Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 65

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2006

CONTENTS

Reviews

459

Analytical techniques used to characterize drug-polyvinylpyrrolidone systems in solid and liquid states – An overview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renu Chadha, V K Kapoor & Amit Kumar

Homogeneous distribution of poorly water-soluble drugs in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a hydrophilic carrier, is definitely a suitable way to improve the bioavailability of such drugs. However, fundamental knowledge of drug polymer interaction and comprehensive study of the thermal, structural and solubility properties of such binary systems is the prerequisite for the development of useful drug product. The paper reviews physical state, dissolution behavior and elucidation of drug-PVP interaction in solid dispersion using XRD, FTIR, DSC, SEM, hot stage microscopy and NMR. The importance of suitable selection of the system preparation methods have also been demonstrated and emphasis is laid on the potential methods for the industrial production of solid dispersions.

 

IPC Code: A61J3/07

470

Fuzzy modeling and control of HVAC systems – A review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jagdev Singh, Nirmal Singh & J K Sharma

Paper presents role of fuzzy modeling in heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and control models. Fuzzy logic offers a promising solution to this conceptual design through fuzzy modeling. Numerous fuzzy logic studies are available in the non- mechanical engineering field and allied areas such as diagnostics, energy consumption analysis, maintenance, operation and its control. Relatively little exists in using fuzzy logic based systems for mechanical engineering and very little for HVAC conceptual design and control. The purpose of this review is to diversify information and to appraise recent advances on the specific areas of conceptual design and control involving synthesis of HVAC components.

 

IPC Code:  G06N7/02

477

Pharmacological properties of flavonoids including flavonolignans – Integration of petrocrops with drug development from plants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D K Sharma

The review presents the pharmacological activities of some of the flavonolignans including author’s research work in this area. There may be a wide scope of integrating the pharmaceutical industries especially those based on natural products, with the fuel and energy industries dealing with the production of petroleum hydrocarbons, biodiesel, lubricating oils, alcohols, glucose and glucose based value added chemicals and materials, xylose and xylose based value added chemicals and materials, lignin based aromatic and heterocyclic chemicals etc.

 

IPC Code: A61K31/60

Management and Information Technology

485

An implementation and usability evaluation of automatic cash-payment system for hospital

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hui-Jen Yang, Yun-Long Lay  &

Chung-Ho Tsai

Most hospitals have the information system to deal with the register, billing and payment process in Taiwan. The payment mechanism is mainly by cash that is counted by the counter clerks. In order to lessen the workload of counter clerks and reduce the patient’s waiting time for speeding up the payment process. This study  implemented a hospital automatic cash-payment (HACP) system. An experimental evaluation was also conducted to survey the perceptions of patient’s feeling about the system. The results displayed that relative advantage of system, complexity of system and perceived service quality of system have significantly effected on behavioral intention of HACP system use. Perceived service quality has most predictive power to the behavioral intention of system use. Behavioral intention of HACP system use has in turn positively effected on actual system use of HACP system.

495

Investigation of FWM effect on BER in WDM optical communication system with different modulation formats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amarpal Singh, Ajay K Sharma &

Paramjit Singh

This paper simulates two-channel WDM optical communication system to investigate the effect of FWM on Bit Error Rate (BER) for different Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) and Return to Zero (RZ) type of modulation formats at various dispersion values and core effective area of fiber for optical link having two spans of 100 km each. BER got improved with NRZ raised cosine modulation format and by increasing the core effective area of fiber. A fuzzy based approach is proposed to calculate BER using NRZ raised cosine modulator by varying the dispersion and core effective area of fiber. Fuzzy logic helps in dealing with uncertain and complex systems difficult to model mathematically.

 

Management and Information Technology

499

Mathematical modeling for production system with backlogging and failure in repair

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Singa Wang Chiu & Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu

 

This paper employs mathematical modeling to derive the optimal lot size for economic production quantity model with random defective rate, imperfect rework process, and backlogging. In real life manufacturing process, the generation of defective items is inevitable. In this study, random defective rate is assumed and all defective items are reworked when regular production ends. During the rework process, a random portion of reworked items fails and becomes scrap. Disposal and repair costs are included in the proposed mathematical modeling and analysis, the optimal production lot size and backordering level that minimize overall production costs are derived. Numerical example is provided to demonstrate its practical usage.

 

S & T and Industrial Research

507

Development of four channel programmable FES system using multi-tap transformers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V K Sharma, R C Agnihotri, Dinesh Pankaj, Neelesh Kumar, Rohit Jindal, Deepak Mehta & Raj Bahadur

Spinal cord injuries are predominantly prevalent among younger individuals (> 55% in 16-30 age group). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is electrical stimulation of muscle deprived of nerves control, with a view of providing muscular contraction and providing a functionally useful movement. The paper reports on the development of a FES system using multi-tap transformers, and also usefulness of the system on a complete paraplegic patient with injury level T-4 to T-12.

 

 

S & T and Industrial Research

510

Design and development of high frequency standard inductors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Om Kar Nath &Avadesh Kumar Goel

 

A set of high frequency standard inductors (10 mH, 100 mH and 1000 mH) has been designed and developed. Such inductors, which are in the form of RC circuit having thin film resistors and high quality capacitor, show little variation at high frequencies. Also their terminals are provided with 4-TP (Four Terminal Pair) configuration, which is capable of minimizing residual impedances and stray field effects at high frequencies. These inductors serve as good inductance standards, which ensure high accuracy at high frequencies upto about 10 MHz. Such inductors would serve as echelon I level transfer standards at HF and are also quite suitable for calibration of 4-TP LCR meters/ impedance bridges.

IPC Code: H02M1/15

514

Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of vinyl acetate using triphenyl stibonium 1, 2, 3, 4-tetraphenyl- cyclopentadiene ylide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A K Srivastava A K Chaurasia,

Saroj Sharma & Garima Mishra

This study describes the kinetics and mechanism of free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate initiated by triphenyl stibonium 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopentadiene ylide in dioxane at 75 ± 0.1°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The system followed ideal radical kinetics (Rp α [M] [I]0.5). The reaction has been retarded by hydroquinone, aniline and nitrobenzene. The overall activation energy and average value of kp2/kt are 32 kJ mol-1 and 0.46 l mol-1s-1, respectively.

 

IPC Code: C08F18/08

S & T and Industrial Research

518

Studies on effect of alkaline earth metal chloride on crossing point temperature of coal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinu Mandal, R S Prasad & L K Verma

Crossing point temperature (CPT) of coal with and without inhibitor (MgCl2, CaCl2 and BaCl2) was determined. CPT of coal without inhibitor was 136°C. Known weight of coal (-72 mesh size) was treated with known volume of 1N, 2N, 3N, 4N & 5N solution of MgCl2, CaCl2 and BaCl2 and CPT with these inhibitors was determined respectively. Experimental evidence shows that CPT is a function of concentration of alkaline earth metal chloride. Among these concentrations of inhibitors of each inhibitor, 5N solutions were chosen due to its effective influence on CPT of coal. The increase in CPT was 10.5°C, 7°C, and 6.6°C with 5N solution of MgCl2, CaCl2 and BaCl2 solution respectively. Emission of CO and CO2 with and without inhibitors was determined as a function of temperature by using 5N aqueous solution of MgCl2, CaCl2 and BaCl2. Experimental evidences indicate that application of MgCl2 as an inhibitor is more efficient due to synergistic effect.

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

521

Utilization of anaerobically digested distillery effluent for the production of Spirulina platensis (ARM 730)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajeev Kaushik, Radha Prasanna &

H C Joshi

Anaerobically digested distillery effluent (ADE) of molasses based distilleries with high BOD and COD cause deterioration of land and ground water quality when discharged in the environment. Spirulina platensis (ARM 730) was grown in different dilutions and used for treatment and safe disposal of ADE. It was observed that growth and other parameters like protein, carbohydrate, lipids were significantly higher in 50% ADE over standard Zarrouk’s medium and other ADE dilutions. After growing Spirulina for 14 days in all the different dilutions of ADE, a significant decrease was observed in the following: BOD, 51-94.6; total C, 27.2-71.8; and total N, 35.4-58.0 %.

 

IPC Code: B02C4/06

Book Review

526

ICTs and Indian Economic Development: Economy, Work, Regulation

Reviewer: N Mrinalini

Author-Reader Platform

528

Announcement

530

Additions and Corrections

531

Instructions to contributors

 

 

 


Author Index

 


Agnihotri R C

507

Bahadur R

507

Chadha R

459

Chaurasia A K

514

Chiu S W

499

Chiu Y-S P

499

Goel A K

510

Jindal R

507

Joshi H C

521

Kapoor V K

459

Kaushik R

521

Kumar A

459

Kumar N

507

Lay Y-L

485

Mandal S

518

Mehta D

507

Mishra G

514

Nath O K

510

Pankaj D

507

Prasad R S

518

Prasanna R

521

Sharma A K

495

Sharma D K

477

Sharma J K

470

Sharma S

514

Sharma V K

507

Singh A

495

Singh J

470

Singh N

470

Singh P

495

Srivastava A K

514

Tsai C-H

485

Verma L K

518

Yang H-J

485


 


 

Keyword Index

 


Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

495

Algal biotechnology

521

Alkaline earth metal chloride

518

BER

495

BOD reduction

521

Coal

518

Complexity

485

Core effective area of fiber

495

Crossing point temperature

518

Dispersion

495

Distillery effluent

521

Drugs

477

DSC

459

Failure in repair

499

Finite production rate model

499

Flavonoids

477

Flavonolignans

477

FTIR

459

Functional electrical stimulation

507

Fuzzy algorithm

470

Fuzzy logic

470

Fuzzy logic

495

Fuzzy modeling

470

High frequency standard inductors

510

HVAC

470

Ideal kinetics

514

Innovation diffusion theory

485

Intelligent control

470

Inventory

499

Mechanism

514

Medicinal plants

477

Multi-tap transformers

507

Natural products

477

Optimal lot size

499

Perceived service quality

485

Petrocrops

477

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

459

Radical polymerization

514

RC circuit

510

Relative advantage

485

Rework

499

Solid dispersion

459

Solubility

459

Spinal cord injuries

507

Spirulina

521

Technology acceptance model

485

4-TP configuration

510

WDM optical communication system

495

X-Ray diffraction 459