Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 71

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2012

 

Editorial

 

CONTENTS

Reviews

13

Potential Applications of Blue Green Algae






Hillol Chakdar, Srikrishna D Jadhav,
Dolly Wattal Dhar & Sunil Pabbi

Blue Green Algae (BGA) possess immense morphological and metabolic diversity and are of great biological significance. BGA possess an optimal set of properties for their maximum use in economic development and environment management like waste water treatment, land reclamation, production of fine chemicals, atmospheric fixation of nitrogen, production of methane fuel, conversion of solar energy, therapeutic functions and so on. The present paper reviews the role of these organisms in agriculture, food and industry.

21

Calixarene: A new architecture in the analytical and pharmaceutical technology



M D Shah & Y K Agrawal

Calixarenes are good candidate for molecular ion recognition, drug recognition, metal recognition, diagnostics and drug delivery. This review is focused on characteristics of calixarene as state-of-the-art application in pharmaceutical field.

Management & Information Technology

27

Using average control chart with subgroups to monitor turnaround time



















Shih-Chou Kao

This study proposes a control chart to monitor turnaround time (TAT) of biochemical test of laboratory for a medical center. Constants of average control chart are calculated in accordance with fixing probability of type I error (α, 0.0027) with three distributions (Weibull, lognormal and Burr) by using Monte Carlo simulation. This study also compared probabilities of type I and type II errors (β) among control charts, including weighted variance (WV), skewed correction (SC) and traditional Shewhart control charts. Control chart with asymmetrical control limits using proposed constants based on subgroups is superior in terms of two probabilities for a skewed process.

Management & Information Technology

36

Experimental study for 3D statistical property based intracranial brain tumor classification











































S Allin Christe, B Vasantha Kumari &
A Kandaswamy

This study determines how 3D gray level co-occurrence statistical texture measures magnetic resonance (MR) images to provide a better discrimination and classification of non-tumor/tumor tissues when compared to 2D texture measures using only the statistical properties and without using any conventional classifiers. Validation of tumor discrimination was done, and performance measures achieved an overall accuracy (80%) with sensitivity of 85.71% and 83.33%, and specificity of 80.95% and 80.77% for non-tumor vs tumor and for benign vs malignant tumors, respectively. This study is a part of developing a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classification of brain tumors in vivo before going for pathological tests like biopsy.

45

Estimating efficient value of controllable variable using an adaptive neural network algorithm: Case of a railway system



A Azadeh, M Saberi, R Noorossana, Mohammad Saidi Mehrabad, M Anvari &
H Izadbakhsh

This study proposes a method, using adaptive neural network (ANN), to predict, estimate and evaluate performance variables without requiring any restrictive assumptions, taking case of a railway system. Also, by means of this method, it would be possible to compare actual performance data with estimated values and route their assignable causes in future periods. Energy consumption norm of vehicles in case of energy railway and real data of energy consumption in Iranian railway is considered.

Energy and Environment

51

Enhanced acid hydrolysis for bioethanol production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using fermentating yeast Candida intermedia NRRL Y-981





















A Manivannan, P Hepsibha Jayarani &
R T Narendhirakannan

This study presents bioconversion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to bioethanol using two-sequential steps of acid hydrolysis (10% sulfuric acid) and yeast (Candida intermedia) fermentation. A maximum ethanol yield (coefficient, 0.21 g g-1; productivity, 0.010 g l-1h-1) was comparable to predicted value (0.23 g g-1) obtained by CCD (Central Composite Design). Two colorimetric methods (phloroglucinol and dichromate assays) were used for determination of xylose and ethanol using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Although maximum ethanol concentration was low, an economically efficient overall process was carried out to convert a lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol.

57

Experimental studies for the role of piston rings’ face profiles on performance of a diesel engine fueled with diesel and jatropha based biodiesel





















R C Singh, R Chaudhary, R K Pandey &
S Maji

This study presents performance behaviors of a commercial diesel engine fueled with diesel and Jatropha based biodiesel (B100) at various loads (up to 100%) and compared using standard (conventional) and three new face profile designs (I, II & III) of piston rings. BTE of engine fueled with diesel increases 2-8% with new face profile design (III) of piston rings in comparison to standard (conventional) piston rings. BTE enhances 8-16% when engine is fueled with biodiesel using face profile design (III) on piston rings. Corresponding to increase in BTE, recorded reduction in BSFC (biodiesel) is 28-34%. Industrial application of the results of present study may be useful in saving and conservation of fuels.

Energy and Environment

63

Study of single cylinder di-diesel engine performance fueled with neat coconut oil methyl ester (COME) and methanol as dual fuel


























P S V Ramana Rao, B V Appa Rao,
Saroj Kumar Padhi & N Haribabu

This study presents effect of engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder laboratory based four stroke cycle direct injection (DI) diesel engine fueled by neat coconut oil methyl ester (COME) injected through conventional nozzle (injection pressure 200 bar) and a separate electronic injector is used as retrofit to inject methanol (injection pressure 3 bar) at an appropriate time at suction end after complete opening of suction valve. Biodiesel with 5% methanol injection produced better diffused combustion and a good share of heat release was observed in premixed and diffused combustion zones, besides HC and NO emissions are lower and consistent with minimum change in its value as load is increasing. Thus a mixture of 5% methanol injection with biodiesel operation is the most economical fuel combination in improving engine performance and decreasing emissions.

69

Effect of injection timing on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine using mahua oil methyl ester as fuel


















Chandrakasan Solaimuthu & Palanisamy Govindarajan

This study presents effect of injection timing on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of mahua biodiesel (Madhuca indica) and its blends with pure diesel on a 4 stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV 1) direct injection diesel engine. At injection timing of 22° bTDC, blend B25 (25% mahua biodiesel and 75% pure diesel, by vol) gave optimum performance, which is very close to pure diesel. Thus B25 fuel can be effectively used in a diesel engine as an alternative fuel without any modification in the engine. Diesel (25%) thus saved will greatly help the interests of railways in meeting the demand for fuel, as diesel trains are operated at maximum load condition.

Energy and Environment

75

Performance evaluation of a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with biodiesel produced from pumpkin oil

















Jaya Prasanna Kumar & Prakash Binnal

This study presents transesterification of pumpkin oil to produce biodiesel. A maximum biodiesel yield (96.32%) was observed under optimum conditions for pumpkin oil transesterification [temp., 50°C, molar ratio of methanol to oil, 6:1, KOH, 1.2% (by wt of oil) and time, 90 min]. Performance characteristics of B20 were found to be quite close to petroleum diesel. Thus, 20% blend of pumpkin oil biodiesel can be safely used with petroleum diesel.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

79

Comparative analysis on efficiency of reverse osmosis and alkaline precipitation to remove hazardous substances in a tanning wastewater





















B H Hintermeyer, R A Curvale,
A Pérez Padilla & E L Tavani

Reverse osmosis (RO) with polyamide membrane of spiral wound and precipitation with commercial sodium carbonate were studied to remove hazardous substances [chromium(III), sulfate, chloride and sodium] contained in a tanning wastewater. RO removed chromium(III) very efficiently (99.83%) and with lower but appreciable yields the other three constituents of liquid effluent. Major inconvenience of RO was fast decrease of permeate flux due to insufficient transmembrane pressure used. In turn, 99.71% of chromium(III) was separated with precipitation. Contents of sulfate, chloride and sodium remained without noticeable changes in filtrate liquid.

Author-Reader Platform

 

Instructions to contributors

Author Index


Agrawal Y K

21

Anvari M

45

Azadeh A

45

 

 

Binnal P

75

 

 

Chakdar H

13

Chaudhary R

57

Christe S A

36

Curvale R A

79

 

 

Dhar D W

13

 

 

Govindarajan P

69

 

 

Haribabu N

63

Hintermeyer B H

79

 

 

Izadbakhsh H

45

 

 

Jadhav S D

13

Jayarani P H

51

 

 

Kandaswamy A

36

Kao S C

27

Kumar J P

75

Kumari B V

36

 

 

Maji S

57

Manivannan A

51

Mehrabad M S

45

 

 

Narendhirakannan R T

51

Noorossana R

45

 

 

Pabbi S

13

Padhi S K

63

Padilla A P

79

Pandey R K

57

 

 

Rao B V A

63

Rao P S V R

63

 

 

Saberi M

45

Shah M D

21

Singh R C

57

Solaimuthu C

69

 

 

Tavani E L

79


Keyword Index


3D

36

 

 

Acid hydrolysis

51

Adaptive neural network (ANN)

45

Agriculture

13

Alkaline precipitation

79

Average control chart

27

 

 

Benign

36

Bioconversion

51

Biodiesel

57, 75

Bioethanol

51

Blue green algae

13

Brain tumor

36

 

 

CAD

36

Calixarene

21

Candida intermedia

51

Chromium(III)

79

Coconut oil methyl ester (COME)

63

Cyanobacteria

13

 

 

Decision making units (DMUs)

45

Diesel

57, 69

Drug delivery

21

 

 

Electronic injector

63

Engine performance

57, 63, 69

 

 

Face profiles

57

Fuel consumption

57

 

 

Industry

13

Injection pressure

69

Injection timing

69

 

 

Mahua oil methyl ester

69

Malignant

36

Methanol

63

 

 

Pharmaceutical applications

21

Piston rings

57

Pumpkin oil

75

 

 

Railway system

45

Reverse osmosis (RO)

79

 

 

Skewed distribution

27

Statistical texture measures

36

 

 

Tanning wastewater components

79

Transesterification

75

Turnaround time

27

Type I error

27

Type II error

27

 

 

Water hyacinth

51