Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2007

CONTENTS

Preface

ADVANCES IN INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY--INDIAN SCENARIO

601

Pectin lyases of a few indigenous fungal strains






S Yadav, P K Yadav & K D S Yadav

Four pectin lyases (PNLs), producing indigenous fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. phoenicis and A. wentii), have been isolated. Enzymatic characteristics of PNLs produced by fungal strains using citrus pectin have been found to be (respectively): Km, 0.38, 0.67, 0.55 and 0.32 mg/ml; pH, 8.0, 7.0, 5.0 and 7.0; and temperature, 50 C for all PNLs. Effect of metal ions (Ag+, Ca++, Co++, Cu++, Hg++, K+, Mg++, Zn++, Na+) and protein inhibitors (EDTA, sodium arsenate, sodium azide, potassium permanganate and potassium ferrocyanide) on the activities of PNLs has been determined.

605

Production of an antioxidant naphthoquinone pigment by Comamonas testosteroni during growth on naphthalene




K C Patel, M A Patel, Kishor Chauhan,
Hema Anto & Ujjval Trivedi

A cell bound red pigment was synthesized by an indigenous petroleum contaminated soil isolate, Comamonas testosteroni, during growth on naphthalene as a sole source of carbon and energy. Ferric ion supplementation in the medium inhibited pigment production. UV-visible spectrum of pigment in ethanol showed absorption maxima at 251, 289, 318, 328, 333 and 362 nm and a broad peak at 479 nm. Chemical analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy studies revealed it as a novel isoprenoid quinone, a 2-methyl naphthoquinone with phytyl side chain. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay proved its in vitro antioxidant activity.

611

Ligninolytic enzyme production under solid-state fermentation by white rot fungi






Akshaya Gupte, Shilpa Gupte & Hardik Patel

Ligninolytic enzymes production was studied using various white rot fungi, Phanerocheate chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tramates versicolor, Irpex lacteus under solid-state fermentation. All fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes were associated with lignin degradation. Among various substrates (wheat straw, corncobs, coconut coir, wheat bran, and rice bran), wheat straw was best for laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production. Maximum enzyme activity of laccase by P. ostreatus was obtained on 8th day of fermentation. Manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase showed highest activity on 10th day of fermentation.

615

Influence of nitrogen sources and heavy metal ions on the production of rifamycin oxidase by Chryseobacterium sp.




A H Jobanputra & S B Chincholkar

Effect of N sources and heavy metal ions on cell growth, pH and rifamycin oxidase (RO) productivity by Chryseobacterium sp. was observed. Supplementation of malt extract showed pH close to neutral for 24 h followed by slight increase, whereas RO productivity significantly enhanced (36 IU ml -1) as compared to control (29 IU ml -1) within 12 h. RO production was considerably stimulated in presence of Ca++, K+ and Na+. Chryseobacterium sp. showed increase in enzyme activity by 38.77 % in presence of Ca2+ and K+ and 48.77 % in presence of Na+.

ADVANCES IN INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY--INDIAN SCENARIO

618

Influence of pH on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger under submerged fermentation in carob pod extract


K Lingappa, T Pramod & Syed Imtiaz Ali

Attempts have been made to optimize initial pH level for the production of citric acid using carob pod extract as substrate through submerged fermentation. Two strains of Aspergillus niger, MTCC 281 and KLP20, have been employed as the fermenting organisms. A. niger KLP20 produced maximum citric acid at pH 5.5.

621

Alpha amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae employing solid-state fermentation











Swetha Sivaramakrishnan,
Dhanya Gangadharan,
Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri,
Carlos Ricardo Soccol &
Ashok Pandey

This study presents production of a-amylase by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation using 14 agro-industrial wastes. Enzyme production was growth associated and maximum titers (15095 U/gds) were obtained after
72 h when incubated at 30C on wheat bran (initial moisture content, 60%; initial medium pH, 5). Enzyme titers increased significantly when solid medium was supplemented with additional N (sodium nitrate) and C (starch).

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627

Detection, isolation and identification of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid produced by biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Makarand R Rane, Prashant D Sarode, Bhushan L Chaudhari &
Sudhir B Chincholkar

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ID 4365 produced two phenazine antibiotics including phenazine-1-carboxylate (PCA), characterized by TLC, HPLC, spectrometry and melting point analysis. Purified antibiotic showed inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1008, Sclerotium rolfsii NCIM 1084, Colletotricum falcatum and several other phytopathogens. MIC of PCA for S. rolfsii NCIM 1084 was 29 mg/l.

632

Mineralogical composition of urinary calculi from southern India












E K Girija, S Narayana Kalkura,
P B Sivaraman
& Y Yokogawa

Indian urinary stone composition is usually different from that of the western countries. Urinary calculi in northern India were composed of pure calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and pure calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and in Bihar were of mixed type. Majority of the stones were pure or calcium phosphate mixed calcium oxalate stones. Uric acid calculi and infection stone were less. SEM observation had shown regularly arranged platy COD crystals, orderly arranged spherulitic hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in nucleus and COD bipyramidal crystals radiating from a central point. A comprehensive clinical data of the patients is also provided.

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ADVANCES IN INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY--INDIAN SCENARIO

640

In vitro damage to rat intestine by enteropathogenic E.coli as revealed by
release of
b-glucosidases






P Suresh Kumar & K Sankaran

In present in vitro study, effect of Enteropathogenic E. Coli (EPEC) infection on damage caused to functional integrity of brush border was studied by monitoring β-glucosidase activity, which is essential for dietary carbohydrate digestion. There was a release of glucoamylase, sucrase and maltase from brush border ileal region. Both virulent and attenuated strains of EPEC were able to do so indicating that ability of EPEC might lie in an unknown chromosomal locus. In a short incubation time, a net synthesis of β-glucosidase during infection to replenish loss was observed. This might represent host response in early phase of EPEC infection.

647

Bio-active conjugates of curcumin having ester, peptide, thiol and disulfide links








Neha Kapoor, Upma Narain &Krishna Misra

Mixed bioconjugates of curcumin [4,4-di-O-(glycinoyl-cystinoyl) curcumin, 4,4-di- O-(glycinoyl-cysteinoyl) curcumin, 4,4-di-O-L-(alaninoyl) curcumin, 4,4-di-(O- glycinoyl)--glycinoyl) curcumin and 4,4-di-O{(3,4,5-O-acetyl) galloyl} curcumin] have been prepared and characterized. These bioconjugates contain biodegradable (ester and peptide) bonds and tested for antifungal and anti bacterial activities. Remarkable enhancement in therapeutic activity may be due to better cellular uptake, increased cellular concentration, better receptor binding at the target sites due to extended conjugation. These conjugates may act as potent prodrugs since these can get enzymatically hydrolysed at the target sites.

651

Immobilized trypsin - mediated production of the protein hydrolysates from non-edible protein sources




A Lavanya, C Selvamurugan & B Sivasankar

Protein hydrolysate (PH) was prepared from the defatted cottonseed cake by using immobilized or native trypsin on polyamide (nylon 6,6) matrix using glutaraldehyde coupling under controlled conditions of pH and temperature. Immobilization of trypsin on nylon beads retained 30% of free enzyme activity and was stable against leaching for more than 30 days. Foaming and emulsification properties of protein isolate extracted from defatted cottonseed cake and PH were evaluated by electrical conductivity and turbidimetric methods.

655

A comparative study on immobilization of urease on different matrices











C Selvamurugan, A Lavanya & B Sivasankar

Activity and stability of immobilized urease on different matrices (nylon-6, 6 beads, sepharose gel, silica gel and gelatin film coated on cellulose acetate membrane) have been investigated using different covalent coupling methods. Periodate oxidized sepharose CL 6B gel was able to retain 74% of enzyme on immobilization while ascorbic acid coupling to gelatin film retained 66%. Immobilized urease on nylon beads and gelatin film stored in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8) at 4C showed practically no leaching of the enzyme retaining activity over a period of 30 days, while urease coupled to sepharose and silica gel stored under the same conditions was stable over a period of 10 days. Immobilized urease retained activity over a wide pH range and was more stable than the free enzyme at lower and higher pH values. Immobilized urease was also more stable than the free enzyme over a wide temperature range. Nylon bead immobilized jack bean urease had a higher Km (0.62 mM) than that of the soluble enzyme (0.55 mM).

660

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of TEM gene from soil isolates






Sudheer Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar Patel,
Syed Ubaid Ahmed,
Kesvan Madhavan Nampoothiri &
Ashok Pandey

This study presents isolation and identification of naturally occurring β-lactamase (BL) producing microorganisms from soil samples of the Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Genomic DNA was amplified using a degenerate primer pair designed based on TEM gene sequence alignment. Full-length BL encoding gene was amplified using blaTEM specific primer. PCR product was identified by sequencing and blast analysis as a blaTEM encoding ORF. The deduced protein sequence showed 99% homology with TEM 116 gene reported from Uruguay, South Korea and Taiwan. Phylogenic study of TEM family using DNA and protein sequences showed clustering of sequences along with TEM 116 forming a separate cluster. Alignment of soil isolates along with TEM 116 showed that under natural conditions also mutations occurred and TEM gene was present in soil isolates.

ADVANCES IN INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY--INDIAN SCENARIO

667

Rapid and modified field test for detection of faecal contamination in drinking water





















D H Tambekar & N B Hirulkar

A comprehensive bacteriological analysis of 510 drinking water samples was carried out using Manjas H2S field test, MPN test, Eijkman test, MFT and modified H2S field test by replacing teepol with bile salt in medium composition. Detection efficiency of faecal coliform contamination for modified H2S test (91%) was comparable to MPN test and had 30% more detection level over that of Manjas H2S test (82%). Modified H2S test, compared to other tests, was more suitable, reliable, inexpensive, easy to perform and useful to detect fecal contamination in drinking water within 24 h, for places where time, man and laboratory facilities are very poor.

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670

Landfill bioreactor: A biotechnological solution for waste management






M Swati, O P Karthikeyan, Kurian Joseph & R Nagendran

This paper presents a pilot-scale investigation on landfill reactors (diam 1.3 m, height 3 m) loaded with municipal solid waste (MSW). Reactors were operated with and without leachate recirculation to simulate bioreactor fill and conventional open fill, respectively. Strong leachates with high COD (98 g/l), BOD (33 g/l), DOC (35 g/l) and TVA (34 g/l) were encountered during the first week of operation. Reduction in organic contents, BOD, COD (88%) and DOC (88%), and solids were evident in leachates from bioreactor as against leachates from conventional open fill. Thus, landfill bioreactor technology is a viable approach to treat organically rich MSW generated in Indian cities.

675

Effect of pH on chromium biosorption by chemically treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae







K Parvathi, R Nagendran & R Nareshkumar

The effect of initial pH on biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of total chromium present in tannery effluent was investigated. Maximum biosorption efficiency was evident at neutral pH with a metal removal efficiency of 99 %. S. cerevisiae was then pretreated with NaOH and HCHO-HCOOH to study the role of proteins and amino acids, respectively, in biosorption. At pH 7, 9 and 11, biomass pretreated with NaOH exhibited significant biosorption as compared to raw biomass and that treated with HCHO-HCOOH. However, trend reversed at pH 2. At pH 4, untreated biomass exhibited maximum chromium sorption, when compared to that treated with NaOH and HCHO-HCOOH.

680

Microbial solubilization of heavy metals
from soil using indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacterium: Effects of sulfur/soil ratio







R Nareshkumar, R Nagendran & K Parvathi

Present study assesses efficiency of bioleaching to decontaminate heavy metal laden soil affected by tannery effluent employing sulfur oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Concentrations of predominant heavy metals were Cd, 9; Cu, 95; Cr, 11800; Pb, 85; and Zn, 238 mg/kg. Irrespective of sulfur/soil ratio (0.14, 0.21, 0.29, 0.43 and 0.57), pH dropped from near neutral to below 1 over a period of 28 days; drop in pH was rapid when the ratio was 0.57 and it took only 6 days for pH to drop from 7.12 to 0.94. Production of sulphate (22-45 g/l) increased with rise in sulfur/soil ratio. Solubilization of heavy metals was: Cd, 44-57; Cu, 60-92; Cr, 72-81; Pb, 39-56; and Zn, 55-94%.

ADVANCES IN INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY--INDIAN SCENARIO

 

Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes and black liquor by laccase of Cyathus bulleri






Salony, S Mishra &V S Bisaria

A number of direct, vat, basic and other (Ranomill yellow and Texacid fast red A) dyes have been decolorized using concentrated culture filtrate and purified laccase of white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri. Decolorization (>50%) was achieved using culture filtrate in 2-9 days, which was significantly reduced with purified laccase of high specific activity (4022 U/mg protein). Addition of ABTS {2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate)} resulted in further reduction of time to a few hours with decolorization rates from 260 mg l-1 day-1 to 665 mg l-1 day-1. Decolorization was accompanied by detoxification, as shown in growth inhibition experiments with Bacillus subtilis. Addition of fungal mycelium to suitably diluted black liquor resulted in significant (60-80%) reduction in color in 3-4 days indicating suitability of this fungus for treatment of paper mill wastes.

Author-Reader Platform

689

Announcement

691

Instructions to contributors





































 

 

Author Index

Keyword Index

A/E lesion

640

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans


680

Agro-industrial substrate

621

Alpha amylase

621

Antioxidant

605

Ascorbic acid coupling

655

Aspergillus

601

Aspergillus niger

618

Aspergillus oryzae var brunneus


621

Bacterial pathogen

640

Bioconjugates

647

Biocontrol

627

Bioleaching

680

Biosorption

675

Biotransformation

615

Black liquor

684

Calcium oxalate

632

Carob pod extract

618

Chemical pretreatment

675

Chromium

675

Chryseobacterium

615

Citric acid

618

Coliforms

667

Color removal

684

Curcumin

647

Cyathus bulleri

684

Diarrhoea

640

Drinking water contamination


667

Emulsification

651

Enteropathogenic E. coli

640

Enzyme immobilization

655

Foaming

651

FRAP assay

605

Fungal strains

601

Genomic DNA

660

Glucosidases

640

Heavy metals

680

Hydroxyapatite

632

Immobilization of trypsin

651

In vitro virulence assay

640

Laccase

611

Landfill bioreactor

670

Lignin peroxidase

611

Lignocellulosic substrates

611

Manganese peroxidase

611

MPN test

667

Municipal solid waste

670

Naphthalene

605

Naphthoquinone

605

PCR assay

660

Pectin lyase

601

Pectinase

601

pH

675

Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid


627

Phylogenetic analysis

660

Protein hydrolysate

651

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

627

Rapid H2S test

667

Red pigment

605

Rifamycin oxidase

615

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

675

Soil

660, 680

Solid-state fermentation

611, 621

Solubilization

680

Sulfur

680

Textile dyes

684

Urease activity

655

Urease immobilized on gelatin film


655

Urinary calculi

632

Urolithiasis

632

Waste management

670

White rot fungi

611

β-Lactamases

660