DIAMOND JUBILEE ISSUE

 

 

Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

Special Issue
on
Energy Sources for the New Millennium

 

ISSN:0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (62) (1 & 2) 1-148 (2003)

VOLUME 62

NUMBER 1 & 2

JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2003

 

 

 

CONTENTS

Papers

11

Foreword

 

13

Fueling system control and exhaust
emissions from natural gas fueled engines


























Keshav S Varde

 

The paper investigates the impact of natural gas fueling arrangement on engine stability and exhaust emissions of lean-burn SI engines. Two types of fueling arrangements are investigated: a mixer type system and an electronic port injection. Port injection system results in better engine performance with regard to exhaust emissions and variability in engine load than the mixer system. Catalyst performance for exhaust treatment is affected by fueling arrangement, operating conditions, and exhaust gas temperature.

20

Application of CNG in transportation sector a review of the current status of technology and future projections


B B Ghosh, P K Bose, Ranjit Kumar
Chakrabarti & Kalyan Kumar Das

The paper reports some research work on the use of CNG in CI and SI engines and explores the national and international scenarios.

 

25

Solar energy for India status, potential and impact




























C L Gupta & A Ramachandran

The paper traces history of solar energy science and technology in India over past 40 y. Emergence of considerations of pollution free clean development, global climate change and stress on creation of livelihoods vis--vis satisfaction of basic needs and requirements of quality in open marketing system in force. Passive systems of building for climate tempering and solar PV integrated with buildings are taking shape that will be the mainstream in future. Advances in photochemical and microbial production of hydrogen, its storage and use in fuel cells have been covered. Direct solar, biomass based power generation and wind electric generation are the immediate options. Photovoltaics integrated with buildings along with hydrogen based fuel cells are the solution for the next decade.

46

Principles of hydrogen energy
production, storage and utilization



















S A Sherif, F Barbin & T N Veziroglu

This paper lucidly presents the principles of hydrogen energy production, storage, and utilization. Hydrogen production by electrolysis, thermolysis, photolysis, thermochemical cycles, and from biomass is covered. Hydrogen storage in the form of gaseous, liquid, slush, and metal hydride has been detailed. Hydrogen utilization focuses on a large cross section of applications such as fuel cells and catalytic combustion of hydrogen, and others.

64

Natural gas/hydrogen mixtures for low noxious emissions





























I R Roger

In the study tests are carried out with natural gas, pure hydrogen, and different blends of these two fuels. The fuel supply system provides natural gas/hydrogen mixtures in variable proportion, regulated independently of the engine operating condition. The influence of the fuel composition on the engine characteristics and on the exhaust emissions is examined, mainly but not exclusively for 10 and 20 per cent hydrogen addition. It is shown that to obtain maximum engine efficiency for the whole load range while taking low exhaust emissions into account the mixture composition should be varied with respect to engine load.

71

An overview of thermodynamic cycles based on direct stoichiometric
combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

















Giuseppe Spazzafumo

A review of high efficiency steam cycles has been presented. These cycles can be performed by power plants totally or partially fed with hydrogen and oxygen. Fossil fuels can be employed for water heating and evaporation and for partial superheating. Efficiency higher than 60 per cent (with respect to HHV) can be achieved.

81

Assessment of waste resources and conversion potential into transportation fuels and energy in the republic of Korea




















S K Jeon, C E Hackett & J M Norbeck

The paper gives assessment of waste chemical resources in the Republic of Korea and its potential conversion into fuels and energy. The extent to which the supply of diesel fuel can be extended with that obtained from wastes has been estimated at 22 per cent. The relevant costs of waste disposal and its conversion into such useful products have also been estimated.

90

Biofuels as blending components for motor gasoline and diesel fuels


























R K Malhotra & L M Das

The paper reviews the potential for use of various biofuels in India and issues related to their application in gasoline and diesel vehicles and the resulting environmental benefits.

97

The methanol story: a sustainable fuel for the future

























Roberta J Nichols

Experimental fleets of dedicated methanol vehicles have done well in the field, but the lack of refueling infrastructure led to the development of the flexible fuel vehicle (FFV), that could operate on either gasoline or methanol with only one fuel system on board. Legislation has been put in place to encourage the auto industry to begin production, which started in 1993 for the M85 FFV at Ford. By the end of the decade, however, full production volumes were transferred to the E85 FFV (gasoline or ethanol). The technical, economic and political reasons for the shift are emphasised and discussed, including visions for the future, and the direct methanol fuel cell.

Photochemical reactivity of organic compounds: Rate constants for reaction with hydroxyl (OH) radical

Compound

K-4 x 10-1
(ppm/min)

Trans-2-butene

10.5

1,2,4 Trimethyl benzene

4.9

M-Xylene

3.4

Propionaldehyde

2.2

Acetaldehyde

2.2

Propene

2.1

Formaldehyde

2.1

 

106

Biofuels in India























V V N Kishore & S N Srinivas

The paper provides an overview of the resource base, conversion technologies, and emerging end uses and research needs in the overall context in India. It is also observed that the efforts made in India in modern biomass utilization in the last two decades have not succeeded with the desired level of achievements. Though several alternative techniques/technologies for efficient use of biofuels have been developed, they are yet to transform into acceptable package of product with the mechanisms to disseminate them through manufacturer and market network to the end users.

124

Conversion of non-edible oil into biodiesel























Suresh Kumar, A K Gupta & S N Naik

The paper reviews the renewable source of diesel from vegetable sources, called biodiesel. It is necessitated by limited fossil resources and ever increasing demand for diesel. Biodiesel from vegetable triglycerides is a worthy replacement for the hydrocarbon based diesel fuels as it has multiple benefits. It can be used in diesel engines without any modification in the existing engines. Transesterification is used for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils in presence of catalytic NaOH/H2SO4 at 70C. The transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction, molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, type and quantity of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time and purity. Cost of biodiesel is the main obstacle in its commercialization. Efforts are being made to reduce cost of biodiesel.

133

Fundamental research on next
generation (dimethyl ether) engines

























Shuichi Kajitani & Zhili Chen

The paper presents a new method of using dimethyl ether (DME) as fuel in direct-injection engines (DI-CI), as in a low-compression-ratio (LCR) engine system. Experimental evaluations indicate that the concept of engine-fuel matching offers lower emissions with some other advantages including thermal efficiency and low engine noise with DME. The NOx emissions however, remain still at high levels that are unacceptable for future emission regulations in Japan, the US, and the EU, but the use of an exhaust reduction catalyst and EGR may alleviate the problem. The new-concept engine fuel is economical as the LCR DI-CI engines can be designed without expensive high pressure injection or control systems.