjana

423

Bhat P Ishwara

214

 

 

Chakravarty Sindhura

513

Chugh Archana

122

 

 

Demunshi Ypsita

122

Dutta Angusman

321

 

 

Gautam Vinayshil

142

Ghosh P K

340

Gopalan Raguvaran

46

Gupta Maram Suresh

307

Gupta V K

149, 164

 

 

Hidalgo Antonio

63

 

 

Jain Sneha

14

Jain Sudhir K

142

Janodia Manthan D

432

Joshi Himanshu

340

 

 

Kant Aditya

385

 

 

Liu Wenqi

226

 

 

Mathur Vipin

7

Mishra Priyambada

321

Mukherjee Utsav

52

 

 

Nagori B P

7

Nair M D

 166, 258, 346, 446 542

Nanda Nitya

241

Nishy P

149

Padmaja S

501

Pandey Sureshwar

432

Parvin Mohammad Reza

203

Patro Aravind M

330

 

 

Rai Rajnish Kumar

405

Ramanujan Adarsh

28

Rao J Venkata

432

Ravindran Sudhir

317

 

 

Saha Subhasis

131

Saha Tushar Kanti

489

Sahu Deeptymaya

299

Sangal Tanushree

236

Sharma Ayush

523

Shirwaikar Pranjal

113

Shridhar Manisha

142

Shukla Nitin

236

Singh Sukhjeet

299

Sinha Babita

340

Sreedhar D

432

Srihari Y

501

Srinivasa Rao G

501

Suman Yogesh

149

 

 

Thomas Zakir
153,247,437,532      

 

                            

Tomar Vernika

397

 

 

Udupa N

432

 

 

Vijay Lakshmi V

330

Vinoth Khanna S R  

317

Virendra S Ligad

432

 

 

                 Annual Keyword Index

 

 


Ad interim injunction

247, 437

ANDA

501

Assignment Agreement

513

 

 

Bioinformatics

46

Biological resources

513

Breeder’s right

203

 

 

Claim comparison

7

Claim construction

7, 28

Clearance search

7

Climate change

241

Collective bodies

214

Collective enforcement

214

Collective intellect

214

Comparative advertising

532

Competition law

397

Complete specification

423

Compulsory license

52

Compulsory licensing

241

Computational biology

46

Computer

131

Contents of specification

423

Contract Act

513

Copyright
;46, 247, 321, 437    

Copyright

513,523

Copyright Act

321

Copyright assignment

153

Copyright society

214

Counterfeit

236

Counterfeit goods

330

Currency 

52

Cyber

489

 

 

Data mining

46

Database

46, 489

Defamation

489

Defence

523, 532

Delphion database

164

Designs

247, 513

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

321

Disclosure

307, 423

DMF

501

DPPA

113

 

 

e-Commerce

131

Economy

52

Enforcement

226

Enterprise  

226

European Patent Convention

317

European patents

317

Ever-greening

299, 385

Exception

523

Exhaustion of rights

14

Extrinsic sources

28

Fair dealing

523

 

 

Fair use

523

Farmers’ rights

214

Fashion industry

113

FDA

501

FFI

113

First-to-file

501

Free riding

405

Freedom of speech

489

Freedom-to-operate

7

 

 

Generic
236, 299, 385     

Generic drug

501

Genes

46

Geographical indications

214, 513

GI

405

GI-extension

405

Gray goods 

14

 

 

Hatch-Waxman Act

299, 501

Hybrid plants

203

   

Importation

330

Indian law

14

Indian patent applicants

317

Information technology

149

Information Technology Act

321

Infringement

7

Infringement

14,321,523,532

Infringement analysis

7

Intellectual property

63, 113, 317, 330

Intellectual property management

226

Intellectual property protection

226

Intellectual property rights

122

International IPR regimes

241

Internet

131

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

321

Intrinsic sources

28

Inventions

63

IP creation

340

IPR (IG) Rules

330

IPR department

432

 

 

Knowledge economy

340

Knowledge economy index

340

   

London Agreement

317

 

 

Marine biodiversity

122

Market exclusivity

299

Molecular biology

46

Nanotechnology

164

 

 

Originality

153

 

 

Paragraph IV

501

Parallel imports

14

Paroxetine

299

Patent




7, 28, 46, 52, 63, 122, 131, 142, 153, 164, 203, 247, 317, 340, 437, 501, 513

Patent activity

142

Patent agent

142

Patent assignee

149

Patent busting

385

Patent eligibility

385

Patent pool

214

Patent regime

52

Patent specification

307

Patent statute

423

Patent strategy

299

Patents filed/owned

149

PCT

142

Pharma

236

Pharmaceutical application

122

Pharmaceutical companies

385

Pharmaceutical industry

432

Phillips

28

Piracy paradox

113

Pirated works

330

Plant varieties

513

Plant variety

203

Plants

203

Policy levers

385

POSITA

385

Pre-grant opposition

437

Prior art

7

Prior art search

423

Privacy

489

Product patent

432

Prosecution history estoppel

7

Public interest

437

 

 

Quality control

397

quid pro quo

307

 

 

R&D

432

Recordal procedure

513

 

 

Safe harbour protection

321

Section 3(d) of Indian Patent Act

153, 385

Section 52

523

Seizure

236

Semiconductor integrated circuit layout design

513

Software

46, 131

Source indication

397

Source theory

397

Stamp Act

513

Statement of invention

423

Sufficiency

307

 

 

Technical educational institutions

340

Texas Digital

28

Third sector organizations

214

Trade secret

46

Trademark

113, 153, 247, 513, 532

Trademark franchising

397

Trademark licensing

397

Trademark on games

153

Trademarks

14

Transgenic plants

203

Translation costs

317

TRIPS

142, 241, 330, 432

TRIPS Agreement

52, 299, 405

 

 

Validity

532

 

 

Web page

131

WHO

236

WIPO Development Agenda

241

Written description

423

WTO

142