Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

 

ISSN: 0022-4456

 

CODEN: JSIRAC (62) (6) 529-650 (2003)

VOLUME 62 NUMBER 6

JUNE 2003

 

CONTENTS
Review Paper

537

Selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors — emerging trends in asthma therapy (Antiasthmatics – 3)

















Ranju Gupta, Deepika Gandhi &
Dharam Paul Jindal

The review details the various classes of PDE 4 inhibitors structurally related to rolipram, nitraquazone and xanthines, which appear to be very attractive models for synthesis of novel selective PDE 4 inhibitors potentially useful for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rationale for the use of PDE 4 inhibitors in the treatment of asthma is also discussed.

 

 

Papers

554

The rules for handling transgenic organisms and biopharmaceuticals produced therefrom in India



















P K Ghosh

The paper describes the information needs, the administrative structures and the step by step procedures required to be followed under the rules by entrepreneurs for introducing GMOs and products thereof in Indian market.

573

The preprocessing and recognition methods of an integrated automated production lot number
inspection system

















 




Chern-Sheng Lin, Yun-Long Lay, Chia-Chin Huan, Hsing-Cheng Chang & Thong-Shing Hwang

An integrated OCR system is designed to identify numbers in an image. A new preprocessing, image segmentation, and number recognition methods to search the threshold value automatically and divide the image into several useful regions is developed. A state transferring algorithm to evaluate the gray level variations of the information in the available data buffer. The processing based on segmentation algorithm deletes all unnecessary patterns and leaves only the character in order to increase the processing speed. The three-part comparisons algorithm is used in feature extraction. Many applications exist for this OCR system in industry, such as pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the recognition rate can exceed 99.7 per cent even with hand written characters.

583

High-chromium (22-34 per cent) cast iron alloys and their simulated behaviour at the sugar
industry























E Zumelzu, O Opitz, C Cabezas, A Parada &
L Goyos

The good results obtained by cast iron with Cr and Cr-Ni investigated in making of part for pumping equipment in sugar cane industry are given. Cast iron alloy coupons are prepared in order to study their hardness, resilience, corrosion resistance, and wear-out behaviour by means of simulating the conditions found at the sugar industry processes. Microstructural characterisation of alloys was made by scanning  electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical trials in order to assess corrosion susceptibility are performed with a specific sugar solution. The behaviour of alloys to wear-out and corrosion depends mainly on the chemical composition and effect of the alloying elements the formation of carbides during solidification, and the presence of impurities and inclusions at a surface level. The results obtained in this study made possible the selection of better alloys, which can be employed at the sugar industry such as, 0.78 C – 33.5 Cr – 7.7 Ni which have a high-chromium content. This material implies a considerable economic saving for sugar industry.

589

Production of alkaline protease by immobilized cells of alkalophilic Bacillus sp.





















K Adinarayana & P Ellaiah

Different materials viz. alginate, k-carrageenan and polyacrylamide gels are examined for immobilization of whole cells of Bacillus sp. PE-11 and used for the production of alkaline protease. The effect of alginate concentration, incubation time and curing time on alkaline protease production and stability of biocatalyst are investigated. The immobilized cells of Bacillus sp. in calcium alginate are more efficient for the production of alkaline protease with repeat batch fermentation for 9 d.

593

Automating the assessment of dispersion of
carbon in rubber using E-reference material
and standard procedures











H K Sardana & H N Bhargaw

The paper emphasizes on the use of electronic form of reference materials and the standard procedures to develop the instrument for manual and automatic grading of rubber. This equipment will be of use to rubber products (tyre, belts, etc.) manufacturers who need to compound carbon black into rubber to make their finished products and need to grade them as per the ISO/ASTM standards.

  

601

Effect of maturation on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of strawberry wine












Somesh Sharma & Vinod K Joshi

Wine from strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), an important temperate fruit, is prepared using three cultivars and by four different methods and matured for 9 months. The maturation result in an increase in reducing sugars, total esters and volatile acidity and a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, colour, anthocyanins and total phenols. All the three cultivars follow this trend in all the characteristics except volatile acidity. Differences in changes of different characteristics during various intervals are also recorded. The wines maintain their original differences even after maturation. Most of these changes are similar to those observed in red grape wine and the values obtained after maturation remain within the range normally observed in such wines. These changes increase the palatability of wine and thus, desirable. In general the maturation of wine improves sensory quality of strawberry wines, irrespective of the method followed and the cultivar.

609

Quality of apple powder as affected by packaging material during storage












K D Sharma, Alkesh & B B Lal Kaushal

Rings of nine varieties of apple fruit (Malus x Domestica Borkh.) are dehydrated in a cabinet dryer, ground into fine powder and packed in polyethylene and laminated pouches to study quality changes upon storage at ambient temperature. Significant decrease in ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total sugars, and sulphur dioxide is noticed in polyethylene pouches packed samples over 6 months storage, whereas during the period reducing sugars and non-enzymatic browning increases considerably. Optimum relative humidity for the storage of apple powder is 54 per cent (aw = 0.54) at 17-25°C. Changes in different physico-chemical and sensory attributes are minimal in laminated pouches packed powder of different varieties. The powder quality of variety ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ is adjudged the best followed by ‘Red Baron’ after a 6 months storage. These varieties can commercially be explored for the production of good quality powder.

616

Bioabsorption potential of Acinetobacter sp. strain IST 103 of bacterial consortium for removal of chromium from tannery effluent






























 




Shaili Shrivastava & Indu Shekhar Thakur

A mixed microbial community obtained from pulp and paper mill and tannery effluent is enriched in a chemostat in the presence of potassium chromate as sole source of carbon and energy. The microbial community and pulp and paper mill indicates significant reduction of chromium (70 per cent) in comparison to tannery community (60 per cent) in batch culture in the presence of potassium chromate and sodium acetate as additional carbon source. The community comprises three bacterial strains, identified as CP1, CP2 and CP3, are further applied for reduction of chromium indicates higher removal of chromium (68 per cent) by strain CP3 followed by CP2 and CP1. The strain CP3 is identified as Acinetobacter sp. by biochemical test and Biolog test method. The bacterial strain, CP3, applied for the removal of chromium in tannery effluent in a sequential bioreactor indicates the reduction of chromium (80 per cent).

623

Evaluation of antibacterial activity from
rhizome extract of Acorus calamus Linn

























A Sabitha Rani, M Satyakala, V Sandya Devi &
U Suryanarayana Murty

Antibacterial activity of Acorus calamus rhizomes is evaluated in vitro. Different concentrations of petroleum ether extract (50-2000 mg) are tested and the antimicrobial activity is observed from 500 mg and the zone of inhibition increases with concentration. The maximum activity is observed at 2000 mg the highest concentration tested, beyond which the inhibition zone does not increase. Among the four types of bacteria tested, high inhibition zone is observed on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.62 cm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (1.62 cm). Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis show smaller zone of inhibition (1.34  and 1.04 cm, respectively). MIC test shows that the minimum inhibition concentration is 0.25 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and 0.5 mg/mL for E. coli.

Report

626

Synergy of R&D and marketing (SRM-2001) — a report
 

P N Chaudhary

 

Book Review

631

·         The rise of China: threat or opportunity?
         Reviewer: V P Kharbanda

Sci-Tech Update

635

·         Gene maps — building better animals for meat

 

·         Poison is friend — when bad chemicals make good

 

·         China — the first cloning superpower

 

·         Carbon nanotube elevator


 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

Alkesh

0609

Gupta Ranju

0537

Sabitha Rani A

0623

Adinarayana K

0589

Huan Chia-Chin

0573

Sandya Devi V

0623

Bhargaw H N

0593

Hwang Thang-Shing

0573

Sardana H K

0593

Cabezas C

0583

Jindal Dharam Paul

0537

Satyakala M

0623

Chang Hsing-Cheng

0573

Joshi Vinod K

0601

Sharma K D

0609

Chaudhary P N

0626

Lal Kaushal B B

0609

Sharma Somesh

0601

Ellaiah P

0589

Lay Yun-Long

0573

Shrivastava Shaili

0616

Gandhi Deepika

0534

Lin Chen-Sheng

0573

Suryanarayana Murty U

0623

Ghosh P K

0554

Opitz O

0583

Thakur Indu Shekhar

0616

Goyos L

0583

Parada A

0583

Zumelzu E

0583

 

KEYWORD INDEX

Acorus calamus

0623

GMO handling

0554

Polyacrylamide

0589

Alginate

0589

GMOs

0554

Polyethylene

0609

Algorithm

0573

Grape wine

0601

Production lot number

0573

Alkaline protease

0589

High chromium cast iron

0583

Quality

0609

Antiasthmatics

0537

Image

0573

rDNA

0554

Antibacterial activity

0623

Immobilization

0589

Rolipram

0537

Apple powder

0609

Isozyme

0537

Scanning electron
microscopy

0583

Asthma therapy

0537

k-carrageenan

0589

Segmentation

0573

Automating grading

0593

Laminated pouches

0609

Simulation

0583

Bacillus sp. PE-11

0589

Maturation

0601

Storage

0609

Bacterial consortium

0616

Microbial community

0616

Strawberry wine

0601

Bioabsorption

0616

Minimum inhibitory
concentration

0623

Sugar industry

0583

Biopharmaceuticals

0554

Nitraquazene

0537

Tannery effluent

0616

Carbon black

0593

OCR

6573

Transgenic organism

0554

Chromium

0616

Packaging material

0609

Xanthines

0537

Dispersion based grading

0593

Phosphodiesterase 4
inhibitors

0537

 

 

E-reference

0593

Physico-chemical changes

0601