Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (65) (3)  (2006)

VOLUME 65               

    NUMBER 4

APRIL 2006

CONTENTS

 

Reviews

283

A comprehensive review on the chemistry and pharmacology of Corchorus species- A source of cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, ionones, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids and some other compounds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M S Y Khan, S Bano, K Javed, &
M Asad Mueed

An exhaustive literature survey on the secondary metabolites of Corchorus species has been carried out. Cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, sterols, phenolics, ionones, carbohydrates and fatty acids have been reported from different species. Many of these compounds have been found to possess significant biological properties e.g. digitalis glycosides like action, anticonvulsive activity, antiesterogenic action, anticancer activity and antipyretic activity etc.

299

Iodine in organic synthesis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ajoy K Banerjee, Willliam Vera, Henry Mora, Manuel S Laya, Liadis Bedoya & Elvia V Cabrera

Commercially available iodine has played an important role in organic synthesis. This review discusses the versatile uses of iodine in different chemical transformations. Reactions include esterification, cycloaddition reaction, allylation of aldehydes, acetalization of carbonyl compounds, acylation of alcohols, synthesis of cyclic ethers and aromatization of α,β-unsaturated ketones.

IPC Code: C01J1/00

Management and Information Technology

309

Multiple-objective planning for a productionand distribution model of the supply chain: Case of a bicycle manufacturer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng, Tzung-I Tang,Yu-Min Hung & Min-Lan Chang

The bicycle industry is one of the most competitive industries in Taiwan. To construct multi-objective production and distribution models for supply chain, following five methods are compared and discussed: (i) Multi-objective compromise programming; (ii) Fuzzy multi-objective programming; (iii) Weighted multi-objective programming; (iv) Weighted fuzzy multi-objective programming; and (v) Two-phase fuzzy multi- objective programming. The weighted multi-objective model has been found better for considering the maximum profit for enterprises and the maximum quality for customer service. After raising the per-unit production cost in production processes, it was observed that the total profit would decrease in real empirical study. In addition, if the unit inventory cost increases due to improving the customer service level, then the total profit might increase, but not significantly.

 

IPC Code: B62K; G06N7/02

321

Sensitivity study of Gaussian dispersion models
 

 

 

 

G.Sriram, N Krishna Mohan &V Gopalasamy

Over the last three decades, strict environmental regulations and the availability of personal computers have fueled an immense use of mathematical models to predict the dispersion of air pollution plumes. This paper discusses how the propagation of seemingly small errors in the Gaussian model parameters can cause very large variations in the model’s predictions.

 

IPC Code: G05B19/04

325

Fuzzy model for estimating induction dose for general anesthesia

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amod Kumar, Sneh Anand &L N Yaddanapudi

At present, anesthetist estimates initial anesthetic dose required to produce induction in general anesthesia. This paper proposes a fuzzy model for deciding this dose based on patient data (age, gender, height and weight) and computes the dose by defining IF-THEN rules between age and body surface area. Deviation of predicted initial anesthetic dose from the actual dose given by the anesthetist to patients (9) was found to be within ±7%.

 

IPC Code: G06N3/12

329

An adaptive network-based fuzzy approach for prediction of surface roughness in CNC end milling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shibendu Shekhar Roy

An Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) has been designed for modeling and predicting the surface roughness in end milling operation for set of three given milling parameters (spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut). Two different membership functions (triangular and bell shaped) were used during the hybrid-training process of ANFIS in order to compare the prediction accuracy of surface roughness by the two membership functions. The predicted surface roughness values obtained from ANFIS were compared with experimental data and multiple regression analysis. The comparison indicates that the adoption of both membership functions in ANFIS achieved better accuracy than multiple regression model.

IPC Code: G06N7/02; G01B5/28

S & T and Industrial Research

335

History of observed samples: How much affects the ARL of  control charts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D R Prajapati & P B Mahapatra

This paper presents history of observed samples upon average run length (ARL) of  chart, when process shift takes place, because the performance characteristic of a control chart is measured in terms of ARL. The concept of proposed  chart is based upon the Chi square distribution; in which a Statistic, ‘U’ has been defined and calculated for the product of sample size (n) and history (H). ARL values of proposed chart are compared to the standard Shewhart chart, considering the control limits as ±2σ and confidence level (CL) as 95%. The history of previous samples is considered to evaluate U and comparing it with the maximum permissible value of standard Chi Square Table to evaluate the status of running process. Sample sizes are taken as 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10, while previous history is considered from 4 to 10. For smaller shift (0.1-0.5σ), the length of history was found to affect ARL of  chart to some extent, but for moderate and large shifts (> 0.5σ) the effect of length of history is negligible.

344

Prediction of air delivery, noise and 
power consumption of fan for TEFC electric motors
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rajgopal Desale & N K Deshmukh

This paper describes the method for estimating air delivery, noise and power consumed by fan for TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) motor at design stage itself. It is a program based on semi-empirical relations with constants derived from extensive experiments. Program (in C++) is provided with inputs with regard to fan geometry, rotational speed and system resistance, the programme gives necessary output for air delivery, noise and power consumed. Optimisation is done based on the weightage factor provided by the user. Fans for different frame size were designed, developed, tested and results compared with predicted values and found to be within 10% for air delivery and noise. However, power consumption results were within 15%.

349

Sensitive titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the assay of lamivudine in pharmaceuticals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

K Basavaiah & B C Somashekar

One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the assay of lamivudine in bulk drug and in tablets using bromate-bromide mixture and two dyes, methyl orange and indigocarmine, as reagents.  In all the methods, the amount of bromate reacted corresponds to the amount of lamivudine. Titrimetric method is applicable over 2.5-7.5 mg range and the reaction stoichiometry is found to be 1:1 (lamivudine: KBrO3). In spectrophotometric methods, absorbance is found to increase linearly with concentration of lamivudine, which is corroborated by the correlation coefficient of 0.9971 and 0.9999 for method A and B, respectively. The systems obey Beer’s law for 0.125-1.50 mg/ml (Method A) and 1.0-8.0 mg/ml (Method B). The calculated apparent molar absorptivity values are found to be 7.4 ´ 104 and 1.7 ´ 104 l mol-1 cm-1, for method A and method B respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 3.10 and 13.52 ng/cm2. The methods were successfully applied to the assay of lamivudine in tablet preparations and the results were compared with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t and F-tests.

 

IPC Code: A61K

Energy and Environment

355

Thermal optimization of solar biomass hybrid cogeneration plants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anuradha Mishra, M N Chakravarty &N D Kaushika

Thermal optimization and performance matching of subsystems in solar biomass hybrid plant are investigated. The plant incorporates solar collector field, multiple fuel boiler, steam turbine, deaerator and economizer units. The solar field consists of line focus parabolic trough collectors. The thermal model is used for comparative study of various variations of parabolic trough collectors; LS3, Euro Trough (ET) and Duke solar excel over others. The matching of the output heat Qu and the temperature to the feed water conditions indicate that ET is the most suitable for the application; its inlet temperature requirement also matches the energy balance of the deaerator.

 

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

364

Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil by co-composting with sewage sludge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chua Choon Ling & Mohamed Hasnain Isa

This study determined the optimum ratio of contaminated soil to sewage sludge (organic amendments) in enhancing the biodegradation of refinery oil sludge. It also evaluated the treatment efficiency of refinery oil sludge by composting and the effect of sewage sludge addition on the biodegradation of refinery oil sludge.  All composters were supplemented with grass (bulking agent) at a soil-to-grass ratio of 1:0.5 (v/v). The ratios of contaminated soil to sewage sludge were 1:0 (control), 1:0.1, 1:0.3, 1:0.5, 1:0.7 and 1:1 (w/w). The contents of each composter were tilled and well mixed weekly after which samples were drawn for analysis. The experiment showed enhanced biodegradation of oil and grease due to sewage sludge addition. The maximum oil and grease removal achieved was 65.6% over the 9 week study period under low temperature conditions, for the contaminated soil to sewage sludge ratio of 1:0.5.

 

IPC Code: C05F7/00; E02D31/00

Author-Reader Platform

370

Noble Laureates 2005

373

Instructions to contributors

 

 

Author Index

 

Anand S

325

Banerjee A K

299

Bano S

283

Basavaiah K

349

Bedoya L

299

Cabrera E V

299

Chakravarty M N

355

Chang M-L

309

Desale R

344

Deshmukh N K

344

Gopalasamy V

321

Hung Y-M

309

Isa M H

364

Javed K

283

Kaushika N D

355

Khan M S Y

283

Kumar A

325

Laya M S

299

Ling C C

364

Mahapatra P B

335

Mishra A

355

Mohan N K

321

Mora H

299

Mueed M A

283

Prajapati D R

335

Roy S S

329

Somashekar B C

349

Sriram G

321

Tang T-I

309

Tzeng G-H

309

Vera W

299

Yaddanapudi L N

325

 

 

Keyword Index

Adaptive Network

329

Air delivery

344

Air velocity

344

Assay

349

Average Run Length (ARL)

335

Bicycle industry

309

Biogas

355

Biological properties

283

Bioremediation

364

Blade frequency

344

Body surface area

325

Bromate-bromide

349

Carbohydrates

283

Cardiac glycosides

283

Chi square max

335

Co-composting

364

Cogeneration

355

Control charts

335

Corchorus sp

283

Customer service

309

Cycloaddition

299

Dyes

349

End milling

329

Esterification

299

Fuzzy logic

325

Fuzzy system

329

Gaussian Plume Model

321

Hybrid power plant

355

Induction

325

Initial anesthetic dose

325

Iodine

299

Ionones

283

Lamivudine

349

Length of previous history

335

Multi-objective programming

309

Noise level

344

Operating point

344

Organic synthesis

299

Over prediction ratio

321

Parabolic trough collector

355

Pharmaceuticals

349

Phenolics

283

Power consumption

344

Pressure loss

344

Process shift

335

Refinery oil sludge

364

Sensitivity study

321

Sewage sludge

364

Spectrophotometry

349

Static pressure

344

Sterols

283

Supply chain

309

Surface roughness

329

System resistance

344

Titrimetry

349

Triterpenoids

283

Velocity pressure

344

Volumetric loss

344