Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 65

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2006

CONTENTS

Review

859

Carbon dioxide enrichment technologies for crop response studies













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D C Uprety, S C Garg, B S Bisht, H K Maini, N Dwivedi, G Paswan, A Raj & D C Saxena

In recent years, a number of technologies have been developed to study the impact of rising atmospheric CO2 in agricultural systems. Earlier techniques were based on the controlled environment such as phytotrons, closed chambers, cuvettes etc, which are far from the natural environment, in which plants generally grow. However, technologies such as FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment), OTCs (Open Top Chambers) and SPAR (Soil Plant Atmosphere Research) with holistic approach have been developed and are being currently used for crop response studies. South Asian Mid FACE and open top chambers are such holistic technologies, developed at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, for crop response studies under natural field condition. The data base generated using these facilities will be more realistic for impact assessment analysis of the rising atmospheric CO2 on crop plants and for developing models to predict responses for future climatic conditions.

IPC Code: A01C3/00

Management & Information Technology

867

Optimal operating conditions for reactor-separator-recycle system







Xuyun Wang, Chunli Wang , Siyi Jin & Huanlin Chen

Characteristic equation (CE) for the Reactor-Separator-Recycle (RSR) system is obtained using geometrical methods. Total yield is selected as the objective function of the complex reaction in two-dimensional concentration space. CE for RSR system can be separated into Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) and Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) based CEs. By combining CE curves of RSR system with the attainable region boundary curves, optimal operating conditions of RSR system for maximal total yield can be conveniently determined. Besides consecutive reaction, application of CE for RSR system can also be extended to other kinds of complex reaction processes.

IPC Code: B01J

Management & Information Technology

873

Enhancing the availability and reliability of power plants through macroergonomics approach







M A Azadeh, A Keramati, I Mohammadfam & B Jamshidnedjad

This paper describes an integrated macroergonomics model for operation and maintenance of power plants. Statistical tests on questionnaire survey data shows the importance of total human factors on job pressure. An integrated approach based on interview methods, questionnaires, information flow analysis and anthropometric and environmental assessment is discussed. The integrated approach provides detailed knowledge about ergonomics, management and safety conditions of power plants. Highlight of this study is the employment of a total system approach based on integration of the traditional human factors engineering and macroergonomics considerations. The approach of this study is applied to an advanced thermal power plant.

879

Balanced scorecard for performance evaluation of R&D organization: A conceptual model







Jyoti, D K Banwet & S G Deshmukh

Research and Development has been recognized as most important for future competitiveness to survive in this competitive and highly turbulent environment. A huge amount of money and other resources are being deployed in R&D by government as well as private organizations. A major consideration is required on performance improvement that needs to continuously evaluate the performance of R&D in line with vision and strategy of the organization. This paper deals with evaluating the performance of R&D organizations from four perspectives (financial, customers’, innovative and learning, and internal business processes) using the balanced scorecard technique.

887

Four legged walking robot control using neural networks




























Şahin Yıldırım

This paper presents neural network (NN) control of planar four-legged walking robot. The control system consists of a neural controller, standard PD controller and walking robot. Proposed NN is employed as an inverse controller of the robot. In addition to feedforward connections from the input layer to the hidden layer and from the hidden layer to the output layer, there is also feedback connection from the output layer to the hidden layer and from the hidden layer to itself. The reason to use hybrid layer is that robot's dynamics consists of linear and non-linear parts. The results show good performance of the proposed neural and control schemes.

Management & Information Technology

894

A new approach to determination of compressive strength of fly ash concrete using fuzzy logic












Tayfun Uygunoğlu & Osman Ünal

In this study, determination of effect of fly ash (FA) content on the compressive strength of concrete depending on water/cement ratio and concrete age was investigated by use of fuzzy logic (FL) approach. In the approach of modelling with FL, compressive strength values of various sample of concrete that produced by replacement of cement by F class of FA by ratio of 0 (control), 10%, 20% and 30% were used. Water/binder ratio of these concrete samples was varied between 0.27-0.60 in six different values. Experimental compressive strength values of the concrete specimens at 3, 7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days compared with FL values obtained using the fuzzy sets. Optimum FA content and water/binder ratio for the best compressive strength for early age and hardened concrete can be obtained with FL.

IPC Code: B01F3/80

S & T and Industrial Research

900

Comparison of pipelined IEEE-754 standard floating point multiplier with unpipelined multiplier











Kavita Khare, R P Singh & Nilay Khare

The IEEE-754 standard floating point multiplier that provides highly precise 

computations to achieve high throughput and low area on the IC have been improved
 by insertion of pipelining technique. Floating point multiplier-using pipelining has been
 simulated, analyzed and its superiority over traditional designs is discussed. 
To achieve pipelining, one must subdivide the input process into sequence subtasks, 
each of which can be executed by specialized hardware stage that operates concurrently 
with other stages in the pipeline without the need of extra computing units. 
Detailed synthesis and simulation report operated upon Xilinx ISE 5.2i and 
Modelsim software is given. Hardware design is implemented on Virtex FPGA chips.

905

Ultrasonic velocity and acoustical parameters of poly (4, 4’-cyclo-hexylidene diphenyloxy-4, 4’-diphenylenesulfone) solutions at different temperatures














R R Amrutia, N M Mehta, F D Karia &
P H Parsania

Density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity of pure solvents and PES-C [poly (4,4’–cyclohexylidene diphenyloxy-4,4’-diphenylene sulfone)] solutions and various thermodynamic parameters have been investigated at three different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) and correlated with concentration. A fairly good to excellent correlation between a given parameter and concentration has been observed in various solvent systems (chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane) at all the three temperatures. Linear or nonlinear increase or decrease of thermodynamic parameters with concentration and temperature supported existence of strong molecular interactions in solutions. PES-C has structure-forming tendency in solvent systems studied as supported by positive values of solvation number. Structural modification is observed especially in 1,2-dichloroethane system above 2% concentration.

IPC Code: G01N30/52

S & T and Industrial Research

912

Design of pilot plant for the production of essential oil from Eucalyptus leaves




























E M Okonkwo, J O Odigure, J O Ugwu,
K Mu’azu, I S Williams, B E Nwobi,
F K Okorie & V N Oriah

Study presents design, construction and test run of a pilot plant for the production of essential oils (0.864 l/h) from Eucalyptus leaves. Analysis shows that the rate at which steam passes through the leaf bed may deviate from linear relationship to curve depending on the loading capacity. An oil/leave production rate of 3.0x10-2ml/g was obtained. In designing pilot plant, tank still has a dimension of 0.45 m diam and length of 1.65 m. Packed bed height was 0.565 m with an expected pressure head loss of 0.013 m. Overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated as 176.12W/m2 °C. The condenser has a heat load of 4970 kJ/s requiring a cooling water flow rate of 0.047 kg/sec.

IPC Code: C11B1/04

916

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Curcuma haritha Linn
















Sharad Srivastava, Sanjay Srivastava,
Nitin Chitranshi, Mathew Dan, A K S Rawat & Palpu Pushpangadan

Curcuma haritha Linn (Family: Zingiberaceae), a lesser-known medicinal zingiber, is wildly distributed in Kerala. It is common throughout the costal regions and grows along with C. caesia and C. raktakanta, but is rarely found in high altitude grasslands. It is closely related to C. aromatica, but differs in the yellowish-grey, non-aromatic rhizome, leathery, semipilicate, erect leaves, white corolla and yellow tip with a median dark yellow band. It also resembles C. raktakanta but differs from it in having green puesdostem with light pink spots, white corolla lobes and swollen placenta. A paste of rhizome is useful externally for cuts, wounds, itching and in sprains. Pharmacognostic evaluation of its rhizome showed: total ash, 7.4; acid insoluble ash, 1.5; alcohol soluble extractives, 8.50; water soluble extractives, 19.50; sugar, 5.11; starch, 42.88 and tannins, 1.78%. On hydro distillation, rhizomes and sessile tubers yield oil (0.58%).

Energy and Environment

921

Flow characteristics of an annular gas turbine combustor model for reacting flows using CFD




























S N Singh, V Seshadri, R K Singh &
T Mishra

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach can reduce the expenses as well as time to provide an insight into the characteristics of flow and combustion process inside combustion chamber at design stage. Geometry of combustor simulated for present investigation is a 45° sector of an annular combustor. Primary, secondary and dilution holes are simulated on the inner and outer liner walls with swirler being placed at the center of the liner dome. Flow has been analyzed in the annulus region. The results are fed as input for the flow analysis in the liner. Uniform velocity distribution is obtained in the annulus passage around the liner. For the liner flow, it is observed that on moving axially from nozzle to outlet, velocity and temperature contours become more uniform and symmetric in circumferential plane. Mass fraction of CH4 and O2 decreases whereas concentration of CO2, NO and H2O increases in the axial direction (nozzle to outlet).

IPC Code: F15D1/00; G09B23/08

Waste Treatment and Utilization

935

Comparative evaluation of natural adsorbent for pollutants removal from distillery spent wash






Namita Tewari, V K Verma & J P N Rai

Adsorption capacity of three different adsorbents (activated charcoal, fly ash and wood ash) has been tested and compared for the removal of various pollutants and heavy metals from distillery-spent wash. Adsorption was brought about at polyhouse conditions and the changes in pH, colour, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, Ca, Mg, Na, K and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe) of distillery effluent using various adsorbents has been examined. Activated charcoal was found to be best adsorbent followed by fly ash and wood ash.



IPC Code: B01D17/05

Book Review

939

Membrane Technology and Applications
Reviewer: Dr G S Mukherjee

Author-Reader Platform

942

Instructions to contributors

Author Index

 


Amrutia R R

905

Azadeh M A

873

Banwet D K

879

Bisht B S

859

Chitranshi N

916

Dan M

916

Deshmukh S G

879

Dwivedi N

859

Garg S C

859

Jamshidnedjad B

873

Jyoti

879

Karia F D

905

Keramati A

873

Khare K

900

Khare N

900

Maini H K

859

Mehta N M

905

Mishra T

921

Mohammadfam I

873

Mu’azu K

912

Nwobi B E

912

Odigure J O

912

Okonkwo E M

912

Okorie F K

912

Oriah V N

912

Parsania P H

905

Paswan G

859

Pushpangadan P

916

Rai J P N

935

Raj A

859

Rawat A K S

916

Saxena D C

859

Seshadri V

921

Singh R K

921

Singh R P

900

Singh S N

921

Srivastava Sanjay

916

Srivastava Sharad

916

Tewari N

935

Ugwu J O

912

Ünal O

894

Uprety D C

859

Uygunoğlu T

894

Verma V K

935

Williams I S

912

Yıldırım Ş

887



Keyword Index

 


Activated charcoal

935

Adsorption

935

Annular gas turbine combustor

921

Anthropometry

873

Attainable region partition

867

Balanced scorecard

879

Characteristic equation (CE)

867

CO2 enrichment technology

859

Compressive strength

894

Computational fluid dynamics

921

Concrete

894

Curcuma haritha

916

Density

905

Distillery-spent wash

935

Ergonomic

873

Essential oils

912

Eucalyptus leaves

912

Floating point adder

900

Fly ash

894, 935

Four-legged walking robot

887

Free air CO2 enrichment

859

Fuzzy logic

894

IEEE floating point standard

900

Information Flow

873

Latency

900

Liner holes

921

Macroergonomics

873

Model-Sim

900

Molecular interactions

905

Neural network

887

Open top chambers

859

Optimal operating condition

867

PD controller

887

Performance measurement

879

Pharmacognosy

916

Pilot plant

912

Process synthesis

867

R&D organizations

879

Reactor networks

867

Reactor-Separator-Recycle (RSR) system

867

Rhizome

916

Safety

873

Soil plant atmosphere research

859

South Asian Mid FACE

859

Species concentration

921

Standardization

916

Temperature contours

921

Thermodynamic parameters

905

Total human factors

873

Ultrasonic velocity

905

VHDL

900

Viscosity

905

Wood ash

935

Xilinx ISE 5.2i

900