Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2007

CONTENTS

Review

11

Soybean isoflavones: Remedial nutraceuticals in Indian perspective




J R Udgata & S N Naik

Soybeans flour is a rich source of isoflavones, which are a subclass of ubiquitous flavonoids. Isoflavones, which have potent antioxidant properties comparable to that of vitamin E, can reduce the long-term risk of cancer by preventing free radical damage to DNA. Genistein followed by daidzein is the most predominant antioxidant among soybean isoflavones. This review describes extraction, purification and health care properties of soy isoflavones.

Management & Information Technology

19

Lean manufacturing in continuous process industry: An empirical study










 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S S Mahapatra & S R Mohanty

Lean manufacturing is a production strategy for organizational effectiveness focusing on waste reduction and improving productivity through application of various tools. This paper attempts to find out the reasons for sparse adoption of the concept in Indian manufacturing organisations through a cross-sectional survey study. The study highlights knowledge and understanding levels of Indian managers about the concept of lean manufacturing, its adaptability, the driving factors that lead to its adoption, benefits derived thereon and application of lean tools looking into operating environments (whether a continuous or discrete). The study finally concludes with a broad implementation framework for application of lean manufacturing in continuous process industries by emphasizing its key areas of application.

S & T and Industrial Research

28

A highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace copper using azure B as a chromogenic reagent









Mendalin Mathew & B Narayana

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of copper in tap water, polluted water, human hair and alloys. The proposed method is based on the reaction of copper with potassium iodide in acidic medium to liberate iodine, which bleaches violet color of azure B and the absorbance is measured at 644nm. This decrease in absorbance is directly proportional to copper concentration. Beer’s Law was obeyed in the range 2.0-12.0mg/ml of copper. Molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of the method were found to be 1.760 x 10 5 l /mol/cm and 3.61 x 10-4 mg/cm2 respectively. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of copper in tap water, polluted water, human hair and alloys.

32

Interferometric studies of lateral and axial displacements of an object using digital processing of speckle photography




















M M El-Necklawy, M El-Bahrawy,
A F Hassan, Niveen Farid & M Arif Sanjid

Measurement of lateral and axial displacements of an object using digital processing of speckle photography provides an economic and convenient method for the mechanical manufacturing industry. Laser speckle photography is used with CCD camera to record the resultant speckle pattern through computer control. Image processing software combines the initial and final speckle images and applies the Fast Fourier Transform function (FFT) to construct interference pattern digitally. This paper explains theoretical basis and FFT algorithm. Direction and magnitude of the local displacement is determined from the orientation and spacing of the fringes. Lateral and axial displacements are measured and its uncertainty of measurement is estimated.

IPC Code: H04B15/00

 

37

Influences of feed and condenser temperature on molecular distillation of ideal binary mixtures













P Shao, S T Jiang & Y K Ye

Balanced equations of a binary mixture for molecular distillation (MD) were derived on the basis of relation of heat and mass transfer in liquid films on both the evaporating and condensing surface. The length of evaporating cylinder along with surface temperature of evaporating film reached steady state decreasing with increasing of feed temperature. Evaporation rate decreased with increasing of condenser temperature because of re-evaporation. Influences of splashing on distillate and re-evaporation were minimized and gradient concentration of distillate and increased degree of evaporation were obtained by the divided evaporator and condenser. Evaporating film temperature was increased with the gradient increase of divided evaporator temperature. Mode of divided molecular still could be used for the separation of mixtures with largely different saturated pressure at one stage operation. Model values agreed well with the experimental values of Cvengros. Maximum relative differences did not exceed 5.1%.

S & T and Industrial Research

47

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by ethanolamides in hydrochloric acid







R S Chaudhary, D K Tyagi, Mamta Rani & Atul Kumar

Two surfactants [cocomonoethnolamide (CMEA) and cocodiethnolamide (CDEA)] were used for inhibiting corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCL by Weight loss studies, Electrochemical polarization studies and Surface morphology by metallurgical research microscope. Weight loss studies, conducted at different temperatures (25°, 35° & 45°c) using various concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the inhibitor, revealed that the inhibitor efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration up to certain extent. Electrochemical polarization experiments revealed that all the compounds are anodic type inhibitors. Both the compounds have been found relatively good inhibitors. Inhibitor efficiency was found to vary with concentration and temperature.

52

Optimization of enzymatic pretreatments for maximizing olive oil recovery












Rakesh Sharma & P C Sharma

Enzymatic pretreatments to enhance oil recovery in olive oil extraction process were investigated. The laboratory scale mechanical method consisting of crushing of olive fruits in fruit mill, malaxation in oil press for 60 min followed by pressing in hydraulic press at 15 ton/m2 for 30 min and finally centrifugation of oil-water mixture (5000 rpm for 20 min) to separate oil was optimized. Combination of pectinase + cellulase (1:1) @ 0.05% resulted in maximum oil recovery and minimum loss of oil in cake compared to individual enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and pectinaseCCM) even at higher concentrations. The oils obtained with enzymatic treatments had relatively higher natural antioxidants (total phenols), slightly higher oil clarity, and lower free fatty acids and peroxides.

IPC Code: C12N1/38

56

Effect of gradation and compactive effort on the properties of dense bituminous macadam mixes
























R Sridhar, C Kamaraj, Sunil Bose,
P K Nanda &
Manvinder Singh

Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) is a binder course used for roads with more number of heavy commercial vehicles. In DBM mix, there is a wide scope for varying the gradation to obtain a good mix without affecting the durability of pavement. Achieving adequate compaction in the bituminous concrete is crucial to the performance of flexible pavements. Normally, Marshall Mix Design method (ASTM-D-5581) is adopted for mix design. In the recent past, Marshall method has been observed not to simulate the field conditions. Present study attempts to simulate the filed compaction in the laboratory by using Hugo hammer for laboratory compaction of DBM mix.

 

Energy and Environment

60

Less NOx biodiesel: CI engine studies fuelled with rice bran oil biodiesel and its five blends







Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj Velappan

Process conditions were optimized for high conversion and quality consistency of biodiesel from rice bran oil by transesterification. Fuel properties and composition of the rice bran oil methyl ester has been analyzed. Performance of CI engine was compared for the specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, smoke, break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency with the normal petroleum diesel. Rice bran oil methyl ester has been observed an alternate fuel for diesel engines without any engine modifications and with less NOx.

IPC Code: C10L1/16

72

Froth flotation pretreatment for enhancing desulfurization of coal with sodium hydroxide







Abdurrahman Saydut, Yalcin Tonbul,
Akin Baysal, M Zahir Duz &
Candan Hamamci

Froth flotation (FF) pretreatment of coal from Hazro, Turkey, for enhancing desulfurization with sodium hydroxide was investigated. FF reduced following contents of coal: ash, 58.54; pyritic sulfur, 79.34; and volatile matter, 56.98%. The coal flotation was 69.59%. FF could not remove organic sulfur. Coal concentration obtained from flotation was leached using aqueous NaOH and its organic sulfur content was reduced by 59.27%. Hence using combination of two methods, total sulfur, ash and volatile matter contents was reduced by 88.06%, 63.13% and 77.32%, respectively.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

75

Batch washing of heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost using Na2EDTA and a mixture of Na2S2O5 and Na2EDTA
























Emine Elmaslar Ozbas, Cuma Bayat & Nilgun Balkaya

Main factor leading to restricted soil conditioner use of compost is its heavy metal content. This paper deals with the removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost using Na2EDTA and a mixture of Na2S2O5 and Na2EDTA in the batch mode. At the end of extraction studies, for 3 h at 1:25 solid:liquid ratio by using 0.05 M Na2EDTA, 100% removal yields were obtained for all metals studied. Further, heavy metal removal (≥100%) were obtained with 0.01 M Na2EDTA and 0.1 M Na2S2O5, at 1:6 solid:liquid ratio, for all heavy metals of this study.

IPC Code: B03B4/00

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

79

Treatment of chromium bearing wastewater using thermal parametric pumping









P K Mishra, D M Nanagre & V L Yadav

Parametric pumping (PP) is an adsorptive separation technique based on periodic, synchronous coupled transport action. Net consequence of the coupling of alternating absorbent fluid position displacements with cycling of a thermodynamic intensive parametric variable (temperature) is a buildup of separation from cycle to cycle. Direct mode of thermal PP was used to separate Cr (VI) from wastewater using low cost adsorbent sawdust carbon. Removal of Cr (VI) decreases as initial concentration increases. For same number of cycles, separation factor increases as upper half cycle temperature increases for same initial concentration of feed. There is an increase in adsorption with increasing pH. A marked increase in separation can be achieved using thermal PP in place of adsorption.

Book Review

85

ICT strategies for schools¾A guide for school administrators
Reviewer: Jayanshu B Gandhi

87

Statistical methods for practice and research – A guide to data analysis using SPSS
Reviewer: Jayanshu B Gandhi

Author-Reader Platform

88

Instructions to contributors

 

Author Index

 


Balkaya N

75

Bayat C

75

Baysal A

72

Bose S

56

Chaudhary R S

47

Duz M Z

72

El-Bahrawy M

32

El-Necklawy M M

32

Farid N

32

Hamamci C

72

Hassan A F

32

Jiang S T

37

Kamaraj C

56

Kumar A

47

Mahapatra S S

19

Mathew M

28

Mishra P K

79

Mohanty S R

19

Naik S N

11

Nanagre D M

79

Nanda P K

56

Narayana B

28

Ozbas E E

75

Rani M

47

Sanjid M

32

Saydut A

72

Shao P

37

Sharma P C

52

Sharma R

52

Singh M

56

Sridhar R

56

Tonbul Y

72

Tyagi D K

47

Udgata J R

11

Velappan K C

60

Yadav V L

79

Ye Y K

37



Keyword Index

 


Antioxidant

11

Azure B

28

Binary mixture

37

Biodiesel

60

Coal

72

Cocodiethnolamide (CDEA)

47

Cocomonoethnolamide (CMEA)

47

Condenser temperature

37

Copper determination

28

Corrosion inhibition

47

Demineralization

72

Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM)

56

Desulfurization

72

Direct mode

79

Enzymatic treatments

52

Extraction

75

Feed temperature

37

Fourier transforms

32

Froth flotation

72

GCMS

60

Heavy metal

75

HPLC

11

Hugo hammer

56

Isoflavones

11

Leaching

72

Lean manufacturing

19

Marshall mix design

56

Mild steel

47

Molecular distillation

37

Municipal solid waste compost

75

NMR

60

NOx

60

Oil extraction

52

Olea europaea L

52

Olive

52

Rice bran oil

60

Sawdust carbon

79

SEM

60

Sodium hydroxide

72

Soybeans

11

Spackle patterns

32

Spectrophotometry

28

Sulfur

72

Takt time

19

Thermal parametric pumping

79

Uncertainty of measurement 

32

Value stream mapping

19

Visual factory

19

Wastewater

79