Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2007

CONTENTS

Reviews

99

Recent thiazolidinediones as antidiabetics




























Mohd Imran, Babar Ilyas, Deepanjali &
Suroor Ahmad Khan

Thiazolidinediones, a class of oral insulin sensitizing agents that improve insulin resistance, are agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-g (PPAR-g). Two clinically used drugs pioglitazone (ACTOS) and rosiglitazone (AVANDIA) have made a great contribution to therapy for type 2 diabetes. However, weight gain and hepatotoxicity are side effects of thiazolidinediones. For thiazolidinediones with lesser side effects, researchers are focusing on modification of side chain at C-5 of thiazolidinedione nucleus and its derivatization. Netoglitazone possesses both PPAR-a/g dual agonistic activity. More thiazolidinedione derivatives like DRF-2189, PHT46, PMT13, DRF-2519 can be utilized as potent antidiabetic agents in future.

110

Chemical disaster management: Current status and perspectives










Janak Raj Bhardwaj, Raman Chawla &
Rakesh Kumar Sharma

Analysis of major chemical accidents has exhibited deficiencies like laxity towards safety measures, non-conformance to techno-legal systems and lesser public consultation. A paradigm shift has occurred in government’s focus from rescue, relief, restoration-centric approach to planning, prevention/mitigation and preparedness approach. The designing of safer engineering practices, standard operating procedures, well-rehearsed on/off-site emergency plans, community awareness, resource and risk inventory built up, training, education, capacity built up, are important practices that may eventually help in development of community mindset to bravely face disasters so as to reduce their impact. This review summarizes existing concept of chemical (industrial) disaster management in India, discusses some important key issues, identifies gray areas needing recuperation and presents future trends and challenges.

Management & Information Technology

120

Real time rate of change of pressure measurement and pressure control



























P Sivashanmugam, N Kanagaraj & R Kumar

Real time rate of change of pressure (RCP) measurement in pressure system 2 was performed by fuzzy control algorithm with different set pressure in pressure system 1. RCP decreases as the set point pressure increases. RCP is less in continuous opening of valve than the valve opening in a short period of time. Hence, it is advisable to open the valve of system (for which RCP and pressure regulation has to be done smoothly) in a continuous mode instead of opening in a short period of time. As the set pressure increases, RCP decreases and approaching to zero fluctuations for the set pressure of 2 bar for both the cases of opening of valve in short period of time as well as for continuous opening. Pressure regulation in system 1 was performed with fuzzy controller without peak overshoot and little variation in the controlled out put. Pressure regulation was achieved in a short period of time due to fast processing speed of ARM 7 processor.

124

Managing quality of R & D organization through ISO 9001 certification








Amalesh Sarkar & Tapas Sarkar

With the increase in complexity and globalization, business environment has made R & D very important to an organization for its survival. ISO 9001: 2000 standard has influenced, to a great extent, the management of quality in an organization – big or small by introducing the concept of continual improvement and customer satisfaction in the system irrespective of its activities. This paper discusses some of the benefits of ISO 9001 quality management system (QMS) to manage the functions of any organization, including R & D, and implementing the same in an organization with particular reference to ‘Continual Improvement’ and ‘Customer Satisfaction’, which have been highlighted in the said standard.

S & T and Industrial Research

128

Static analysis and fatigue life prediction of steel and composite leaf spring for light passenger vehicles







M Senthil kumar & S Vijayarangan

This paper describes static and fatigue analysis of steel leaf spring and composite multi leaf spring made of glass fibre reinforced polymer. Finite element analysis with full bump load on 3-D model of composite multi leaf spring was done using ANSYS 7.1 and analytical results were compared with experimental results. Composite leaf spring had 67.35% lesser stress, 64.95% higher stiffness and 126.98% higher natural frequency than that of existing steel leaf spring. A weight reduction of 68.15 % was also achieved by using composite leaf spring. Fatigue life of composite leaf spring (10, 00,000 cycles) was more than that of conventional steel leaf spring (2, 00,000 cycles).

IPC Code: F03G1/02

S & T and Industrial Research

135

Design and construction of an electrical furnace to fire ceramic product





























Ramazan Bayindir

An electrical furnace firing the ceramic products has been designed and its automatic control has been implemented. Furnace (100x50x50 cm) may be used to fire even small ceramic products such as trinkets. PLC has been used for the automation of the system. The heat from the furnace has been measured by means of thermocouples and has been transferred to the PLC by analog module and the heat of furnace has been controlled according to the obtained heat values. Besides, required heat degree and the heat in the furnace have been traced on the screen of the control panel. The sample products fired in the furnace proved that the system operated successfully without problem.

141

A validated stability indicating HPTLC method for determination of nitazoxanide





















C L Gopu, Shibu Thomas, A R Paradkar &
K R Mahadik*

A simple, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for nitazoxanide in bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. Nitazoxanide was subjected to hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal decomposition to establish a validated stability-indicating HPTLC method. Extensive degradation occurred in alkaline medium and in oxidative stress condition and degradation product was well separated from pure drug. Densitometric analysis of nitazoxanide was carried out in absorbance mode at 350 nm. Linear regression analysis data for mean calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.9997 in 400-1600 ng per spot. HPTLC method could effectively separate drug from its degradation product and can be employed as a stability-indicating method.

Energy and Environment

146

Effect of storage tank geometry on performance of solar water heater




























H R Zahedi, N M Adam, S M Sapuan &
M M H M Ahmad

A computer simulation program has been developed to predict the performance of solar thermosyphon domestic water heater. The model has standard configuration of solar collector (2m2) and 150 litres vertical storage tank. Malaysian hot water consumption profile has been used. Increasing the storage tank height above 1.0 m has no significant effect on solar fraction, but the solar fraction is adversely affected, particularly at high set points, if considerably shorter tanks are used

152

Thermodynamic analyses of strawberry drying process in a cyclone type dryer







E Kavak Akpinar

In this paper, thermodynamic analyses of the thin layer drying process of strawberry are investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet drying air temperatures of 60, 75 and 85°C and at drying air velocities of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m s-1 in a cyclone type dryer. Using the First Law of Thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine type and magnitude of exergy losses during the drying process by applying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Strawberry samples were sufficiently dried between 60-85°C at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m s-1 of drying air velocity during 12000-33600 sec despite the exergy losses of 0-0.715 kJ s-1.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

162

Behaviour of chemically modified bagasse in sorption of rare earth elements




M A Eid, A A Mahdy, K A Eid, H A Hashem & A M A Nada

Cation exchangers have been prepared by incorporating phosphate, sulphate as well as by the simultaneous incorporation of both phosphate and sulphate groups on the structure of sugar cane bagasse. Phosphosulfonated bagasse had highest uptake efficiency and can be used in column for the preconcentration of this important group of elements. Measurements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.
Waste Treatment and Utilization

170

Physicochemical parameters, isotherms, sorption kinetics and column operations for adsorption of copper (II) from wastewater using fly ash








Kaushik Nath, J P Gor, P N Shah & K Modi

The potential of activated fly ash has been investigated for the adsorption of copper (II) dissolved in wastewater. Physico-chemical parameters such as adsorbate concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, presence of interfering ions etc were optimized by employing batch adsorption technique. Adsorption was endothermic and followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, however, the latter fitted well. Isotherms were used to estimate thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process. Kinetic data were fitted to the models of intraparticle diffusion, pseudo second order and Lagergren model which followed more closely to the pseudo second order chemisorption model. The regeneration and reusability of the adsorbents were also assessed. Maximum removal of copper (II) was obtained at pH 4 and temperature 50°C (about 98 % for adsorbent dose of 20 g/l and 50 mg/l initial feed concentration).

Author-Reader Platform

178

Instructions to contributors

 

Author Index

 



Adam N M


146

Ahmad M M H M

146

Akpinar E K

152

Bayindir R

135

Bhardwaj J R

110

Chawla R

110

Deepanjali

99

Eid K A

162

Eid M A

162

Gopu C L

141

Gor J P

170

Hashem H A

162

Ilyas B

99

Imran M

99

Kanagaraj N

120

Khan S A

99

Kumar R

120

Mahadik K R

141

Mahdy A A

162

Modi K

170

 

 

Nada A M A

162

Nath K

170

Paradkar A R

141

Sapuan S M

146

Sarkar A

124

Sarkar T

124

Senthil Kumar M

128

Shah P N

170

Sharma R K

110

Sivashanmugam P

120

Thomas S

141

Vijayarangan S

128

Zahedi H R 

146



Keyword Index

 


Adsorbent

170

Adsorption

170

ARM 7 processor

120

Automation

135

Bagasse

162

Cation exchangers

162

Ceramic

135

Chemical disaster management

110

Composite multi leaf spring

128

Continual improvement

124

Copper (II)

170

Customer satisfaction

120

Drying

152

E-Glass/Epoxy

128

Electrical furnace

135

Emergency plan

110

Fatigue life

128

Fly ash

170

Fuzzy control

120

HPTLC

141

ICH

141

ICP-AES

162

Industrial automation

135

Insulin sensitizing agents

99

Key process indicator

120

Kuala Lumpur TMY data

146

Mitigation

110

Netoglitazone

99

Nitazoxanide

141

PLC

135

Preparedness

110

Pressure control

120

Quality management system

120

Rare earth elements

162

Rate of change of pressure measurement

120

Ride comfort

128

Risk management

110

Stability-indicating method

141

Static analysis

128

Strawberry

152

Stress studies

141

Suspension system

128

Thermal performance

146

Thermodynamic analyses

152

Thermosyphon solar water heater

146

Thiazolidinediones

99

TRNSYS

146

Type 2 diabetes

99