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Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

 

 

 

ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (64) (2)  (2005)

VOLUME 64

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

83

Botanicals: Quality and regulatory issues




Dnyaneshwar Warude &
Bhushan Patwardhan

Use of indigenous drugs from plant origin forms a major part of complementary therapies. Increased demand of medicinal plants and related products is an opportunity sector for Indian trade and commerce. Widespread and growing use of botanicals has created public health challenges globally in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. This review discusses various regulatory issues related to quality of botanicals.

93

Fungus - An alternative for bioremediation of heavy metal containing wastewater: A review








Narsi R Bishnoi & Garima

The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ag, Th, Ra & U) from aqueous solutions to varying extents. Fungal biosorption largely depends on pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pretreatment of biomass, and presence of various legends in solution. When compared with commercial ion exchange resins, carbons and metal oxides, fungal derivatives generally perform well. The availability of variety of biomass and their metal binding potential makes it a economical and sustainable option for developing effluent treatment process for removal and recovery of heavy metals.

IPC Code: C 02 F 1/62V

 

101

 

Estimation of the essential inorganic constituents of commercial toothpastes






















A O Oyewale

Commercial toothpastes, randomly sampled from the open market were analyzed for fluoride, phosphate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, moisture content and pH. The pH of the toothpastes ranged from 4-8, with 60% of them having a neutral pH. The levels of constituents depend on the method of solubilization of toothpaste, with concentrated nitric acid digestion giving the best results. The concentrations were: fluoride, 1.0-1.55; phosphate, 3-20; calcium, 0.04-1.26; sodium, 12-38; potassium, 0.01-0.99; and magnesium, 0.1-2.3 mg/g. The health implications for tooth care and of assimilation of the elements during the mouth cleansing process, especially when present at unacceptable levels, was discussed.

 

108

Fibre Bragg grating writing using phase mask technology













Nahar Singh, Subhash C Jain, A K Aggarwal & R P Bajpai

Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) are novel components of communication and sensors. The technique commonly employed for production of FBGs involves exposure of photosensitive germanosilicate fibre cores to intense excimer laser radiation through an optical phase mask located in close proximity of the fibre. FBGs were written using this technique in two different fibre samples and their strain and temperature sensing characteristics were investigated. The paper describes the techniques used for fabrication and their characteristic studies.

IPC Code: G 01 N 21/27

116

Blending effect of synthetic fiber on paper properties







U K Ghosh & Vishesh Pal

Scarcity in forest-based raw materials has forced the paper industries to use inferior quality pulp produced from agricultural residues for papermaking. To improve the properties of the pulp, blending of good quality long fiber pulp is necessary. Synthetic polyester fibers may be used to replace the long fiber component in the furnish. Addition of short cut polyester staple fibers in different proportions to bagasse and wheat straw pulp has shown significant improvement in mechanical properties of paper produced from these pulps.

IPC Code: D 21 H 19/28

119

Elements in scalp hair and nails indicating metal body burden in polluted environment























Rita Mehra & Meenu Juneja

Heavy metals in hair and nails taken at random were examined in subjects occupationally or otherwise exposed to Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Ca, Mg and Cr metals and in controls from subjects working in different environments such as tooth powder manufacturing unit, lead battery unit, locomotive workshop, welding unit and roadways workshop. The Pearson Moment Correlation analysis of the data for these ten elements revealed significant positive correlation between Cr/Ni, Fe/Mn, Fe/Cr and Ni/Fe in hair of exposed subjects; Cr/Pb, Mn/Cd, Zn/Cd, Zn/Mn, Ni/Pb, Fe/Pb, Cr/Ni, Cr/Fe and Fe/Ni in hair of unexposed subjects; Cr/Cd, Ca/Cd, Ca/Mn, Ca/Cr, Ni/Cd, Ni/Mn, Ni/Cr,Ni/Ca,Fe/Cr and Ni/Fe in nails of exposed subjects and Cu/Cd, Cr/Cd, Cr/Cu, Zn/Cd, Zn/Cu, Zn/Cr, Ca/Cd, Ca/Cu, Ca/Cr, Ca/Zn, Mg/Cd, Mg/Cu, Mg/Cr, Mg/Ca, Ni/Cd, Ni/Cu, Ni/Cr, Ni/Ca, Ni/Mg/, Ni/Zn, Fe/Cr, Fe/Ni and Fe/Cd in nails of unexposed subjects.

IPC Code:  G 01 N 1/40

125

Effect of transition metal ions on the metabolism of Aspergillus niger in the production of citric acid with molasses as substrate






A R Angumeenal & D Venkappayya

A two-stage process for the treatment of molasses was employed. Early germination with rapid multiplication of the microbe was observed. The nutritional quality of the medium was enriched by the addition of certain transition metal ions (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Cd and Pb), of which Ni was found to serve as a good nutritional supplement. Batch fermentations by surface culture were carried out and the possible mechanism for the metabolic changes taking place in Aspergillus niger during the production of citric acid is discussed. Using nickel, as high as 269 mg/ml of citric acid was produced.

IPC Code: C 12 P 1/02

129

Evaluation of anti-mosquito properties of essential oils





























 

Mohini Makhaik, Satya Narayan Naik & Dhananjay Kumar Tewary

Essential oils from Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon flexuous, C. winterianus, Pinus roxburghii, Syzygium aromaticum and Tagetes minuta were evaluated for bioactivity against the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The adults were exposed to the vapour of the different oils for 1h in WHO kits for sensitivity testing. C. winterianus and S. aromaticum oils were equi effective and found most effective with LC50 and LC95 values respectively at 0.5 and 0.9 % for C. quinquefasciatus and 1.0 and 2.0 % for A. aegypti. Activity was found in the order: S. aromaticum> C. flexuous > E. citriodora > C. winterianus > C. deodara> T. minuta.

 

 134

 

NIR spectroscopy and fiber optic probe for determination of alcohol, sugar and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



          
Ranjana Mehrotra, Alka Gupta &
R Nagarajan

A method based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for the estimation of sugar, tartaric acid and ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. Experiments were carried out with fiber optic transmission probe, coupled with FT-NIR in the region 4000 9000 cm-1. Calibration is performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) method. Feasibility of technique for on-line applications in beverage industry is assessed.

IPC Code: C 12 H 1/16

138

Extraction of chloroplatinate(II) 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)]-5-diethylaminophenol-(TX-100)-N-hydroxy-N,N- diphenylbenzamidine complex













 

Pushpa Khande, Manisha Thakur &
Manas Kanti Deb

A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method, developed for the determination of trace amounts of platinum, is based on the formation of platinum as a mixed complex with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)]-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) and TX-100 or triton X-100 (Polyethylene-di-isobutyl-glycol-ether) from 0.1M SnCl2 in to HCl and extraction with N-hydroxy-N,N-diphenylbenzamidine (HDPBA) in dichloromethane. The violet coloured Pt(II)- 5-Br-PADAP- (TX-100)HDPBA complex in dichloromethane shows maximum absorbance at 575 nm with molar absorptivity value of 6.0104 dm3/mol/cm. High concentration of foreign ions, with the exception of palladium, does not interfere with the determination of platinum. The proposed method has been applied for determination of platinum in automobile exhaust sample, soil and vegetation samples.

IPC Code: C 25 B 3/00

Book Reviews

144

            Applied Materials Management
     Reviewer: Rajat K Baisya

            Red Hat Linux Networking & System Administration, 2nd edn
     Reviewer: Jayanshu B Gandhi

            MySQL/PHP Database Applications
     Reviewer: Jayanshu B Gandhi

Author-Reader Platform

149

 

 

150

Announcements

            Nominations invited for Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prizes in Science and Technology for 2005

            National Seminar on Novel Trends in Synthesis, Structure, Reaction Dynamics and Biological Studies of Coordination Chemistry

Instructions to contributors

 

 

Author Index

 

Aggarwal A K

108

Nagarajan R

134

Angumeenal AR

125

Naik S N

129

 

 

Bajpai R P

108

Oyewale A O

101

Bishnoi N R

93

 

 

Pal V

116

Deb M K

138

Patwardhan B

83

 

 

Garima

93

Singh N

108

Ghosh U K

116

Gupta A

134

Tewary D K

129

Thakur M

138

Jain S C

108

Juneja M

119

Venkappayya D

125

Khande P

138

Warude D

83

Makhaik M

129

Mehra R

119

Mehrotra R

134

 

  

 

Keyword Index

 

Aedes aegypti

129

Fiber optic probe

134

Phase mask technique

108

Alcohol

134

Fibre Bragg gratings

108

Phosphate

101

Aspergillus niger

125

Fluoride

101

Photosensitivity

108

 

 

Fungus

93

Platinum determination

138

Bagasse

116

 

 

PLS

134

Bioremediation

93

Heavy metals

119

 

 

Blending

116

 

 

Quality

83

Botanicals

83

Indigenous drugs

83

 

 

5-Br-PADAP

138

 

 

Regulatory issues

83

 

 

Metal ions

125

Calibration

134

Molasses

125

Safety

83

Citric acid

125

Mosquito repellents

129

Scalp hair

119

Culex quinquefasciatus

129

Mouth cleaning

101

Spectrophotometry

138

 

 

Synthetic fiber

116

Efficacy

83

Nails

119

 

 

Environmental pollution

119

NIR

134

Toothpaste

101

Essential oils

129

 

 

 

 

Extraction

138

Optical fibre devices

108

Wastewater

93

 

 

Optical fibre filters

108

Wheat straw

116

Fermentation

125

Optical fibre sensors

108