Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66         NUMBER 6    JUNE 2007

 

 

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology

425

Determination of brake force using artificial neural network





Brake forces for different conditions have been used to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. A mathematical formulation is obtained by considering effective factors of brake force (slip, tread depth, road surface, turn angle, tread profile, tire pressure and Toe of the wheel). There is a good agreement between experimental data and ANN model. The best approach with minimum errors is performed using LM algorithm with 4 neurons on hidden layers. Statistical coefficient of multiple determinations (R2 value) is obtained as 0,999699 for training data and 0,999178 for testing data.




Atilla Koca, Hüseyin Bayrakçeken &
Duran Altiparmak

431

Simulation of control loops of pulp bleaching section using distributed control system – An experimental study









S C Sharma, Sanjeev Gupta, Chhaya Sharma & Raj Kapoor

Day by day requirement for better quality of paper in terms of brightness and strength is arising. To meet the changing requirements, the bleaching sequences and process conditions need to be modified. For implementing these modified conditions, to increasing the reaction rate and to reduce the chemical wastage control loops need to be redesigned. Keeping this in mind control loop for changing demand of hot water flow used at C/D washer for water spray and temperature of hot water of pulp bleaching section have been designed and simulated offline. Later on these loops were installed, commissioned and tested on-line using DCS (MP 200/1). The results are reported in manual and auto mode of operation.


IPC Code
: D21C9/10

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology


435

A model for extended bench casting in dipping coal seam






























Bülent Erdem & Zekeriya Duran

This article deals with extended bench casting with draglines in surface coalmines. A computer model, developed for panel design, covers three fundamental operating modes: i) level casting for flat-lying coal seam; ii) downhill casting; and iii) uphill casting for inclined coal seam conditions.. The model is equipped with a device to determine total number of points within a cut on which dragline is placed. With another module, walking pattern of dragline between adjacent cuts is decided. The model indicates that coal seam inclination significantly influences dragline productivity. Extended bench construction in uphill casting is easier and faster as less material is required. Besides, dragline operates on a safe bench. As coal seam gets inclined, a large dragline may switch from extended benching in downhill mode to direct casting owing to the room available for spoil piles increases with coal seam inclination. It has been observed that in extended benching practice with an inclined coal seam downhill casting should be considered first.

 

 
IPC Code: E02F3/48

S & T and Industrial Research

444

Glaserite preparation by sodium sulphate and potassium chloride



V R K S Susarla, K M Chudasama,
V P Mohandas &.
P K Ghosh

Sodium sulphate reacts with potassium chloride to give glaserite, a double salt of sodium sulphate and potassium sulphate. Sodium sulphate present in Sambhar brines and solid bittern crust of Sambhar Salts Ltd, Nawa has been converted to glaserite at ambient temperature. Preparation and recovery of glaserite and potassium sulphate have been discussed using Lowenherz’s projections based on the phase equilibrium data of J H Van’t Hoff at 25 and 50°C.

450

Botanical standardization of three commercially important Curcuma species



Sharad Kumar Srivastava,
Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat, Shanta Mehrotra & P Pushpangadan

Amraharidra, botanically equated to Curcuma amada (Family, Zingiberaceae), is an important drug of Ayurveda. Rhizomes of other species (C. aromatica and C. zedoaria) of this genus, being rich in essential oil contents, are sold in herbal drug markets by the same vernacular name. Present study is aimed to standardize botanically all these three species for their authenticity, identity and validity.

CONTENTS


Energy and Environment

457

Performance and emissions achievements by magnetic energizer with a single cylinder two stroke catalytic coated spark ignition engine































P Govindasamy & S Dhandapani

This paper presents work conducted on a zirconia (catalyst) activated two-stroke spark ignited engine to investigate the effect of high gauss magnetic energy on cyclic variation of combustion parameters. A 9000 gauss magnet, made up of Neodymium-Iron-Boron, is fixed on fuel line before carburetor. The coating is carried out by thermal evaporation technique on the inside surface of combustion chamber walls and piston crown. In-cylinder pressures were recorded for 500 continuous cycles using a piezo electric pressure pickup and PC based data acquisition system. Magnetic flux activates preflame reaction and shortens combustion duration. Cyclic variation of combustion parameters due to magnetic energy were 25.1% less than the base engine and mean value of the peak pressures were found to have upper shift of 13.6%. Magnetically energized zirconia coated engine performed better than the base engine during running.

IPC Code: F02P5/14

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


464

A case study on existing petrol car engines design parameters













K Mayilsamy, N Kuppuswamy &
R Rudramoorthy

In this work, a study was conducted on existing 50 4-cylinder petrol engine car models in India. Information on engine bore, stroke length, cubic capacity, compression ratio, kerb weight, maximum brake power and torque was collected from automobile related sources. Stroke length was observed increase and stroke to bore ratio decrease with increasing bore of the engines. Maximum brake power and torque of engines are proportional to bore of engines. BMEP, brake power per unit volume, brake power per unit piston area, brake power per unit weight tend to rise and piston speed and weight per unit volume tend to decrease with increasing bore for the existing petrol car engines. The results show similarity between existing car engines and give an idea to design new petrol car engines for best performances.


IPC Code
: F01B27/04

CONTENTS


Energy and Environment

470

Capric acid and palmitic acid eutectic mixture applied in building wallboard for latent heat thermal energy storage








Ali Karaipekli & Ahmet Sari

The paper aims: (1) preparation of the phase change gypsum wallboard as novel phase change wallboard (PCW) incorporating with the eutectic mixture of capric acid (CA) and palmitic acid (PA) for latent heat thermal energy storage; (2) determination of thermal properties and thermal reliability of prepared PCW using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique; and (3) estimation of thermal performance of PCW by preparing a simple test cell. The melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of PCW were measured as 22.94 and 21.66°C, 42.54 and 42.18 J/g, respectively by DSC analysis.. Use of such PCW can decrease indoor air fluctuation and have the function of keeping warmth to improve indoor thermal comfort due to absorption of heat in conjunction with melting of the eutectic mixture.

477

Effects of chemical pretreatments on the air-drying process of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.)






Omer Faruk Taser, Sefa Tarhan &
Gazanfer Ergunes

For drying as the preservation method, black mulberries (Morus nigra L.) placed into sample bags were dipped into one of six different chemical solutions for one minute at room temperature to accelerate the moisture loss. Pretreated black mulberry samples were dehydrated by artificial air-drying, solar drying and open sun drying. The samples treated by 2% ethyl oleate were the fastest ones reaching to the final weight loss percentage (75%) in 22 h by the laboratory tray dryer providing 45.2 °C drying air (artificial air drying) and in 90 h by solar drying.

IPC Code: A23B

Waste Treatment and Utilization

483

Bio-delignification of lignocarbohydrates residues of Cymbopogon martini with Phanerochaete chrysosporium



 

 

 

 



Dharm Dutt, A P Garg, C H Tyagi &
A K Upadhyay

Cymbopogon martini, palma rosa grass, is cultivated for important palma rosa oil. Lignocarbohydrates residue (LCR) of C. martini left after steam distillation could successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown in solid-state culture on LCR of C. martini. The growth of fungus on wheat bran as source of hemicellulose shows good enzyme activity. Wheat bran, a cheaper substrate, shows its commercial viability. LCR had 13.6% lignin, 74.4% holocellulose and a pentosan fraction of 25.4%. After 28 days at 40 °C, P. chrysosporium produced a residue from LCR of C. martini with a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility. P. chrysosporium degraded 30.11 % of lignin, 62.25% of pentosan and 18.60% of holocellulose of the original value of LCR of C. martini.
IPC Code: D21C1/100
 

CONTENTS

Waste Treatment and Utilization

490

Pervaporative recovery of perchloroethylene from the spent solvent of electroplating industry: Experiment and modelling studies


















N Senthil Kumar & K Palanivelu

Pervaporation (PV), a membrane separation process, has been used to recover from spent solvent of perchloroethylene (PERC), one of the solvents used for surface treatment in electroplating industries. Commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flat type membrane (thickness, 200 µm) was employed to remove PERC from spent solvent. A model, based on solution-diffusion mechanism, was proposed to predict mass transfer during PV. The effects of permeate pressure and feed flow rate on PV were investigated to validate the model. A Pervaporation Separation Index (PSI) of 4198.61 was achieved finally. The moisture content in the final permeate was 1%.

IPC Code: B01D61/36

 

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

495

Characteristic studies of some activated carbons from agricultural wastes








M Jambulingam, S Karthikeyan,
P Sivakumar, J Kiruthika &
T Maiyalagan

Agricultural wastes like Tobacco stem, Bulrush Scirpus acutus stem, Leucaena leucocephala shell, Ceiba pentandra shell, Pongamia pinnata shell have been explored for the preparation of activated carbon. Characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture, ash, fixed carbon, matter soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, phenol number, ion exchange capacity, iron content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in water and wastewater. The results obtained show them to be good adsorbents for both organics and inorganics. Present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

IPC Code: C01B31/08

Book Review
501
The power law of information – Life in a connected world
Reviewer: Jayanshu B Gandhi
Author-Reader Platform

503

Instructions to contributors

 


 

Author Index

 


Altiparmak D

425

Bayrakçeken H

425

Chudasama K M

444

Dhandapani S

457

Duran Z

435

Dutt D

483

Erdem B

435

Ergunes G

477

Garg A P

483

Ghosh P K

444

Govindasamy P

457

Gupta S

431

Jambulingam M

495

Kapoor R

431

Karaipekli A

470

Karthikeyan S

495

Kiruthika J

495

Koca A

425

Kumar N S

490

Kuppuswamy N

464

Maiyalagan T

495

Mayilsamy K

464

Mehrotra S

450

Mohandas V P

444

Palanivelu K

490

Pushpangadan P

450

Rawat A K S

450

Rudramoorthy R

464

Sari A

470

Sharma C

431

Sharma S C

431

Sivakumar P

495

Srivastava S K

450

Susarla V R K S

444

Tarhan S

477

Taser O F

477

Tyagi C H

483

Upadhyay A K

483



Keyword Index

 


Activated carbon

495

Adsorption

495

Agricultural wastes

495

Air-drying

477

Amraharidra

450

Anatomy

450

Artificial neural network

425

Bio-delignification

483

Black mulberry

477

Bleaching

431

BMEP

464

Bore

464

Brake force

425

C. martini

483

Capric acid

470

Catalyst

457

Curcuma

450

Distributed control system

431

Dragline

435

Emission

457

Energizer

457

Ethyl oleate

477

Extended benching

435

Flow control

431

Glaserite

444

Latent heat thermal energy storage

470

Lignocarbohydrates residues

483

Lowenherz

444

Modelling

490

Open sun drying

477

Palmitic acid

470

PDMS

490

Perchloroethylene

490

Pervaporation

490

Petrol engines

464

Phanerochaete  chrysosporium

483

Pharmacognosy

450

Phase change wallboard

470

Pit geometry

435

Solar drying

477

Solid bittern

444

Solvent recovery

490

Spark ignition engine

457

Specific brake power

464

Surface area

495

Temperature control

431

Thermal properties

470

Thermal reliability

470

Torque

464

Van’t Hoff

444