Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research


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VOLUME 65

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2006

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology

695

Determining expedited time and cost of the end product with defective component parts using critical path method (CPM) and time-costing method

















Singa Wang Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu & Chih-Chang Shih

This paper extends an existing work that dealt with the issue of expediting completion time of the end product (ECTEP) and presents a revised algorithm for determining the expedited time and cost of end product in product structure diagram that takes defective component parts into consideration. The algorithm for ECTEP problem proposed in prior work assumes that all component-parts produced or purchased are of perfect quality. However, in real-life situations, production of defective items is inevitable. This study incorporates an adjusted unit procurement cost and adjusted quantity into the ECTEP solution procedure to cope with the existence of defective materials.

702

Effect of lithological variations of mine roof on chock shield 
support using numerical modeling technique

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  A K Verma & D Deb

Interaction between chock shield supports, the most popular powered supports in Indian longwall mines, and surrounding coal measure strata is analyzed using finite element models. Thickness and material properties of the main roof, the immediate roof and the coal seam are varied to simulate various geological conditions of Indian coal measure strata. Contact/gap elements are inserted in between the main roof and overburden layer to allow strata separation. Nonlinear material properties are applied with plastic corrections based on Drucker-Prager yield criterion. This paper illustrates effects of lithological variations on shield load, abutment stress, yield zone and longwall face convergence.

IPC Code: E21C41/28

Management & Information Technology

713

A proposed neural internal model control for robot manipulators




























Şahin Yıldırım

This paper describes the design of a Neural Internal Model Control (NIMC) system for robots, based on Recurrent Hybrid Networks (RHNs). NIMC, an alternative to the basic inverse control scheme, consists of a forward internal neural model of robot, a neural controller and a conventional feedback controller. An Alopex Learning Algorithm (ALA) was used to adjust weights of the proposed neural network. Backpropagation (BP) algorithm is also employed for comparison. Diagonal Recurrent Networks (DRNs) and Feedforward Neural Networks (FNNs) controllers were used for comparison. The robot in this study was adept one SCARA type robot manipulator.

IPC Code: B25J9/00; G05B13/04

S & T and Industrial Research

721

Studies on the stabilities of various types of industrial pressure measuring devices


















Sanjay Yadav, Om Prakash, V K Gupta &
A K Bandyopadhyay

Present paper describes studies carried out on an industrial dead weight tester (pressure range, up to 330 MPa; calibration; 3 times; period, 6 years), one pressure dial gauge (pressure range, up to 70 MPa; calibration, 3 times; period, 3 years), and one digital pressure calibrator (pressure range, up to 200 MPa; calibration, 4 times; period, 6 years). A small change was observed in the short-term stability but the change was prominent in case of long-term stability in all the instruments. Stability of dead weight tester and pressure dial gauge was well within their claimed manufacturer uncertainties while it was found to be beyond claimed uncertainty in case of digital pressure calibrator.

IPC Code: G01L1/00

S & T and Industrial Research

725

Application of simplex centroid design for the preparation of hydrophilic matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium and statistical optimization of release rate






























B Das, A Manna, D Chakraborty & S Deb

Extended release tablets of Diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared by applying Simplex Centroid Design (SCD). Eight batches of hydrophilic matrix tablets of DS were prepared according to SCD with average weight of 300.0 mg/tablet. Amount of Methocel E15LV, dibasic calcium phosphate and lactose were chosen as formulation variables. Cumulative % release at 2 h (T2 Hr) and cumulative % release at 8 h (T8 Hr) were dependent variables. Dissolution study of eight batches gave: T2 Hr, 21.59-100.74; and T8 Hr, 73.61-101.94%. Target T2 Hr was 37.5 -50% of the total dose and target T8 Hr was above 80% of the total dose. Mathematical models were found by the application of Analysis of Variance using Design Expert Software for cumulative % release at T2 Hr and T8 Hr. Optimized formulation, which met the target, was found out by solving two mathematical models. Finally validation of the suggested formulation was performed.

IPC Code: A61K

729

Development of bitumen emulsion based cold mix technology for construction of roads under different climatic conditions of India
















N K S Pundhir & P K Nanda

To develop environment and eco-friendly cold mix technology, field trials were conducted using bitumen emulsion Specifications adopted were 25 mm semi dense bituminous concrete (SDBC) and 20 mm premix carpet (PMC) for laying test sections with bitumen emulsion and control section with paving bitumen 80/100. Laboratory mix design for SDBC with bitumen emulsion was developed using Marshall method. Marshall specimens of cold mix were prepared, cured at 40C for 3 days and tested at 25C for stability and flow value. Post construction performance evaluation has been carried out at 6-month intervals for 5-6 years. SDBC and PMC with bitumen emulsion performed better or comparable with that of conventional paving grade bitumen. Due to low viscosity, bitumen emulsion penetrated into cracks and helped in sealing them during tack coating, which resulted into retardation of reflective cracks on overlays. Performance of SDBC with bitumen emulsion was also found comparable with that of paving grade bitumen.

IPC Code: E01C7/18

S & T and Industrial Research

744

Effect of thermal and redox initiator on emulsion copolymerization of styrene butyl acrylate and comparison of paint properties


A K Khan, B C Roy & S K Dolui

Emulsion copolymerization of styrene with butylacrylate was carried out by thermal and redox initiator. The effect of initiator on molecular weight of the polymer and performance of surface coatings has been described.

IPC Code: C08F2/22

747

Microbial and analytical characterization of Chhu A traditional fermented milk product of the Sikkim Himalayas







Sailendra Dewan & Jyoti Prakash Tamang

Chhu, a traditional fermented milk product prepared from cow milk or yak milk in Sikkim, India, contains: lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 8.1-8.8; yeasts, 6.0-6.9; and total viable counts, 8.9-9.2 Log cfu/g. No mould was detected. LAB were identified as Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lb. farciminis, Lb. salivarius, Lb. bifermentans, Lb. brevis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, all of which showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting a possible probiotic character. Yeasts were identified as Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and Candida castellii. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes

IPC Code: C12P

Energy and Environment

753

Destruction of poly-chlorinated bi-phenyl and utilization of waste heat in integrated steel plant




























Raj Kumar Agrawal, S K Jain &
Piyush Kant Panday

Hazardous waste management has become a matter of international priority. Use of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors has been banned owing to its toxic hazards. Further, at 300-800C, it can produce even more toxic compounds (polychlorinated dibezodioxins and dibenzofurans). Nonexistence of any viable disposal technology has resulted in huge stockpiles of PCB contaminated oil at various Indian industries. This paper reports destruction technology trial to destroy PCB by incineration in rotary kiln. This field trial was successful in destroying PCB and utilizing generated heat energy for dolomite and limestone calcination. This hazardous waste was destructively utilized as fuel supplement during controlled incineration limiting stack emission within stipulated norms.

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

757

Catalytic wet air oxidation of toxic nitrogen containing compounds (pyridine) from wastewater

























Raja Raman Chaudhary, Pradeep Kumar & Shri Chand

Cu-Co/C (heterogeneous) and CuSO4 (homogeneous) were used as catalysts for wet air oxidation to remove nitrogen containing toxic organic compounds from wastewater. For this purpose, a model compound, pyridine, was treated in a high-pressure batch autoclave at mild conditions of temperature and pressure. Copper and cobalt are relatively inexpensive catalytic material and have shown higher conversion efficiencies. Both CuSO4 and Cu-Co/C have optimum activity at an initial pH 4 of the pyridine solution. After 2 h of reaction time, % conversion with CuSO4 (75.1 %) was more in comparison to Cu-Co/C (71.8 %) using 5 mg/l catalyst concentration at 160 oC and 9 bar total pressure.

IPC Code: C02F1/00

760

Some spent black liquor based powder detergents cum stain removers



S A Mandavgane, B B Gogte &
D Subramanian

 

In this study, efforts are made to replace the conventional active matter alpha olefin sulphonate (AOS) from detergent by malinised kraft black liquor (MKBL). Aim is to find the suitability of organic phenolic polymeric structure of lignin (50% lignin in black liquor) as a useful ingredient in detergent formulation with total substitute of AOS. Process has been developed to replace AOS up to 100% by MKBL. Based on surface tension, detergency and foam volume, prepared compositions are on par or sometimes better than commercial detergents even at very low concentration (0.25%).

Book Review

765

Asian Irrigation in Transition
Reviewer: P D Tyagi

Author-Reader Platform

766

Instructions to contributors

 

Author Index

 



Agrawal R K

753

Bandyopadhyay A K

721

Chakraborty D

725

Chaudhary R R

757

Chiu Singa Wang

695

Chiu Yuan-Shyi Peter

695

Das B

725

Deb D

702

Deb S

725

Dewan S

747

Dolui S K

744

Gogte B B

760

Gupta V K

721

Jain S K

753

Khan A K

744

Kumar P

757

Mandavgane S A

760

Manna A

725

Nanda P K

729

Om Prakash

721

Panday P K

753

Pundhir N K S

729

Roy B C

744

Shih Chih-Chang

695

Shri Chand

757

Subramanian D

760

Tamang J P

747

Verma A K

702

Yadav S

721

Yıldırım Şahin

713



Keyword Index

 


Alopex learning algorithm

713

Back propagtion

713

Bitumen emulsion

729

Calcination

753

Calibration

721

Catalytic wet air oxidation

757

Chhu

747

Chock-shield

702

Component procurement decision

695

CPM

695

Curing

729

Diagonal recurrent network

713

Dibenzodioxins

753

Dibenzofurans

753

Diclofenac sodium

725

Drucker-Prager

702

Emulsion polymerization

744

Expediting completion time

695

Extended release tablet

725

Feed forward neural network

713

Fermented milk

747

Finite element method

702

Hydraulic pressure device

721

Incineration

753

 

Internal model control

713

Kraft black liquor

760

Lactic acid bacteria

747

Longwall

702

Marshal cold mix design

729

Pavement distress

729

PCB

753

Polychlorinated biphenyl

753

Powder detergent

760

Pressure measurement

721

PSD

695

Pulp and paper mill

760

Pyridine

757

Pyrolysis

753

Recurrent hybrid network

713

Regression

702

Simplex centroid design

725

Stability

729

Stain remover

760

Statistical optimization

725

Styrene butyl acrylate copolymer

744

Surface coating

744

Time-costing method

695

Wastewater

757