Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research
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VOLUME 65

NUMBER 7

JULY 2006

CONTENTS

Reviews

541

Solid wastes generation in the leather industry and its utilization for cleaner environment - A review















J Kanagaraj, K C Velappan,

N K Chandra Babu & S Sadulla

Flyash can be used for reclaiming the problem soil and enhance the crop productivity depending upon the nature of soil and flyash. It may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and enhance the available macro and micronutrients for plants. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in flyash increase yield of agricultural crops. However, application of flyash, particularly unweathered ones, shows a tendency of accumulating elements like B, Mo, Se and Al. The accumulations of these elements to toxic levels are responsible for reductions in the crop yields and consequently influence animal and human health. This review explores the possibility of using flyash to improve the soil environment and subsequently increase the growth and yield of crops.

IPC Code: B09B3/00

549

Advances in sensors based on conducting polymers






Neetika Gupta, Shalini Sharma,
Irfan Ahmad Mir & D Kumar

 

Conducting polymers with a blend of interesting optical and mechanical properties can be used in situations where inorganic materials are not suitable. Synthetic capabilities as well as fabrication techniques have been developed to such an extent that molecular electronic devices based on conducting polymers can be designed, marking evolution of a sophisticated technology in the field of microelectronics. These electro-active conducting polymers cover a broad spectrum of applications from solid-state technology to biotechnology and sensor technology. Present paper addresses the various issues on sensors for chemical and biochemical species.

Management & Information Technology

558

Modeling vehicle delays at signalized junctions
: Artificial neural networks approach

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Y Sazi Murat & Özgür Baskan

Delay of vehicles at signalized junctions is one of the main criteria used for evaluation of control systems’ performances. The vehicle delay is uniform and non-uniform delay types. The uniform part consists of signal timings; the non-uniform part includes vehicle queuing, random arrivals and over-saturation cases of traffic flows. The uniform part of the vehicle delays is basically determined using conventional delay formulas. But for the non-uniform part, artificial neural network (ANN) approach is used and a vehicle delay estimation model [artificial neural network delay estimation of traffic flows (ANNDEsT)] is developed. ANNDEsT model compared with Webster, HCM and Akçelik delay calculation methods and field observations, shows encouraging results especially for the cases of over-saturation or non-uniform conditions.

565

Artificial neural network for solving paper industry problems: A review

  

  

  

  

  

  Kumar Rajesh & A K Ray

  

  

The review focuses on applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in various subsystems of pulp and paper making processes. Some applications are pertinent to modeling of pulping, bleaching and energy conservation process while others are related to control of refining, washing of brown stock, combustion of black liquor, lime kiln operation, grade changes and quality control. A general algorithm is also developed to demonstrate how to solve the complex problem using ANN for paper mill subsystems.

IPC Code: G06N3/02;D2/F

S & T and Industrial Research

574

Characteristics evolution of indigenously designed and developed tri-axial force balance accelerometer


  

  

  

  

  

  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
B K Sharma, Satish Kumar, S K Mittal &
M A Shamshi

This paper describes the indigenously designed and developed tri-axial force balanced accelerometer (FBA) using variable capacitance transduction and electromagnetic feedback. Accelerometer is a highly sensitive, low frequency seismic sensor characterized by rugged construction and proven reliability. It has been designed and developed for  ±1g full-scale range with 50 Hz natural frequency mainly for seismic, structural, aerospace and some commercial applications. During designing, most of the technical specifications have been considered for low frequency band from DC to 200Hz applications. Accelerometer is suitable for strong motion recording purpose.

S & T and Industrial Research

578

Living copolymerization of propylene and ethylene with [t-BuNSiMe2Flu]TiMe2/MAO catalyst system: Effect of MAO/Ti ratio




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E O Dare, G A Olatunji, D S Ogunniyi,
S O Oguntoye & J T Bamgbose1

Propylene-co-ethylene polymer (Mn=528,000, Mw/Mn=1.19) was synthesized using [η1: η3-t-BuNSiMe2Flu]TiMe2 (Cat A)/methyl­aluminoxane (MAO) system at 0°C. Effect of MAO/Ti ratio on catalyst productivity was investigated and living nature of copolymer was maintained until the ratio reached 2000. 13C-NMR and GPC have been used to characterize the copolymer.

IPC Code: C08F38/02

582

Effect of interaction of Commercial and Nano size CaSO4 filler on mechanical and thermal properties of polyurethane foam

















S Mishra & Arindam Mukherji

Composite foams were prepared by adding different concentration (0.5-2.5 wt.%) of commercial and nano size CaSO4 filler in a single-phase polyurethane matrix. The increment in specific gravity for nano size filler (0.17-0.3 g/cc) and in case of micron size filler (0.17-0.23 g/cc) makes a strong support for the increment of cell numbers. The significant enhancement (300%) in mechanical properties, compressive strength, and the optical and transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of the cell sizes also satisfies the DSC results. The decrement in amount of heat (∆H cal/g) in case of commercial size filler for curing shows the conduction of heat is more due to formation of cells less in numbers that results in reduction of rate of heating. On increasing the amount of filler in composites, specific gravity increases more in case of nano size in composites rather commercial size filler. Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) shows increment in degradation temperature in case of nano size filler. Increment of flammability for nano size filler (4.7-10.61 s/mm) and in case of commercial size filler (4.7- 6.15 s/mm), shows that the incorporation of nano particles not only improves the degradation behavior but also retards the inflammable time.

IPC Code: C08G16/04

590

Modified neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) oil based curing of acid functional acrylic copolymer resin for anticorrosive coating








S D Toliwal & Kalpen Patel

N, N-Bis (2-hydroxy ethyl) neem fatty amide (HENFA) was prepared by reacting neem oil with diethanolamine in the presence of zinc oxide as catalyst. HENFA was used as curing agent with acid functional acrylic resin to prepare thermosetting coating compositions. Certain compositions were found to have comparable performance to that of conventional coating system cured by melamine formaldehyde resin.

IPC Code: C08G69/48

S & T and Industrial Research

594

Iron oxidation studies with immobilized cells of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans







  

Trupti Das & Gautam Roy Chaudhury

Biooxidation of iron is considered to be one of the major steps in various industrial processes like the bioleaching of low-grade sulfide ores and desulfurisation of coal. The eco-friendly phenomenon is also widely exploited for the treatment of acid mine drainage and removal of hydrogen sulfide from gaseous effluents. In the present work, iron oxidation in batch as well as continuous mode has been studied using immobilized Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Enhanced oxidation rate is achieved in a continuous mode in the column reactor and the immobilized cells are found to be very effective for the oxidation studies.

IPC Code: C12N11/16

599

Process strategies for Cephalosporin C fermentation









 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Pradeep Srivastava, Punita Mishra &
Subir Kundu

Cephalosporin C (CPC), a β-lactam antibiotic, is starting molecule for industrial production of semi synthetic cephalosporins. CPC fermentation has been carried out in Air Lift Reactor (indigenously made up of borosilicate glass) in different fermentation modes i.e., batch and fed batch modes using a mold Acremonium chrysogenum (synn. Cephalosporium acremonium). A definite correlation exists between the antibiotic productivity and flow rate of supplementary feed. Fed batch process was shown to be more efficient than the batch one, and the process in which the lowest supplementary feed flow rate was used resulted in significantly higher antibiotic production.

IPC Code: C12P17/00

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

603

Desilication of agro based black liquor using bubble column reactor







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S A Mandavgane, G D Paradkar &
D Subramanian

Black liquor, obtained from paper production using agricultural residues, contains additional silica, removal of which or desilication is complex process. Carbonation involves accurate control of pH, as lignin also co-precipitates around the same pH of desilication. Present work used high mass transfer efficient, Bubble Column Reactor (BCR) for desilication. Carbonation in BCR (5 l) at higher temperature was observed more efficient than at room temperature.

IPC Code: B01J19/02

Book Review

608

Social Accounting Matrix for India: Concepts, Construction and Applications
Reviewer: L P Rai

Author-Reader Platform

609

Instructions to contributors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Author Index

 

 


Bamgbose J T

578

Baskan Ö

558

 

 

Chandra Babu N K

541

Chaudhury G R

594

 

 

Dare E O

578

Das T

594

 

 

Gupta N

549

 

 

Kanagaraj J

541

Kumar D

549

Kumar Rajesh

565

Kumar S

574

Kundu S

599

 

 

Mandavgane S A

603

Mir I A

549

Mishra P

599

Mishra S

582

Mittal S K

574

Mukherji A

582

Murat Y S

558

 

 

Ogunniyi D S

578

Oguntoye S O

578

Olatunji G A

578

 

 

Paradkar G D

603

Patel Kalpen

590

 

 

Ray A K

565

 

 

Sadulla S

541

Shamshi M A

574

Sharma B K

574

Sharma S

549

Srivastava P

599

Subramanian D

603

 

 

Toliwal S D

590

 

 

Velappan K C

541




Keyword Index

 


13C-NMR

578

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

594

Acremonium chrysogenum

599

Acrylic copolymer

590

Artificial intelligence

565

Artificial neural networks

558

 

 

Batch fermentation

599

Black liquor

603

Bubble column reactor

603

 

 

Catalyst

590

Cephalosporin C

599

Conducting polymers

549

Copolymerization

578

 

 

Delignification

603

Desilication

603

 

 

Enzymes

549

 

 

Fault diagnosis

565

Fed batch fermentation

599

Flow rates

599

Force balanced accelerometer

574

Frequency

574

 

 

GPC

578

 

Immobilization

549, 594

Intersections

558

Iron oxidation

594

 

 

Leather industry

541

 

 

Nano CaSO4

582

Nanocomposite

582

Neem

590

Neural networks

565

 

 

Paper mill simulation

565

Polyurethane

582

Prediction of paper properties

565

Propylene-co-ethylene

578

 

 

Resin

590

 

 

Sensors

549

Signalization

558

Solid wastes

541

 

 

Traffic flows

558

Transducer

549

Transduction methods

574

 

 

Useful end products

541

 

 

Vehicle delay model

558