Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research


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ISSN: 0022-4456

VOLUME 64

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2005


CONTENTS

Bioethanol

809

Ethanol fuel from biomass: A review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edgard Gnansounou & Arnaud Dauriat

This paper presents a general review of biomass-to-ethanol, analysis of conversion pathways from technical, economic and environmental points of view, and estimation of production cost in the Indian context. As one of the major producers and consumers of sugars and the second populous country, India gives a high priority to food production. However, Indian production of bio-ethanol can be envisaged successfully and preliminary analyses exhibit a promising avenue. In long term, lignocellulose-to-ethanol is the most viable pathway from environmental point of view. However, its production cost must be reduced for giving this process a chance to drive forward the strategy of biomass-to-ethanol worldwide.1

IPC Code: C10L1/02

822

Liquid fuel from biomass: An overview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Padma Vasudevan, Satyawati Sharma & Ashwani Kumar

 

With depleting oil resources and negative environmental impacts associated with the use of petro fuels, there is a renewed interest in biomass based fuels, which can still form the base for sustainable development in terms of techno-economics, environmental as well as socio-cultural considerations. Currently, bioethanol and biodiesel have already reached commercial markets, especially as blends with petro fuels. This paper gives an overview on liquid biofuels covering the current and futuristic trends with respect to production and utilization of alcohols, vegetable oil based biodiesel and biocrude, emphasizing on the benefits to rural economy.

IPC Code: C10L1/02

832

Microbial cellulases¾Production, applications and challenges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajeev K Sukumaran, Reeta Rani Singhania & Ashok Pandey

Microbial cellulases find applications in various industries and constitute a major group of the industrial enzymes. There is resurgence in utilization of biomass for fuel production employing cellulases and hence forth in obtaining better yields and novel activities. Improving the economics of such processes will involve cost reduction in cellulase production which may be achieved by better bioprocesses and genetic improvement of cellulase producers to yield more of the enzyme. The review discusses the current knowledge on cellulase production by microorganisms and the genetic controls exercised on it. It discusses the industrial applications of cellulases and the challenges in cellulase research especially in the direction of improving the process economics of enzyme production.

IPC Code: D21C9/16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bioethanol

845

Bioethanol production from cellulosic substrates: Engineered bacteria and process integration challenges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V Senthilkumar & P Gunasekaran

Cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forestry residues, waste paper and industrial wastes could be used as an ideal and inexpensive source of sugar for sustainable fermentation into transportation fuel. As such, ethanol-producing microorganisms, mainly Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are potential candidates for ethanol production. However, the substrates are not cost effective, as the organisms are not able to hydrolyze complex sugars such as lignocellulose. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Z. mobilis, Gram-positive bacteria such as Clostridium cellulolyticum, Lactobacillus casei and several yeast strains have been engineered for bioethanol production from cellulosic substrates. This review is focused on the strategies and development of processes for ethanol production by such organisms from lignocellulosic substrates.

IPC Code: C10L1/02

Biodiesel

854

Biodiesel: Current perspectives and future

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M A Hanna, Loren Isom & John Campbell

Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fat (or mixtures thereof), is produced by transesterification with glycerol being produced as a co-product. Worldwide, 1 billion ton of diesel fuel are consumed annually. The total feedstocks available for biodiesel production are 115 million tons. This represents less than 12% of diesel fuel use. The opportunities for the future for biodiesel include improvements in the conversion technology, which appears promising, and expanding the amount of available feedstock through various plans to increase oil yields or oilseed production.

IPC Code: C11C3/04

858

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils by supercritical methanol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ayhan Demirbas

Transesterification of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are carried out without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils or biodiesels have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives and can be used in any diesel engine without modification. Biodiesel has become more attractive because of its environmental benefits. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main obstacle to commercialization. With cooking oils as raw material, viability of a continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol as a biodiesel by-product are primary options to be considered to lower the cost of biodiesel. Supercritical methanol has a high potential for both transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of free fatty acids to methyl esters for diesel fuel substitute.

IPC Code: C10L1/10

Biodiesel

866

Rice bran oil as a potential resource for biodiesel: A review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yi-Hsu Ju & Shaik Ramjan Vali

Biodiesel (BD) is receiving increased attention as an alternative, non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable diesel fuel. Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling that contains 15-23% lipids and a significant amount of nutraceutical compounds. Due to the presence of active lipase in the bran and the lack of economical stabilization methods, most bran is used as livestock feed or boiler fuel and most rice bran oil (RBO) produced is not of edible grade. Thus RBO is relatively an inexpensive raw material for the production of BD. The utilization of by-product such as defatted rice bran for the production of proteins, carbohydrates, phytochemical, and the isolation and purification of value added nutraceutical generated during BD production from RBO are attractive options to lower the cost of BD. Production of BD from RBO can be carried out either via in situ esterification, lipase-catalyzed esterification, acid-catalyzed or base-catalyzed reactions.

IPC Code: C11B1/04

883

Jatropha curcus¾A sustainable source for production of biodiesel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naveen Kumar & P B Sharma

Non-edible oils like Jatropha, Pongamia, Argemone, Mahua, Castor, Sal etc., can be used for the production of bio-diesel. Jatropha curcus has enormous potential for biodiesel production in India. J. curcus is a multipurpose plant with many attributes and considerable potential. It is a tropical plant that can be grown in low to high rainfall areas and can be used to reclaim land, as a hedge and/or as a commercial crop. Thus, growing it could provide employment, improve the environment and enhance the quality of rural life.

IPC Code: F02B13/10

890

Mahua (Madhuca indica) seed oil: A source of renewable energy in India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sukumar Puhan, N Vedaraman,

B V Rambrahamam & G Nagarajan

Mahua oil methyl, ethyl and butyl esters were prepared and studied in a four stroke, direct injection diesel engine for their performance and emissions. The engine test results showed high thermal efficiency in case of methyl ester compared to all other esters and diesel fuel. Different emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) is low for alkyl esters compared to diesel. Among alkyl esters except NOx all tail pipe emissions are lower in case of methyl ester compared to other esters. The ethyl ester shows lower NOx emission compared to other esters. Based on this study, Mahua oil methyl ester performs well compared to other esters on basis of performance and emissions.

IPC Code: F02B13/10

Biofuels: Country Reports

897

Brazilian biofuel program: An overview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carlos R Soccol, Luciana P S Vandenberghe, Bill Costa, Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski, Julio César de Carvalho, Adriane B P Medeiros, Antonio Maria Francisco &

Luiz José Bonomi

Brazilian National Bio-Fuel Program comprises ProAlcool and Biodiesel; the former was initiated in 1975 to substitute gasoline for sugarcane alcohol in automobile use. Production of flex fuel cars is bringing great promise for ProAlcool, not only for Brazilian market but also for rest of the world. In parallel, program of vegetable oils – OVEG, gave significant contribution to the automotive applications of vegetable oils (Biodiesel) in vehicles. The fleet tested ran more than one million km at that time. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using vegetable oils in diesel engines.

IPC Code: C13J3/00

905

Production of ethanol from biomass¾Research in Sweden

 

 

 

 

 

Mats Galbe, Gunnar Lidén & Guido Zacchi

Ethanol produced from various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be a valuable substitute for, or complement to, gasoline. This paper reviews the research activities in Sweden on development of the technology for ethanol production from lignocellulosics. The paper focuses on hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation as well as on process integration and techno-economic evaluation of the overall process.

IPC Code: C12Q1/34

920

Recent Developments on biodiesel in Malaysia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M A Kalam & H H Masjuki

This paper presents recent developments on biodiesel production from palm oil, its properties and engine test results to evaluate its performance on diesel engine. The potential of palm diesel to be commercially used depends on its price comparison with diesel fuel and its status of reservation. Increasing cost and pollution effects of fossil diesel fuel can be resolved through producing vegetable oil based fuels such as palm diesel. This paper discusses Malaysian palm diesel as well as global biodiesel status, standardization of biodiesel and their commercial price consideration and various engine test results on aspects of brake power, combustion, emissions, engine wear and lubrication performance.

IPC Code: F02B13/10

Biofuels: Country Reports

928

Biomass energy priority for developing nations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry R Bungay

 

All countries have unused biomass resources. Some are wastes with costs for disposal, but others are cultivated and collected. It is naive to view biomass as the panacea for the coming energy crisis because there is not enough in practical locations and the costs involved in retrieving and refining it will be relatively high. Major thrusts for commercialization of biomass refining are imminent, and fuel ethanol, despite its enormous potential, market may not be the most profitable product. Comparison of some developing countries shows wide differences in their problems and potential solutions.

IPC Code: C08B1/08

931

Biofuels in Europe

 

 

 

 

 

Stéphane His

Biofuels have been under industrial development for over 20 years. Still handicapped by high costs, their future once again looks promising because they might be able to help reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. This is especially true in Europe, where recently approved directives contain ambitious production volume targets encouraging member states to develop biofuels.

IPC Code: C10L1/10

Author-Reader Platform

936

Instructions to contributors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Author Index

 

 


Bonomi L J

897

Bungay H R

928

Campbell J

854

de Carvalho J C

897

Costa B

897

Dauriat A

809

Demirbas A

858

Francisco A M

897

Galbe M

905

Gnansounou E

809

Gunasekaran P

845

Hanna M A

854

His S

931

 

Isom L

854

 

 

Ju Y H

866

 

 

Kalam M A

920

Kumar A

822

Kumar N

883

 

 

Lidén G

905

 

 

Masjuki H H

920

Medeiros A B P

897

 

 

Nagarajan G

890

 

 

Pandey A

832

Puhan S

890

 

 

Rambrahamam B V

890

 

 

Senthilkumar V

845

Sharma P B

883

Sharma S

822

Singhania R R

832

Soccol C R

897

Sukumaran R K

832

 

 

Vali S R

866

Vandenberghe L P S

897

Vasudevan P

822

Vedaraman N

890

 

 

Woiciechowski A L

897

 

 

Zacchi G

905


 

 

Keyword Index

 

 


Alcohol fuels

928

Alternative fuel

858

Animal fat

854

 

 

Bioconversion

928

Biodiesel

822, 854, 858, 883,

897, 920

Bioenergy

928

Bioethanol

822, 845

Biofuel

832, 931

Biomass

809, 822, 905, 928

Biomass refining

928

 

 

Cellulase

832

Cellulose hydrolysis

928

Cellulosic biomass

845

CO2 emissions reduction

809

Conversion technologies

928

 

 

Defatted rice bran

866

Diesel engine

883, 890

Diesel fuel

883

                                                  


Emissions

890, 920

Endoglucanase

832

Ethanol

809

Ethanol producing bacteria

845

Ethanol production

897

 

 

Fermentation

905

 

 

β-Glucosidase

832

 

 

Humicola

832

Hydrolysis

905

 

 

Jatropha curcus

883

 

 

Lignocellulose

832

Lignocellulosic materials

905

Liquid fuel

822

 

 

Mahua oil

890

Methanol

858

Metabolic engineering

845

                                                  


Methanolysis

866

Motor fuels

809

g-Oryzanol

866

 

 

Performance

920

 

 

Renewable energy

809, 890

Rice bran oil

866

 

 

Soxhlet extraction

866

Standardization

920

Sugarcane

897

 

 

Transesterification

854, 858, 883

Transport sector

931

Trichoderma

832

 

 

Vegetable oil

822, 854, 858

 

 

Wax esters

866

Wear

920