Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 7

JULY 2007

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology

513

EXGID – A prototype exploration geological information system for Jharia Coalfield, India


















Kalyan Saikia & B C Sarkar

A prototype exploration geological information system (EXGID) has been developed to provide a quick and user-friendly means for rapid access, search and retrieval of various geological and exploration information in respect of various mine blocks and coal seams of Jharia coalfield. EXGID consists of three sub-systems (Geological, Mine Exploration Block and Coal Seam), each of which is further segmented into several information categories to provide detail information in respect of the coalfield. The system provides a facility for rapid search and retrieval of user’s required geological and exploration information ensuring minimum redundancy.

 

 

 

 

 


-517

 

Modeling of desilication of agro based black liquor using artificial neural networks


Black liquor, obtained from agricultural residues and used as raw material for paper production, contains additional silica, which causes serious processing problems. In present work, multi layer perceptron (MLP) ANN with GDR based learning have been developed for estimation of silica concentration, lignin concentration, degree of desilication and delignification as a function of pH and time. ANNs model thus developed with one hidden layer was found to be of good accuracy level, both for training and test data set.

IPC Code: G06N3/02; D21F



 

 

 

 

 

 

Sachin A Mandavgane, S L Pandharipande & D Subramanian

 

S & T and Industrial Research

522

Development of CFD model for optimum mixing in jet mixed tanks








T Raja, P Kalaichelvi & N Anantharaman

A jet-mixed vessel can create a flow pattern similar to that in an agitated vessel with paddle impeller. Tangential flow and circulation flow can be provided by using a jet nozzle fixed at the center of a cylindrical vessel, where circulation flow can be controlled by varying angle of jet nozzle and jet flow rate. Numerical studies were performed using k-e turbulence models using computational fluid dynamic software FLUENT 6.1 to examine the effects of shape of tank on flow pattern and mixing characteristics in a jet mixer. Results show that better mixing is obtained for cylindrical bottom than the flat bottom for the same total mass flow rate.

IPC Code: G06D1/00

528

Numerical analysis of heat transfer characteristics for deposit formation shapes around single cylinder










Ahmet Fertelli & Ertan Buyruk

Fouling effect on heat transfer around a cylinder in cross-flow was investigated numerically by ANSYS software programme using finite element method. Calculations were made with variable local heat transfer coefficients, constant free-stream temperature and constant clean tube surface temperature. Heat transfer rates were presented for different cases with temperature field. Deposit thickness formed around the cylinder was fixed as follows: i) Non-uniform thickness of fouling shape was calculated with homogenous condition; ii) Non-uniform and non-homogenous fouling shape was considered; and iii) Effect of eccentricity was calculated for non-uniform and non-homogeneous cases. Numerical predictions were made as temperature contours through thickness of fouling and Qfoul / Qclean was plotted against the position of fouling.

IPC Code: F28D1/00

536

Analysis of transient thermal cycling for life assessment of steam turbine rotors


























Y Maruthi Prasad, A K Shukla &
Amitava Roy

Transient temperatures and stresses in the rotor during start-up and shut down cycles were evaluated using finite element analysis. Thermal gradients developed during thermal transients are the key source of stress generation in the rotor. Stress-strain response during thermal transients revealed non-proportional loading at the rotor surface and proportional loading in the rotor. Life assessment methodology of turbine rotors subjected to thermal power plant operating conditions is presented. Predictions from linear damage summation are compared with the results of nondestructive study of an actual steam turbine rotor.

 

 

IPC Code: F01B21/04 

S & T and Industrial Research

545

Use of ultrasound in chrome recovery process in leather industry










V Sivakumar, V Ravi Verma, G Swaminathan& P G Rao

In this study, the influence of ultrasound on the stoichiometric use of precipitating agent magnesium oxide, (MgO) as an alkali in the recovery of chrome from the spent tanning liquors has been studied. The use of MgO in chrome recovery assists settling characteristics but suffers from low solubility and reactivity. A significant improvement (3-fold) is observed in settling rate of chromic hydroxide precipitate with the use of pre-sonicated MgO as compared to control (no sonication). A considerable decrease of Cr in the supernatant liquor after precipitation suggests better recovery due to better dispersion and particle-size reduction of MgO in water due to sonication. No appreciable improvement with sonicated sodium carbonate solution prior to chrome recovery may be due to sodium carbonate itself is highly water soluble in comparison to MgO.

IPC Code:C14C3/00

550

Studies on disintegrant action of Leucaena leucocephala seed gum in ibuprofen tablet and its mechanism





















P R P Verma & Balkishen Razdan

 

Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) seed gum (LSG) was evaluated for disintegrant action in lactose (soluble) based tablets containing ibuprofen, a relatively insoluble drug. The properties of tablets evaluated include weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution (k, T50, A30 ). LSG, at 2% w/w, can be used as a disintegrant in tablet dosage form containing water-insoluble drug. In contrast to maize starch, LSG swells rapidly when brought in the contact with water, while preventing the liquid uptake in cylindrical column of powder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Energy and Environment

558

Construction and performance analysis of a three dimensional compound parabolic concentrator for a spherical absorber








S Senthilkumar, K Perumal &
P S S Srinivasan

Three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (3-D CPC) was found to be more efficient than 2-D CPC because of higher concentration ratio. A 3-D CPC was fabricated with a half acceptance angle of 4° for a spherical absorber (radius 100 mm). UV stabilized aluminized polyester foil having high reflectivity was pasted on the reflector for a total height of 441 mm and an aperture width of 540 mm. Theoretical value (0.645) of optical efficiency compared well with experimental value (0.626). Experimental values of optical and thermal efficiencies were in good agreement with theoretical values. Optical efficiency from 3-D CPC was found significantly higher than that of 2-D CPC of similar dimensions. Time constant of 3-D CPC (431 sec) was fairly high as compared with 2-D CPC (110 sec). An attempt was made to generate low-pressure steam in in-situ steam generation mode, which was one of the possible applications of 3-D CPC module.

Energy and Environment

565

Performanceanalysis of pressurized kerosene stove with porous medium inserts






































S Kakati, P Mahanta & S K Kakoty

Performance evaluation has been carried out of BIS high-pressure kerosene stove incorporating porous medium technology (PMT) in conventional burners. Burners with and without porous material were used for the study in terms of thermal efficiency, kerosene consumption rate and emission. Overall fuel saving was found to be 103 g/h (34%) with increase (10-11%) in thermal efficiency. Similarly, emission factors for pollutants CO (% vol), HC (ppm) and NOx (ppm) were controlled in the range of 32%, 15% and 83% respectively with PMT. Flames stabilized within the port of porous structure due to internal heat feedback of burned gases to unburned gases by radiation and conduction. Such flames produce higher burning velocity and leaner flammability condition and contributes to low NOx formation.

IPC Code: F24C5/00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

570

Temperature and soot formation in a natural gas diffusion flame










J C Ofodu & H I Hart

Study presents temperature and soot formation profile within a natural gas diffusion flame under the equivalence ratios of 0.35, 0.90, 1.70 and 2.56. There was sharp increases in the line-of-sight flame temperature within the centerline with peak values occurring at some distances of 6, 12, 12 and 9 cm from the burner rim, corresponding to 0.35, 0.90, 1.70 and 2.56 equivalence ratios respectively, after which it decreases gradually. A clear marked reduction was observed in temperature values as the condition of fuel mixture changes from lean to heavy rich. This reduced temperature that was most evident of flame equivalence ratio of 2.56 has been traced to be as a result of high sooty condition imposed by this fuel rich mixture. It was also observed that the gravimetric soot mass profile is much regular in behaviour for the lean mixture flames as it increases with increase in measured temperature values. Contrarily, for a richer mixture of 2.56, it increases with decrease in temperature.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

577

Arsenic biosorption by mucilaginous seeds of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit




























Santi Mohan Mandal, Keshab C Mondal, Satyahari Dey & Bikas Ranjan Pati

Hyptis suaveolens seeds could serve as natural immobilized source of agriculturally based polysaccharide. Maximum adsorption capacity (6 gl-1) of the seeds for arsenic adsorption has been found at pH 3.5 - 4.5. Among the tested interfering common metal ions, Ca++, Mg++ and Cl- decreased adsorption rate about 48%, 54% and 30% respectively, whereas Zn++ and Co++ ions have no significant effect. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed a better correlation with Langmuir isotherm plot.

IPC Code: C02F3/32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


582

Breakthrough behavior of sulphur mustard vapor on activated carbon





G K Prasad, T H Mahato, K Ganesan &
B Singh

Active carbon (surface area, 1250 m2/g) was used to study vapor breakthrough behavior of sulphur mustard (2, 2’-dichlorodiethyl sulphide). Effect of length of carbon bed on vapor breakthrough time has been examined. Rate constant (kv) is found to increase while kinetic saturation capacity (W­e) is invariable with increase in airflow rate. Both k­v and We decrease with the increase of temperature, however, no significant effect on We and kv was observed due to concentration change (0.3-0.6 mg/l). Values of kinetic saturation capacity are used to predict service lives/breakthrough times of carbon beds (when used in filtration systems).

Book Review
586
Groundwater Management in India
Reviewer: Dr P D Tyagi
Author-Reader Platform

587

Instructions to contributors

 

 

         

 


 

Author Index

 


 

Anantharaman N

522

Buyruk E

528

Dey S

577

Fertelli A

528

Ganesan K

582

Hart H I

570

Kakati S

565

Kakoty S K

565

Kalaichelvi P

522

Mahanta P

565

Mahato T H

582

Mandal S M

577

Mandavgane S A

517

Mondal K C

577

Ofodu J C

570

Pandharipande S L

517

Pati B R

577

Perumal K

558

Prasad G K

582

Prasad Y M

536

Raja T

522

Rao P G

545

Razdan B

550

Roy A

536

Saikia K

513

Sarkar B C

513

Senthilkumar S

558

Shukla A K

536

Singh B

582

Sivakumar V

545

Srinivasan P S S

558

Subramanian D

517

Swaminathan G

545

Verma P R P

550

Verma V R

545


 


Keyword Index

 


 

3-D CPC

558

Active carbon

582

Adsorption

582

Adsorption properties

582

ANSYS

528

Arsenic biosorption

577

Artificial neural networks (ANN)

517

BIS stove

565

Black liquor

517

Carbonation

517

CFD model

522

Chrome recovery

545

Creep

536

Cross-flow

528

Deposit formation

528

Diffusion flame

570

Disintegrant action

550

Emission

565

EXGID

513

Exploration

513

Fatigue

536

Heat exchanger

528

Hyptis suaveolens

577

Ibuprofen

550

Information system

513

Jet mixed tanks

522

 

 

Jharia coalfield

513

KCR

565

Leather

545

Leucaena leucocephala

550

Life assessment

536

Mass flow rate

522

Mucilaginous seed

577

Natural gas

570

Numerical analysis

528

Optical & thermal efficiency of CPC

558

Porosity

565

Porous medium insert

565

Pulp and paper mills

517

Rorer type burner

565

Seed gum

550

Solar concentrator

558

Sonochemistry

545

Soot

565, 570

Steam turbine rotor

536

Tanning

545

Temperature

570

Thermal efficiency

565

Thermal stress

536

Ultrasound

545

Wheeler equation

582