Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (65) (1)  (2006)

VOLUME 65               

    NUMBER1

JANUARY 2006

 

CONTENTS

Review

11

Trends in floating drug delivery systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J M Patil, R S Hirlekar, P S Gide &
V J Kadam

Among novel drug delivery systems, rate controlled oral drug delivery system forms an important area. Research is directed towards overcoming physiological problems, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times. Prolonged GRT may widen the stomach potential as a drug-absorbing organ. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high-density systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of FDDS in the clinical setting. This review discussed the current technological developments of FDDS including patented delivery systems and marketed products. In addition, the pharmaceutical basis of their design, their advantages and future potential for oral controlled drug delivery are discussed.

 

IPC Code: F16K17/26

Management and Information Technology

22

Fuzzy modeling and identification of intelligent control for refrigeration compressor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jagdev Singh, Nirmal Singh & J K Sharma

Fuzzy modeling and mathematical analysis for the intelligent control of compressor in order to regulate refrigerant mass flow in vapour compression refrigeration system has been described. The compressor speed and delivery pressure are taken as input parameters and mass flow rate is considered as output parameter. To develop an effective model for control design, fuzzy rule base is designed with and without sub clustering. Intelligent control is used to receive the input signal and generate the output signal to control the mass flow rate from the compressor. Swept volume, suction pressure and densities are considered as fixed parameters.

 

IPC Code: G06N7/02; F25B

S & T and Industrial Research

31

Experimental study to redesign visual display terminal workstation for bifocal operators

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Nidhi Gupta, G G Ray & Sanjeev Gupta

Existing VDT workstations were observed inappropriate for bifocal people facing vision problem, which was analysed thoroughly in simulated laboratory conditions by preparing a test rig with adjustable monitor angle from horizontal. Work posture of VDT operators was assessed with EMG, Photogram Metric Technique, and Centre of Gravity in four stages of test rig. An ergonomics criterion for redesigning VDT workstation was developed. It is appropriate and natural for the man-machine-environment system and also allows comfortable posture and greater efficiency of bifocal and normal VDT operators.

36

Design improvements in digital seismograph for recording long duration seismic events and aftershocks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B K Sharma, J K Sharma,Satish Kumar, S K Mittal & M A Shamshi

The paper highlights a new design approach to overcome technical limitations of digital seismographs by incorporating optimum hardware and efficient software modules etc. The paper illustrates how the new design approach has enhanced the limited 64 kbytes addressing capability of 8-bit microprocessor based seismograph to 16 Mbytes capacity. Instrument based on this design philosophy can now record many long duration seismic events and the series of subsequent aftershocks, which need storage of several mega bytes. The technique has enabled uninterrupted data acquisition and processing even when the data of earlier recorded events is being transferred from main storage to PC hard disk. The design concept has been validated successfully by operating the instrument based on this technique for long time in the field.

 

42

Microprocessor based flow meter for measuring the flow rate of cryogenic liquids

 

 

 

 

 

 

S K Ray, L K Bandopadhyay, R P Singh, N Sahay, I Ahmad, A Narayan & B C Bhowmick

This paper presents the design of a microprocessor-based flow meter to optimize the flow rate of liquid nitrogen required to control fire in underground coalmines. The salient features of the device and its set-up procedure with the liquid nitrogen tanker are illustrated with suitable schematic diagram. The program logic of the proposed device is illustrated in the form of a flow chart.

IPC Code: G06F1/20

S & T and Industrial Research

47

Slope stability study for optimum design of an opencast project

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

V K Singh

The stability of an opencast mine slope, investigated by the limit equilibrium method, indicates that 148m deep open pit is stable with 60° overall slope angle. Geotechnical mapping was undertaken to determine the critical orientation of structural discontinuities. Geomechanical properties were determined in the laboratory and subsequently modified to approximate those of in situ rock mass. Sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of the slope design parameters on the safety factor. It was also used in determining the most suitable remedial measure for the critical slope. Slope monitoring did not reveal any movement in and around the pit.

 

 

57

Effect of co-solutes on the physico-chemical properties of surfactant solutions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    P K Sansanwal

Physico-chemical studies of some aqueous surfactant solutions were carried out by employing conductance, surface tension and spectrofluorometric techniques. From conductivity and surface tension measurements, critical micelle concentration (CMC), counter-ion association (α), equivalent conductance at infinite dilution (٨0), surface excess concentration (G), minimum area per molecule (Amin), surface pressure at CMC (pCMC), thermodynamic properties of micellization (rmic, rmic, rmic) and adsorption (rads, rads and rads) have been obtained for an anionic [bis (2-Ethylhexyl) sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)], a cationic [cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)] and a nonionic [polyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35)] surfactant solutions. Effect of mixing co-solutes (dioxane and glycerol) on the physico-chemical properties of surfactant systems at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K has been investigated. Surfactants micellar characteristics and their interaction with co-solutes were also investigated by fluorescence measurements of solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe.

 

S & T and Industrial Research

65

Comparison of different extraction methods to determine gold in geological samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P V Sunder Raju

Different petro-chemically varied lithological samples were collected from the Chitradurga schist belt, Karnataka, to identify auriferous zones. The efficiencies of gold estimation at very low levels by different extraction methods were compared. The extraction methods were fire-assay (FA), cyanide leach, and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) solvent extraction. The rock samples include banded iron formations (silicate, oxides, carbonate and sulphide facies), ferruginous cherts, massive milky white quartz veins and highly sheared fractured translucent dark grey to bluish grey quartz veins. After separation and pre-concentration of gold (MIBK) solvent extraction procedures have been studied using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (F-AAS).

 

IPC Code: C 22 B11/00

68

Short sequence environment friendly bleaching of wheat straw pulp

 

 

 

 

 

 

U K Ghosh

In the present study, wheat straw pulp made through soda process and after oxygen delignification, was subjected to various conventional bleaching processes involving elemental chlorine and short sequence elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching processes. It was observed that D50EpD50 sequence gives 84.8% brightness (Elrepho) and excellent strength properties of pulp and generates lower pollution load, both in terms of COD and TOCl, in comparison to the conventional bleaching processes involving elemental chlorine.

 

IPC Code: D 21C 9/10

72

Baker’s yeast production under fed batch culture from apple pomace

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Shashi Bhushan & V K Joshi

Apple pomace extract (APE) in aerobic variable fed batch culture under standardized fermentation parameters was evaluated for the production of baker’s yeast. The substrate was fed at a flow rate of 0.39 dm3 h-1 to regulate fermentable sugar concentration between 1-2 % in bioreactor. An average specific growth rate of 0.24 h-1 and cellular yield coefficient of 0.48 g/g sugar was obtained during baker’s yeast production. Under variable fed batch aerobic baker’s yeast fermentation, yield obtained with APE was 96 % to that of expected theoretical yield and thus, qualified as an alternative to molasses, the traditional baker’s yeast production carbon source. The dough raising capacity of experimentally produced yeast cells revealed no apparent difference from that of commercial sample.

 

IPC Code: C12N1/18

Waste Treatment and Utilization

77

Removal of fluoride from drinking water using a modified fly ash adsorbent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debasis Goswami & Arabinda K Das

Fly ash from a coal-fired power station was chemically modified and utilized for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Two types of beds were used. Bed I was prepared by treatment with 12M HCl followed by neutralization with 5M NaOH solution. The reaction mass was filtered, washed, dried, and crushed to fine powder. Bed I material was mixed with alum and MgCl2 solutions and treated with 0.9M Na2CO3 until pH reached to 4.5. Mass was again filtered, washed, dried at 120ºC for 4 h and crushed to fine powder. This bed material is Bed II, which was used for defluoridation. Bed I was used to maintain pH (7.5-8.5) of the final effluent. Fluoride (100 ppm) present in both synthetic mixtures and drinking water samples was allowed to pass through Bed II (15 g) absorbent and effluents were found to contain no fluoride but pH of the effluent was 5.4-5.5. To maintain WHO guidelines for drinking water on pH, this effluent was again passed through Bed I. The effectiveness of the modified fly ash bed was satisfactory.

 

IPC Code: C02F1/00

Book Review

80

Administrative reforms: Towards sustainable practices

Reviewer: Sachin Chowdhry

Author-Reader Platform

81

Instructions to contributors

 

 

       

 

 

 

           

Author Index

 

Gide P S

11

Hirlekar R S

11

Kadam V J

11

Patil J M

11

Singh J

22

Singh N

22

Gupta N

31

Gupta S

31

Ray G G

31

Kumar S

36

Mittal S K

36

Shamshi M A

36

Sharma B K

36

Sharma J K

36

Ahmad I 

42

Bandopadhyay L K

42

Bhowmick B C

42

Narayan A

42

Ray S K

42

Sahay N

42

Singh R P

42

Singh V K

47

Sansanwal P K

57

Sunder Raju P V

65

Ghosh U K

68

Bhushan S

72

Joshi V K

72

Das A K

77

Goswami D

77

 

              

    


 

Keyword Index

 

Drug delivery systems

11

Floating drug delivery system (FDDS)

11

Gastric residence times (GRT)

11

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

22

Clustering

22

Fuzzy control

22

Refrigeration compressor

22

Sugeno fuzzy inference system

22

Bifocal operators

31

Ergonomics

31

Visual display terminal (VDT)

31

Aftershocks

36

Digital seismographs

36

Long duration seismic events

36

Control of fire

42

Drag force

42

Flow meter

42

Liquid nitrogen

42

Microprocessor

42

Repulsive force

42

Rock excavation

47

Safety analysis

47

Slope stability

47

Surface mining

47

Conductance

57

Dioxane

57

Glycerol

57

Physico-chemical properties

57

Pyrene flouorescence

57

Surface tension

57

Surfactants

57

Chitradurga

65

F-AAS

65

MIBK

65

ECF bleaching

68

Oxygen delignification

68

Short sequence

68

Wheat straw

68

Aerobic fermentation

72

Apple pomace extract

72

Baker’s yeast

72

Bakery products

72

Fed batch culture

72

Molasses

72

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

72

Specific growth rate

72

Defluoridation

77

Drinking water

77

Modified fly ash bed

77