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Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

 

ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (62) (8) 745-856 (2003)

VOLUME 62

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2003

 

CONTENTS

Review Paper

755

Food allergy how much of a problem really is this in India?





S V Gangal & B K Malik

Discusses that food allergy affects 1-2 per cent of the whole population. However, its prevalence in children is quite high. Food hypersensitivity is an immunological reaction resulting from the ingestion of a food. This reaction occurs only in some patients when only a minute quantity of the substance is ingested. The reaction can be mild, moderate or severe, leading to anaphylaxis and sudden death. IgE mediated reaction accounts for most of the well-characterized food allergic reactions although non-IgE mediated immune response is also seen occasionally.

Papers

766

Perceptions of participating scientists on international R&D collaborations








 



M K D Rao

The perceptions of Indian scientists on their experience in the overseas R&D collaborations, in a public-funded physics laboratory, are collected through a questionnaire-cum interview schedule. The role of international collaboration, the difficulties faced, the outcome of partnerships, the lessons learnt for best practice, and suggested mechanisms of strengthening bilateral S&T cooperation are discussed. The study also seeks answer to the vital questions, what managerial variables impinge on the success of international R&D collaborative projects? Are all collaborative projects subject so same set of success factors? The paper concludes that in order to increase the appetite of the scientists for international collaboration, provision of defined budget for travel, equipments, and contingencies, improvement in procedural requirements, and, development of comprehensive monitoring system are required.

773

Modelling for the pressure field calculation in
acoustic cavity



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


S Chakraverty & S K Panigrahi

Describes an efficient methodology for the solution of acoustic pressure field inside a rectangular enclosure. The developed method of boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials is used to model the problem and the usefulness of the method is discussed by obtaining simple expression for the sound field. The pressure field calculation is given in terms of 3-D analysis.

777

Predicting effective mass transfer area in randomly-packed column design considerations





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






Aynur Senol

Describes the performance of a randomly packed distillation column depending on the effective vapor-liquid interfacial area (ae) and the flood ratio (per cent Fl) estimated by the Eckert flooding model. Capacity, pressure gradient, and efficiency data obtained on 6.25 mm size of a Raschig-type ceramic ring are used to establish the basis for the model reliability analysis. The reliability of design models is analyzed against observed performance statistically by using a log-ratio objective function. Details underlying some aspects of selection of an appropriate packed column design algorithm are discussed. An example of scaling-up a pilot-plant with respect to the resulting statistical factors is elucidated. Finally, an approach to design in terms of the derivatives of the function ae=f(per cent Fl) is interpreted analytically.

795

Studies on solar drying of two liquid biowastes









 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 



O A Ebison & M S Francis

Deviation from the usual practice, solar drying of liquid materials is attempted. Liquid wastes like starch water and mature coconut water are subjected to solar drying. Apart from bringing it to a dried form, more importance is given to bring a reuse from these dried materials. This option of reuse minimizes pollution and brings about effective waste management. Energy content of the dried materials is also calculated. But the recovery obtained after drying is in small quantity and drying needs a large surface area. Dried mature coconut water is used as an additive in culture media for orchid seed germination studies in Spathoglottis plicata. It is found that incorporating the mature coconut water concentrate in the culture medium enhances the seed germination percentage.

796

Composites of SBR a comparative study using inert fillers







 

 

 

 

 

 

 



D G Hundiwale, U R Kapadi, M C Desai, A G Patil & S H Bidkar

Elastomer-filler interaction is studied by incorporating calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, and flyash as inert fillers in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The study is undertaken to evaluate flyash as potential filler as it is abundantly generated as a waste product in thermal power stations. Mechanical properties, like tensile strength, modulus at various elongations, elongation at break and hardness are determined for all three fillers and compared with flyash filled system. It is found that amongst the three fillers, barium sulphate contributes the least towards reinforcement, while the reinforcement caused by flyash is almost equal to that caused by calcium carbonate. Thus, flyash can be thought as potential substitute to calcium carbonate, which is a conventional filler.

802

Evaluation of properties of fibres extracted from certain weeds for use in paper and cordage industries



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


T Goswami & C N Saikia

Fibre quality and paper making properties of three potential weed species growing abundantly in the forests and waste land areas of north eastern region are studied. Morphological characteristics of the plants and proximate chemical analyses data show their suitability as pulping material as well as for making cordage. Pulp with high yields and paper will good physical properties can be produced from these plants. The fibre materials are also capable of producing good quality cordage with high physical strength properties.

809

Influence of zeolite on the mineralogical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete







Mustafa Albayrak & Turhan Ayyildiz

Zeolite is synthesized for Al-substituted tobermorite 90 mm, instead of quartz around 50C for 4h and autoclave at 200C produces smaller crystallites and exhibits larger radial platelets. Tobermorite content material shows that bulk density increases sharply with decrease in Al. Bulk density values increase regularly with increase in compressive strength values. Porosity diameter of the samples increases with increase in quantity of aluminium. However, strength of material decreases. As a result, it is shown that use of clinoptilolite, instead of quartzite saves energy and has various industrial applications.

813

Treatment and decolourisation of an azo dye in industrial effluent




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






Rajeev Jain, Meenakshi Bhargava & Nidhi Sharma

The electrochemical behaviour of Orange II is studies voltammetrically using Pt foil and steel foil as working electrodes, while Pt wire and Ag/AgCl are used as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. Controlled potential electrolysis is carried out at 1.20V. The decrease in cathodic peak and peak current lead to decolourisation of solution (2 10-4m) with a significant decrease in COD from 1840 to 174 mg/L. Orange II is found to yield a mixture of sulphanilic acid and 1-amino-2-naphthol upon electrochemical reduction. Based on voltametric and spectrophotometric analysis, rate of the reaction is determined and found to be of first order.

820

Effect of compounding ingredients on rheometric characteristics and physical properties of a rubber based shoe sole






N Karak & M Roy

The effects of base polymer and filler types like, NR, NR/SBR, NR/SBR/NR blends, Hind clay and SRF N770 fillers and their doses on rheometric and physical properties of a shoe sole compound are studied. In addition to hardness, other related important properties of the shoe sole like, tensile strength, modulus at 100 per cent strain, abrasion resistance, cut growth resistance up to 300 per cent, elongation at break are also measured for the vulcanizates. The curing characteristics of the vulcanizates are determined by using a Monsanto MDR 2000 rheometer. The economic validity of the different formulations is also evaluated.

827

Seasonal variation of PM10 and SPM levels in ambient air around a cement plant












Rajnikant Sharma & Shamsh Pervez

Monitoring of PM10 and SPM levels in ambient air around a cement plant at Jamul, District-Durg, Chattisgarh state is carried out in post-rainy, winter and summer seasons. A significant contribution of PM10 and SPM levels in ambient air from stack emissions is observed. PM10 and SPM levels are found to be in the range 84-220 mg/m3 (PM10) and 174-473 mg/m3 (SPM) in post-rainy season; 150-480 mg/m3 (PM10) and 551-1120 mg/m3 (SPM) in winter season; and 110-460 mg/m3 (PM10) and 365-978 mg/m3  (SPM) in the summer season, respectively, in downwind direction. Smaller values of such emissions are obtained in sites of upwind direction. Ratios of PM10 to SPM and correlation coefficient values between PM10 and SPM are also workout. A positive correlation coefficient is obtained between PM10 and SPM. Order of occurrences of PM10 and SPM at downwind direction in all three seasons is found to be winter > summer > post-rainy.

834

Extraction separation of platinum (IV), and palladium (II) with CYANEX 923 in chloride media a possible recovery from spent autocatalysts







 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 


Devendra V Chavan & Purushottam M Dhadke

Extraction and separation of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) is carried out with Cyanex 923 in chloride media. Pt(IV) is quantitatively extracted from 3.0-8.0 M HCL in the presence of 0.01 M SnCl2 while Pd(II) from 4.0-5.0 M HCl with 5 10-3 M Cyanex 923 in toluene. Pt(IV) is then quantitatively stripped from the organic phase with 5.0 M HNO3 while Pd(II) is quantitatively stripped with 1:1 HCl + HClO4 in single step and also with 7.0 M HClO4  in two steps. Pt(IV) is also extracted without using SnCl2 as a labilising agent with 0.1 M Cyanex in toluene at 2.0-3.0 M HCl. Separation of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) is observed in various ratios. The methods developed are applied to the recovery of these metal ions from a synthetic solution of similar composition to that of leaching of spent autocatalysts in 6.0 M HCl.

 

838

Spatial and seasonal variability of ambient concentration of particulate matter around an integrated steel plant: a case study

















Rajnikant Sharma & Shamsh Pervej

Study focuses on dispersion and transportation phenomenon of ambient particulates around an integrated steel plant. The dispersion and transportation of emitted particulate matter is greatly affected by various meteorological conditions such as, wind speed, relative humidity, wind direction, and temperature. Ambient air monitoring for levels of particulate matter in the vicinity of an integrated steel plant located in southeastern Chattisgarh is carried out. The specific objectives are the determination of spatial and seasonal variability of levels of ambient particulates and their relationship with the selected meteorological parameters such as, relative humidity (RH) and wind velocity (WV). Samples are collected in post-rainy, winter and summer seasons of the year September 2000 June 2001. The results show a marked seasonal trend and spatial variability of ambient particulate levels in the study area, which is highest in winter and lowest in summer. Seasonal variation in transportation pattern of PM10 (particulate matter, aerodynamic diam 10 mm) and SPM is also observed. Ratios of PM10 to SPM and Pearson correlation coefficient values between both sizes of particulate matter and with selected meteorological parameters are also worked out. Relative humidity and wind velocity have shown an inverse relation with particulate deposition pattern.

Report

846

Sustainable insect pest management  


S Ignacimuthu

 

Book Review

850

         Brain re-engineering: the art of being mentally tough
         Reviewer: S Mohan

Sci-Tech Update

852

         Technology for energy-saving and quality improvement in wood drying developed

 

         A novel method for flux-less soldering components

 

         Production of DNA from fish milt

 

         Electronic system for monitoring the condition of battery accumulators

         A novel method for developing leather

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

Albayrak Mustafa

 

Francis M S

 

Patil A G

 

Ayyildiz Turhan

 

Gangal S V

 

Pervez Shamsh

 

Bhargava Meenakshi

 

Goswami T

 

Rao M K D

 

Bidkar S H

 

Hundiwale D G

 

Roy M

 

Chakraverty S

 

Ignacimuthu S

 

Saikia C N

 

Chavan Devendra V

 

Jain Rajeev

 

Senol Aynur

 

Chavan Devendra V

 

Kapadi U R

 

Sharma Nidhi

 

Desai M C

 

Karak N

 

Sharma Rajnikant

 

Dhadke Purushottam M

 

Malik B K

 

Sharma Rajnikant

 

Ebison O A

 

Panigrahi S K

 

 

 

 

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

Acoustic cavity

 

Food allergy

 

R&D collaboration

 

Acoustic pressure field

 

Food packaging

 

Randomly-packed column

 

Aerodynamic diameter

 

Hydrous calcium silicate

 

Rheometric properties

 

Allergy

 

Indian scientists

 

Rubber based shoe sole

 

Ambient air

 

Industrial effluent

 

S&T cooperation

 

Autoclaved aerated concrete

 

Inert fillers

 

Seasonal trend

 

Azo dye

 

Insect pest management

 

Seasonal variation

 

Basic polymer

 

Mass transfer

 

Separation

 

Biowastes

 

Mature coconut water

 

Shoe sole

 

Cellulosic materials

 

Meteorological parameters

 

Solar drying

 

Cement plant

 

Mineralogical properties

 

Spent autocatalysts

 

Composites

 

Modelling

 

Starch water

 

Cordage industries

 

Paper making

 

Styrene butadiene rubber

 

Cyanex 923

 

Particulate matter

 

Suspended particulate matter

 

Decolourisation

 

Pd (II)

 

Tobermorite

 

Extraction

 

Pest management

 

Weeds

 

Fibres

 

Pressure field

 

Zeolite

 

Flyash

 

Pt (IV)