Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 70

NUMBER 5

MAY 2011

CONTENTS

Review

319

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identification of herbal materials and medicines – A review






Rahul Ranjan Sheorey & Archana Tiwari

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a DNA based technique, which refers to DNA fragments amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a single arbitrary primer resulting in genetic polymorphism, observed between different genomes. RAPD has been extensively used for identification of herbs and herbal preparations due to its rapidity, simplicity, economy, and absence of prior genetic information and requirement of less sophisticated equipment. This review provides application of RAPD technique in identification and authentication of herbal materials and medicines.

Management & Information Technology

327

Real-time high-resolution frequency estimation of electric signals in industrial applications












R J Romero-Troncoso, E Cabal-Yepez, A Garcia-Perez, R A Osornio-Rios &
D Granados-Lieberman

This study develops a low cost hardware processing unit implemented in a field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) device and based on Chirp-z transform for real-time high-resolution frequency computation of electric signals in industrial applications. This hardware unit complies with international standards for frequency measurement in electrical systems. Effectiveness of proposed frequency-estimation unit was experimentally validated using case studies.

332

Enhancement of noisy speech signal based on variance and modified gain function with PDE preprocessing technique for digital hearing aid



D Deepa & A Shanmugam

This paper deals with a single-channel speech enhancement algorithm, preprocessed using partial differential equation, used to overcome degradation of noisy speech signals in digital hearing aids. Adaptive threshold is estimated using variance in time index. Gain is modified based on adaptive threshold estimated in frequency bins and used to enhance noisy signal. By proposed method, definite improvement in SNR and reduced MSE can be obtained compared to conventional method. This method provides a greater degree of flexibility and control on noise subtraction levels that reduce artifacts in enhanced speech, resulting in improved speech quality and intelligibility.

Management & Information Technology

338

Simulation of rice brown planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)] damage for determining economic injury levels






















M Sujithra, Subhash Chander & K Selvaraj

This study presents InfoCrop-rice model to simulate damage mechanism of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) on two rice cultivars (Pusa Basmati 1 and ADT-38). Simulated yield and TDM losses were proximal to respective observed losses of yield (R2 = 0.801; RMSE = 18.47%) and TDM (R2 = 0.843; 20. 73%), indicating proper validation of damage mechanism of BPH. Validated model simulated economic injury levels (EILs) of BPH at different rice growth stages with two control expenditures, incurred on two applications with each of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 500 g a.i./ha and buprofezin 25 SC @ 100 g a.i./ha and three market prices of Pusa Basmati 1 and ADT-38 apiece. EIL exhibited a negative relationship with market value of produce but had a positive with control measure expenditure.

S & T and Industrial Research

346

Development and validation of stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of oxcarbazepine in pharmaceuticals




















K Basavaiah, N Rajendraprasad, M X Cijo,
K B Vinay & P J Ramesh

Two simple, selective and stability indicating UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for assay of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in bulk drug and in its dosage forms. Proposed methods are based on measurement of absorbance of OXC either in methanol (method A) or in acetonitrile (method B) at 254 nm. Calibration graphs are linear over 2-40 µg ml-1 in both methods with correlation coefficients (r) 0.9993 (method A) and 0.9999 (method B). Apparent molar absorptivity values were 6.73 × 103 (method A) and 6.95 × 103 l mol-1 cm-1 (method B). This study indicated that OXC was degraded in alkaline medium. Proposed methods were successfully applied to determination of OXC in tablets and results are comparable with reported method.

S & T and Industrial Research

352

Immobilization of peroxidase on a cost free support from salt fractionated proteins of bitter gourd





















Zoheb Karim & Qayyum Husain

This study presents direct immobilization of peroxidases from ammonium sulphate fractionated proteins of bitter gourd on cost free support, fly ash. Activated fly ash (η, 0.84) was quite effective in high yield immobilization of peroxidase from bitter gourd and it bind nearly 1113 enzyme units per g of support in sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. This enzyme bound very strongly on this support and it did not detach even in the presence of 1.0M NaCl. Fly ash adsorbed bitter gourd peroxidase retained 50% activity after treatment with 2.5 mg trypsin/ml of incubation mixture for 1 h at 40°C while soluble enzyme lost nearly 65% of initial activity under similar incubation conditions. FT-IR spectra of fly ash and adsorbed peroxidase showed different peaks at respective wavenumbers.

360

Validation and quality determination of an ethnobotanical lead for osteogenic activity isolated from Ulmus wallichiana Planch.: A traditional plant for healing fractured bones



K R Arya, Deepty Sharma & Brijesh Kumar

Ulmus wallichiana is an important traditional and endangered plant species of Western Himalaya, used for treatment of fractured bones in animal as well as in human beings. This paper presents significant ethnobotanical information of U. wallichiana collected from folk tradition of remote hilly localities of Almora and Bageshwar districts of Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Folk claim is validated through chemical and pharmacological outputs followed by identification and qualitative determination of bioactive compounds.

365

Some physicochemical analyses of kefir produced under different fermentation conditions













Ahmed A Ismaiel, Mohamed F Ghaly & Ayman K El-Naggar

This study presents physicochemical attributes of kefir under different cultural conditions. Maximum values of kefir biomass and kefiran were achieved when 100 ml of skimmed cows' milk (pH 6)/250 ml glass container was fermented with 5 g fresh kefir grains after stationary incubation at 30°C for 120 h. Physicochemical analyses of kefir resulted from fermentation of either skimmed milk or medium formulation indicated that both kefiran production and kefir filtrate viscosity were growth associated, while increase in titratable acidity was largely related to lactic acid production.

S & T and Industrial Research

373

Kinetics studies of product inhibition in alcoholic fermentation






















Nand Lal Singh, Ram Prasad, P K Mishra & Pradeep Srivastava

This paper presents inhibitory effect of ethanol on growth of cells and ethanol production. A linear fall was observed of survival (%) of Kluyveromyces Thermotolerans cells with time. Change in death rate constant of cells beyond certain range of ethanol concentration was due to shift in mechanism of cells inhibition. Pronounced inhibitory effect was observed at higher ethanol concentrations in broth. Decrease in optimum temperature for growth of cells was found with added ethanol concentration. This also confirms more inhibitory effect of product on microorganism at higher temperature. This study confirms both reversible and irreversible inhibition of cells by ethanol.

Energy and Environment

379

Novel method of wind energy conversion system by incorporating permanent magnet generator and single stage AC-AC power converter



















R Bharanikumar & A Nirmal Kumar

This study proposed a cost effective method of wind energy conversion system (WECS) incorporating permanent magnet generator (PMG) and single stage power converter. Axial flux PMG can generate rated voltage and frequency even at a lower speed and hence more suitable for direct drive WECS. To get desired voltage and frequency in continuously varying wind conditions, a new type of WECS with single stage power conversion is being proposed. Matrix converter in the system is mainly used to control output voltage and frequency. It also reduces size of the system and cost of power generation.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

385

A simplified mix proportioning for cement based composites with crushed tile waste aggregate


























M C Nataraja & Lelin Das

This study presents a procedure to proportion concrete mixes with tile waste as coarse aggregate. To arrive at water –cement ratio for matrix strength, generalized Abrams’ law is employed for proportioning and proper utilization of industrial wastes based on their engineering properties leading to the production of quality concrete through mix design. This also serves as a method for disposal of industrial tile waste through proper technology management.

Author-Reader Platform

391

Instructions to contributors

 

 

Author Index

Arya K R

360

 

 

Basavaiah K

346

Bharanikumar R

379

 

 

Cabal-Yepez E

327

Chander S

338

Cijo M X

346

 

 

Das L

385

Deepa D

332

 

 

El-Naggar A K

365

 

 

Garcia-Perez A

327

Ghaly M F

365

Granados-Lieberman D

327

 

 

Husain Q

352

 

 

Ismaiel A A

365

 

 

Karim Z

352

Kumar A N

379

Kumar B

360

Mishra P K

373

 

 

Nataraja M C

385

 

 

Osornio-Rios R A

327

 

 

Prasad R

373

 

 

Rajendraprasad N

346

Ramesh P J

346

Romero-Troncoso R J

327

 

 

Selvaraj K

338

Shanmugam A

332

Sharma D

360

Sheorey R R

319

Singh N L

373

Srivastava P

373

Sujithra M

338

 

 

Tiwari A

319

 

 

Vinay K B

346


 

Keyword Index


Abram’s law

385

Adaptive threshold

332

Alcoholic fermentation

373

Amino acids

365

Assay

346

Axial flux PMG

379

 

 

Bitter gourd peroxidase

352

Brown planthopper

338

 

 

Capillary electrophoresis

319

Chirp-z transform

327

Chopper

379

Construction and demolition wastes

385

Cost free support

352

Cows' milk

365

Crosslinking

352

 

 

Damage mechanism

338

DNA based identification methods

319

 

 

Economic injury level

338

Ethnobotanical lead

360

 

 

Fermentation

365

Fly ash

352

FPGA

327

Fractured bone

360

 

 

Gain function

332

 

 

Herbal medicine

319

HerboprintTM

319

 

 

Immobilization

352

Inhibitory effect

373

Kefir

365

Kefiran

365

 

 

Lactic acid

365

Law of mixtures

385

 

 

Main-frequency-component estimation

327

Matrix converter

379

MSE

332

 

 

Osteogenic

360

Oxcarbazepine

346

 

 

PDE

332

Pharmaceuticals

346

Product inhibition

373

PWM inverter

379

 

 

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

319

Real-time computation

327

Rectifier

379

Recycled aggregates

385

Rice

338

 

 

Simulation model

338

SNR

332

Stability indicating

346

 

 

Thermo tolerant yeast

373

Tile waste

385

 

 

Ulmus wallichiana

360

UV-spectrophotometry

346

 

 

Variance

332

 

 

Wind turbine

379