Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 65

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2006

CONTENTS

Review

777

Applications of chalcogenide glasses in electronics and optoelectronics: A review













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N Mehta

Following the development of the glassy chalcogenide field, new optoelectronic materials based on these materials have been discovered. Several non-oxide glasses have been prepared and investigated in the last several decades, thus widening the groups of chalcogen materials used in various optical, electronic and optoelectronic glasses. This paper reviews the development of chalcogenide glasses, their physical properties and applications in electronics and optoelectronics. The glassy, amorphous and disordered chalcogenide materials, important for optoelectronic applications, are discussed. The main electronic and optoelectronic phenomena, specific to these materials are described, and the applications based on these phenomena are evidenced.

IPC Code: C03C1/04

Management & Information Technology

787

MNC’s technology correlation effect and industry agglomeration






 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liang Qi-Hua, Yang Hong-Zhang &

Gao Yi-Rong

Multinational Corporation (MNC)’s FDI and technology transfer are related to technology correlation, and they interact with industry agglomeration. In this study, conceptions of “correlated technology” and “spin-off technology” are defined in a new way. Then based on relationship between technical innovation and industry agglomeration, interactive mechanism of MNC’s technology correlation and industry agglomeration is analyzed, and interactive effect of correlated technology, spin-off technology and industry agglomeration is further studied.

Management & Information Technology

794

Vendor-customer relationship for product design¾An exploratory study of Indian automotive industry





Arvind Bhardwaj, Sushil, S K Sharma &

Vishal S Sharma

Study focuses on the partnership between Indian automotive vendors and vehicle manufacturers for product design activity. A structured questionnaire was developed to collect unit level data. Questionnaire included closed ended questions and the responses were taken on a 5-point scale. Responses (84) were collected from vendor organizations (40). Vendors were clustered into different categories for bringing out their characteristics. The level of involvement of vendors in the product design activity for their customers was investigated. A very low involvement of vendors was observed for this activity and there is a lot of variation with respect to this activity for different Clusters.

798

Experimental adaptive vibration control of smart structures using LVQ neural networks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajiv Kumar, S P Singh & H N Chandrawat

This paper presents experimental adaptive identification and control of a smart structure featuring piezoceramic-based sensors/actuators. An inverted L-structure with surface bonded piezoceramic sensors/actuators is used for analysis. For the system, whose parameters change quickly with time, classical system identification techniques fail. So, for improving the system performance, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) cannot be re-designed in real-time for changed parameters of the flexible structure, even if these parameters are identified in real time. Closed loop identification of system parameters and control gains based on system classification technique is proposed for the systems changing at fast rates.

S & T and Industrial Research

808

Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine








T Karuna, K Neelima, G Venkateshwarlu &

P Yadagiri Swamy

Spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of drugs through charge transfer complex formation with iodine acceptor. This method is based upon molecular interaction between drugs and iodine to form charge transfer complexes in which iodine acts as a sigma acceptor (σ). Iodine was found to form charge transfer complex in 1:1 stoichiometry with all the drugs selected for study. Electronic absorption bands are found shifted towards shorter wavelengths upon complex formation with iodine along with well-known blue shift of visible iodine band. The values of formation constants and thermodynamic parameters show a strong donor-acceptor interaction, which helps to study the possible site of interaction between the donors and the acceptors and also provides a tool for the estimation of drugs at both iodine band at 512 nm and blue shift band, which are sensitive to the drugs up to the concentration of 10-3 M.

S & T and Industrial Research

812

Design and evaluation of bilayer floating tablets of cefuroxime axetil for bimodal release










 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ravindra S Dhumal, Samitkumar T Rajmane, Sanjay T Dhumal & Atmaram P Pawar

Study aims to design a gastroretentive delivery system for bimodal release of cefuroxime axetil (CA). Bilayer tablet, each layer containing half the dose of drug was formulated with one immediate release layer (IRL) and another floating matrix layer (FML). The FML showed good floating properties with buoyancy lag time of 12-35 min and floating time of 8-24 h. Thus, bimodal drug release comprising of immediate release for quick onset of action followed by controlled release minimizing the concentration of unabsorbed drug entering colon was achieved. No change in amorphous nature of drug during processing was observed, which was confirmed by differential scanning colorimeter and X-ray diffractometer. The g -sintigraphy confirmed the gastric residence of tablets in human volunteers.

IPC Code: A61K9/00

 

817

Microwave assisted solvent-free o-alkylation and acylation of thymol and geraniol using fly ash as solid support

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d H more, D G Hundiwale, U R Kapadi &

P P Mahulikar

Study includes solvent-free acylation and alkylation of two monoterpenoid molecules, thymol and geraniol, using fly ash as a solid support.

 

S & T and Industrial Research

821

Standardization of conditions for effective clarification and concentration of green tea extract by membrane filtration













 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

S Ramarethinam, G R Anitha & K Latha

Studies on clarification of tea extracts with membrane filters was carried out, as a mode of concentration, of the soluble components of tea, prior to drying to reduce creaming in tea based products. The reduction of flux rate was high in reverse osmosis membranes microfiltration compared to ultrafiltration, and prefiltration enabled removal of mainly particulate components of the tea. Catechin content was high in the retentate under 1000 Kpa pressures in all types of filtration process as compared to the original content in the fresh green tea leaves. Alkali and enzyme treatments of the precipitate for maximum recovery of catechins that developed on chilling after filtration improved the solubility of the extract. A partial reduction in the pectin content in the retentates with a concomitant increase in carbohydrates, protein, turbidity, catechins was noted with ultrafiltered and microfiltered extracts. Ultrafiltration caused a rejection of 24% pectin, 23.40% catechins in permeate, and 18.11% caffeine in the green tea extract.

826

Making of gypsum plaster in Bhutan¾An experience





M Singh

Paper deals with characterization of gypsum, its calcination to β-hemihydrate plaster, chemistry and constitution, setting and expansion. Configuration of Bhutanese gypsum plant and production of gypsum plaster by the process suggested by CBRI vis-à-vis to process adopted by the plant have been explained. Gypsum at 180°C with 1 h retention time gave plaster of better setting and strength properties acceptable to market complying relevant standards.

IPC Code: E04F13/02

Energy and Environment

830

Aerobic and anaerobic treatment of fruit juice industry effluents










Emine Elmaslar Ozbas, Nese Tufekci,
Gulsum Yilmaz & Suleyman Ovez

This study investigates biological treatment of fruit juice industry effluents in sequencing batch reactor (SBR), activated sludge reactor (ASR) and anaerobic upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB). At anaerobic biological treatability studies, seed sludge was acclimated to the medium and 95% of COD removal was obtained within a few weeks. At the end of anaerobic study, organic loading rate was increased to 5 kgCOD/m3-day and the hydraulic retention time was decreased to 2.3 days. At the aerobic biological treatability studies, 90-95% soluble COD removal was achieved for both wastewaters (sour cherry and apple) in SBR and in ASR. In addition to aerobic biological treatability studies, microbiological investigation, and kinetic and stociometric coefficients were determined. At the end of microbiological examination, fungi overwhelmingly dominated the system.

IPC Code: C02F3/12

Waste Treatment and Utilization

838

Catalytic wet air oxidation of carboxylic acid present in wastewater









 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pradeep Kumar, P V K Raghavendra &

Shri Chand

Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of acrylic acid, a representative of carboxylic acids, was carried out in a pressurized reactor at a partial pressure of air (4 kg/cm2) and temperature (140-180°C) to reduce the COD of wastewater containing acrylic acid. Catalysts tested include both homogeneous (CuSO4 and FeSO4) and heterogeneous [Co: Bi (5:1) and Mn: Ce (1:1)] catalysts. Catalytic activity of Mn: Ce (1:1) at 5g/l was best with 86% COD reduction at 180°C and air partial pressure 4 kg/cm2 in 6 h. Initial pH of the solution has strong effect on COD reduction. Reaction kinetics of wet air oxidation of acrylic acid fitted well a first order kinetics with respect to COD of acrylic acid. Catalysts activity was correlated in terms of the physical characteristics.

Report

843

National seminar on the role of R&D institutions in consumer protection
J K Johri & Vijai Acharya

Book Review

845

Implementing and Managing  eGovernment
Reviewer: Dr V P Kharbanda

Author-Reader Platform

847

Instructions to contributors

 

Author Index

 



Anitha G R

821

Bhardwaj A

794

Chand S

838

Chandrawat H N

798

Dhumal R S

812

Dhumal S T

812

Hong-Zhang Y

787

Hundiwale D G

817

Kapadi U R

817

Karuna T

808

Kumar P

838

Kumar R

798

Latha K

821

Mahulikar P P

817

Mehta N

777

more d H

817

Neelima K

808

Ovez S

830

Ozbas E E

830

Pawar A P

812

Qi-Hua L

787

Raghavendra P V K

838

Rajmane S T

812

Ramarethinam S

821

Rong G Yi-

787

Sharma S K

794

Sharma V S

794

Singh M

826

Singh S P

798

Sushil

794

Swamy P Y

808

Tufekci N

830

Venkateshwarlu G

808

Yilmaz G

830



Keyword Index

 


Acrylic acid

838

Activated sludge

830

Amorphous semiconductors

777

Anaerobic up flow sludge blanket reactor (UASB)

830

Bhutan

826

Bimodal drug delivery

812

Calcination

826

Catalysts

838

Catechins

821

Cefuroxime axetil

812

Chalcogenide glasses

777

Clarification

821

COD reduction

838

Correlated technology

787

Customer company

794

CWAO

838

Donor company

794

Drugs

808

FDI

787, 794

Floating drug delivery system

812

Flyash

817

Fruit juice industry wastewater

830

Gastroretention

812

Geraniol

817

Green tea extracts

821

Gypsum plaster

826

Industry agglomeration

787

Iodine

808

Less developed countries (LDCs)

794

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)

798

Membrane filters

821

Microwave

817

Monoterpenoids

817

Multinational companies (MNCs)

794

Multinational Corporation

787

Neural networks

798

Ovonic materials

777

Piezoceramic-based sensors/actuators

798

Reaction kinetics

838

Sequencing batch reactor (SBR)

830

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

794

Solid state reaction

817

Spectrophotometric determination

808

Spin-off technology

787

Technology acquisition

794

Technology adaptation

794

Technology transfer

787

Thymol

817

Vendors

794