Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

Total visitors: 1,389   since 17-04-06

ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (65) (3)  (2006)

VOLUME 65               

    NUMBER 5

MAY 2006

CONTENTS

Reviews

383

Effect of flyash incorporation on soil properties and productivity of crops: A review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sudhir K Sharma & Naveen Kalra

Flyash can be used for reclaiming the problem soil and enhance the crop productivity depending upon the nature of soil and flyash. It may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and enhance the available macro and micronutrients for plants. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in flyash increase yield of agricultural crops. However, application of flyash, particularly unweathered ones, shows a tendency of accumulating elements like B, Mo, Se and Al. The accumulations of these elements to toxic levels are responsible for reductions in the crop yields and consequently influence animal and human health. This review explores the possibility of using flyash to improve the soil environment and subsequently increase the growth and yield of crops.

 

IPC Code: A01C9/00

391

Bioprospecting for drug research and functional foods for the prevention of diseases – Role of flavonoids in drug development

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D K Sharma

Bioprospecting is the exploitation of wild diversity (natural bioresources) in search for useful resources such as medicines. Research in the area of chemistry of natural products when coupled with sources of local traditional medicines and aided by pharmacological and antimicrobial studies may lead to the development of newer and effective drugs. Studies of the functional foods such as broccoli, garlic, citrus fruits, onions, oat, soy, tea, etc. may help in the prevention of diseases such as cancer, coronary heart diseases, inflammation, allergy, etc. The pharmacological activities of flavonoids are gaining importance with newer findings on the beneficial health effects. Flavonoids possess radical scavenging properties. There is a wide scope for integrating natural products based pharmaceutical industries with fuel and energy industries dealing with petrocrops, biodiesel, etc. Convenient synthesis of natural products may pave the way for the scale up and process development engineering.

 

IPC Code: C07D311/00

S & T and Industrial Research

402

Stress analysis on the major parts of a bulb turbine using FEA–A case study
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
N Kuppuswamy, R Rudramoorthy &
K Mayilsamy

In the bulb turbine, main shaft and stay column play important role. Main shaft is positioned horizontally. More stress concentration occurs near the junction of stay column with concrete at the top and bottom, since the entire load is being taken care of by stay columns at the top and bottom. A finite element analysis (FEA) has been made using ANSYS software to find out structural stability with stress distribution for bulb turbine and the reasons for high vibration and vertical cracks in the concrete structure of the powerhouse. Results from FEA analysis show that the bulb turbine operation is safe when the stay columns are fitted with pipe jacks. This method reduces stress concentration at the junction of stay column with concrete.

 

IPC Code: F03B13/06

410

Optimal design of an Indian carpet weaving loom structure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Himanshu Chaudhary & Subir Kumar Saha

Present looms to weave the carpets in India are made of wood, which are susceptible to termite attacks and low service life. Besides, the high tension in the warps is generated manually through the pull of a rope by 2-3 persons. In order to avoid the above difficulties, an improved metallic loom was developed at IIT Delhi in 2001, which made weaving easy but the cost of loom is high. In this paper, optimisation of the metallic loom is carried out resulting in relatively lightweight and reduced cost. The design is verified using the Finite Element Analysis software, ANSIS.

 

IPC Code: D03D39/00

S & T and Industrial Research

416

Quantitative analysis of methanol, an adulterant in alcoholic beverages, using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
R Nagarajan, R Mehrotra & M M Bajaj

To quantify methanol, a spurious adulterant in alcoholic beverages, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique is used. Synthetic samples (100) are prepared for developing a suitable calibration model. Spectra are recorded for all samples in wavelength region 4000-600 cm-1 using Bio-Rad 175 C FTS spectrophotometer in ATR mode. Calibration equation is obtained using partial least squares (PLS) method. Correlation coefficient and root mean square error values for methanol are R2cal: 0.9860, R2val: 0.9839 and RMSEC: 0.0470, RMSEV: 0.0505. Spectral measurement is done for 10 samples and their methanol concentration (0.5-2.5%) is predicted using the developed calibration model. The reliability and repeatability of spectroscopic technique may be appreciated by the agreement between ATR predicted results to those of actual values.

 

IPC Code: G01J3/42

Energy and Environment

420

Non-catalytic biodiesel fuel production with supercritical methanol technologies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shiro Saka, Dadan Kusdiana & Eiji Minami

Study presents that supercritical methanol has the ability to convert oils/fats consisting of triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters through transesterification and methyl esterification, respectively, without any catalyst. This one-step method (Saka process) is simpler process realizing shorter reaction time and higher yield of methyl esters than those of the conventional alkali-catalyzed method. To improve the biodiesel quality that satisfies the standard specification, another reaction route was also developed by the two-step method (Saka-Dadan process), which consists of hydrolysis step for oils/fats in subcritical water and subsequent methyl esterification of the hydrolyzed products of fatty acids from oils/fats in supercritical methanol. These new methods are highly tolerant against the presence of FFAs and water in oils/fats. Therefore, compared to the alkali-catalyzed method, proposed methods can be applied for various types of oils/fats and their wastes as raw materials to produce biodiesel fuel.

Energy and Environment

426

CNG: An alternative fuel for public transport

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Santosh A Jalihal & T S Reddy

Paper presents a case study of Delhi on the impact of using compressed natural gas (CNG) in reducing exhaust emissions. The total emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PM) and hydrocarbons (HC) are estimated using vehicle-kilometers traveled, traffic and travel characteristics and emission factors of different fuel types used. Further, the impact of different fueling scenarios and interventions on air quality is assessed. The use of CNG fuel as an alternative to the conventional fuel in public transport and intermediate public transport vehicles benefits by reducing CO and PM emissions whilst increases HC and NOx emissions. The reduction of PM emissions will go a long way in reducing the impacts on public health in general and respiratory and cardio-vascular system related health problems in particular.

 

IPC Code: C01L3/06, F01N3/00

432

Biodesulfurization of hydrodesulfurized diesel in a trickle bed reactor-Experiments and modeling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M Mukhopadhyaya, R Chowdhury &P Bhattacharya

Hydrodesulfurized diesel [sulfur content, 200-540 ppm (mg/dm3)] has been used for bio-desulfurization using Rhodococcus sp. Biomass concentration with the progress of time has been determined using dry cell weight method. Batch studies have been conducted with a two phase medium [non-aqueous to aqueous phase ratio, 10:90 to 100:0 (i.e 0-100% diesel)]. Sulfur concentration has been determined using a Universal Oil Products (UOP) standard method (UOP 357-80). Microbial strains have been observed to follow classical Monod type growth kinetics under the present range of substrate concentration. A systematic and programmed analysis was made to determine following intrinsic kinetic parameters: maximum growth rate (µmax), 0.096 h-1; and half saturation constant (Ks), 71 mg/dm3. Biodesulfurization of hydrodesulfurized diesel has been conducted in a trickle bed reactor (diam, 0.066 m; height, 0.6 m) under continuous mode. Pith balls have been used as the immobilization matrix for the microorganisms with a constant bed porosity of 0.6. Flow rate of inlet diesel has been varied (0.25-0.5 dm3/h). Sulfur conversion up to 99% has been achieved. A mechanistic mathematical model, developed for the trickle bed bioreactor, can explain the reality satisfactorily.

 

IPC Code: C10L1/10

437

Study of asbestos fibre levels in and around a brake-lining industry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Altaf H Khan, Furquan A Ansari,Divya Misra & Subhash K Bhargava

In India, out of 673 small-scale and 13 large-scale asbestos-based industries, only 60% industries are in operation. The present report reveals the exposure of commercial asbestos (chrysotile) in the occupational as well as ambient air environment of the brake-lining industry using membrane filter method of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The fibre concentrations in 9 samples collected in the occupational environment was 0.123-0.238 f/cc (mean 0.187 ± 0.03) and that in 6 samples from surrounding ambient air was 0.002-0.007 f/cc (mean 0.004 ± 0.00). All samples showed fibre concentration lower than the threshold limit values (TLVs) prescribed by BIS at 0.5 f/cc. Morphological analysis of samples further under phase contrast and polarized microscopy indicates the presence of chrysotile asbestos, which acts as carcinogen as well as co-carcinogen.

 

IPC Code: B23B3/00

Waste Treatment and Utilization

440

Removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions using immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

 

 

 

 

P T Godbole & A D Sawant

Immobilised baker’s yeast cells were used to remove Malachite Green from aqueous solutions. Treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions like pH of solution, temperature, contact time, amount of biomass and concentration of dye. Adsorption process fits both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms with R2 values of 0.9993 and 0.9998 respectively and a qmax of 17 mg/g.

 

IPC Code: C09B1/00

 

443

Removal of direct dye from aqueous solutions with an adsorbent made from tamarind fruit shell, an agricultural solid waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M C Somasekhara Reddy

Removal of a direct dye, Congo Red, has been carried out using tamarind fruit shell (TFS) as an adsorbent. Parameters like agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH effect have been studied. Adsorption followed the first-order rate expression. The equilibrium data fit well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Desorption experiments confirmed that major mode of adsorption is ion-exchange for the dye.

 

IPC Code: C09B61/100

Author-Reader Platform
Book Review

447

Elements of Creative Management

Reviewer: L P Rai

448
Announcement

449

Instructions to contributors

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Ansari F A

437

Bajaj M M

416

Bhargava S K

437

Bhattacharya P

432

Chaudhary H

410

Chowdhury R

432

Godbole P T

440

Jalihal S A

426

Kalra N

383

Khan A H

437

Kuppuswamy N

402

Kusdiana D

420

Mayilsamy K

402

Mehrotra R

416

Minami E

420

Misra D

437

Mukhopadhyaya M

432

Nagarajan R

416

Reddy M C S

443

Reddy T S

426

Rudramoorthy R

402

Saha S K

410

Saka S

420

Sawant A D

440

Sharma D K

391

Sharma S K

383


 

Keyword Index

 


Adsorbent

443

Air pollution

426

Asbestos fibre

437

Attenuated total reflectance

416

Bio-desulfurization

432

Biodiesel

420

Bioresources

391

Bulb turbine

402

Calibration

416

Carpet loom

410

Compressed natural gas (CNG)

426

Congo Red

443

Correlation coefficient

416

Crop growth

383

Crop yield

383

Design

410

Diesel

432

Drugs

391

Dye

      443

Fatty acid

420

Flavonoids

391

Flyash

383

Fuel

426

Functional foods

391

Hydrolysis

420

Immobilised biomass

440

Intrinsic kinetic parameters

432

 

Lining industry

437

Main shaft

402

Malachite Green removal

440

Medicinal plants

391

Methanol

416

Methyl esterification

420

Monod model

432

Morphological analysis

437

Natural products

391

Oils/fats

420

Optimization

410

Partial least squares

416

Root mean square error

416

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

440

Simulation

402

Solid waste

443

Stability

402

Stay column

402

Structure

410

Supercritical methanol

420

Tamarind fruit shell

443

Toxic/trace elements

383

Transesterification

420

Transport

426

Trickle bed reactor

432

Triglyceride

420

Vibration resonance

402