Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 5

MAY 2007

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology

363

Maximum stream temperature estimation of Degirmendere River using artificial neural network





Adil Grsel Karaor, Nket Sivri &
Osman Nuri Uan

Stream temperature determines the rate of the decomposition of organic matter and the saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen. Combined with industrial waste, stream temperature becomes a crucial parameter. Therefore, estimation of maximum stream temperature is very important, especially during summertime when the high temperatures may become dangerous for the habitat of rivers. A three-layered feed forward artificial neural network was developed to predict the maximum stream temperature of Degirmendere River for the five days ahead. Satisfactory results were achieved as the average prediction error turned out to be less than 1C.

S & T and Industrial Research

367

Design & development of infrared technique based snow surface temperature measurement probe






















S K Mittal, M A Shamshi, R K Garg &
B K Sharma

This paper presents design and development of IR probe, developed first time in India, which is used to measure snow surface temperature without contact with snow. The design can operate round the clock in harsh weather conditions in snow bound areas (40 C to +50 C) with high relative humidity and wind speed (200 km/h). This instrument has been installed in Siachen region, J & K region and interfaced with Data Collection Platform. The recorded temperature data is being transmitted hourly through satellite from Siachen and J & K region to central base station at SASE, Chandigarh. This instrument can measure temperature ( 40 C to +100 C) with the resolution of 0.1 C and consumes low power. This paper mainly describes the characteristics of IR rays, basic principle involved in designing and principle of operation.

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

S & T and Industrial Research

371

Ion pairing RP-HPLC analytical methods for simultaneous estimation of simvastatin and its -hydroxy acid


















Jitender Madan, Vikrant Thakkar,
Anil Kumar Dwivedi & Satyawan Singh

Sensitive HPLC assay methods for Simvastatin (SV), a hypolipidemic agent, and its corresponding -hydroxy acid (SVA), were developed and validated for their simultaneous estimation in solutions of various studies. HPLC separations were achieved on (i) C8 Lichrocart Lichrosphere (ii) CN Lichrocart Lichrosphere and (iii) C18 Phenomenex columns. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 240 nm. Retention times were: SV, 8-9; and SVA, 5.5-6 min. The lower limit of detection of both SV and SVA on C18 column was 0.05 g/ml and on C8 and CN columns was 0.1 g/ml. Reproducibility of the method were determined by inter and intra assay precision (< 6%).

IPC Code: A61K

377

Synthesis and physico-chemical study of polyester polyol of epoxy resin of 1, 1-bis (3-methyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) cyclohexane and ricinoleic acid and its polyurethanes with polyethylene glycol
























S I Mavani, N M Mehta & P H Parsania

Cardo polyester polyol (acid value, 2.14; hydroxyl value, 911 mg KOH/g) has been synthesized by reacting epoxy resin of 1,1-bis (3-methyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) cyclohexane (EE = 436) and ricinoleic acid (8.94 g) by using  triethyl amine (0.5 g) as a catalyst and 1,4-dioxane as a solvent at reflux temperature for 6h. Cardo polyester polyol-TDI based copolyurethanes have been synthesized by reacting polyol (3.0 g) and TDI (0.9 g) in MEK at room temperature by using 20% and 30% PEG-400 on the basis of polyol weight. PU-20 and PU-30 films were cast by controlled evaporation of MEK. The formation of polyol and copolyurethanes are supported by FTIR spectral data. Densities of PU-20 (1.2379 g/cm3) and PU-30 (1.2016 g/cm3) are determined by floatation method at room temperature by using CCl4- n- hexane system. Density decreased with PEG-400 concentration due to increase in intrinsic volume of the repeating unit. Tensile strength, electric strength and volume resistivity of both co polyurethanes decreased with increasing concentration of PEG-400 due to presence of soft and hard segments in polymer chain. PU-20 and PU-30 remained unaffected in pure water and 10% NaCl solution and showed moisture uptake tendency in acidic and alkaline atmosphere. Max. moisture uptake, observed within 24-48h, is 4.7-15% in 10% each of HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 and 8.7-14.2 % in 10% each of NaOH and KOH solutions. PU-30 has much low water absorption tendency as compared to PU-20 due to increasing PEG-400 concentration. PU-20 and PU-30 are thermally stable up to about 190-198C and involved three-step degradation kinetics. No effect of PFG-400 was observed on thermal properties of co polyurethanes. For PU-20, T0, T10 and T50 are 190, 225.1 and 362.6C, while for PU-30 they are 198, 235.5 and 369.0C, respectively. The decomposition ranges are 190-304, 342-440,472-540 and 198-307, 350-430, and 448-5900C, respectively for PU-20 and PU-30. The excellent hydrolytic stability and fairly good thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of PU-20 and PU-30 signify their industrial importance as coating and adhesive materials.

CONTENTS

S & T and Industrial Research

385

Preparation and surfactant properties of diethanolamides of rice bran, soybean and rapeseed proteins







S D Toliwal & Kalpen Patel

Diethanolamides of proteins were prepared by cleavage of protein isolates of rice bran, soybean, and rapeseed deoiled cakes with diethanolamine and evaluated for their surfactant properties and compared with those of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Wetting, foaming, and emulsification abilities of products were inferior and surface tension lowering and detersive power were superior to those of SLS. Critical micelle concentration values were low though higher than for SLS. These surfactants could have commercial potential since they are obtained from proteins of deoiled cakes and do not require fats or fatty acids which are in short supply.

IPC Code: C11B

388

Characterization of an actinomycete isolated from the estuarine finfish, Mugil cephalus Lin. (1758) and its optimization for cellulase production




















M Murugan, M Srinivasan, K Sivakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu & L Kannan

Actinomycetes (35 strains), isolated from the gut of estuarine finfish Mugil cephalus collected from the Vellar estuary, were examined for cellulase activity. Strain CL-30, tentatively identified as Streptomyces actuosus, showed maximum cellulase activity at: pH 7, temperature 35C, NaCl concentration 1-2%, carbon source sucrose and without addition of any amino acids. Molecular weight of cellulase determined by SDS-PAGE was 110 kDa. The study indicates the scope for the use of S. actuosus as an ideal organism for the industrial production of extracellular cellulase enzyme.

Energy and Environment

394

Biodiesel from Jatropha as transport fuel ? A case study of UP State, India








R D Chauhan, M P Sharma, R P Saini &
S K Singal

In Uttar Pradesh (UP) state of India, during 2003-04, transport sector has consumed about 2150 million liters [ML] diesel while the projected demand for the same alone may be 2987 ML by 2020. Considering 20% blend of biodiesel in diesel, requirement of UP would be about 596 ML of biodiesel, which could be produced from non-edible oil resources especially Jatropha. This will save foreign exchange and reduce CO2 emission. Paper presents potential of Jatropha cultivation on the available wastelands in UP and techno-economic study of biodiesel production and utilization for transport sector of the state with particular reference to Uttar Pradesh State Roadways Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).

IPC Code: C10L1/02

CONTENTS
Energy and Environment

399

Production of biodiesel from high FFA rice bran oil and its utilization in a small capacity diesel engine






























Naveen Kumar

Biodiesel is gaining momentum in India and rice bran oil (RBO) could be utilized as a possible source of biodiesel. Since industrial grade RBO has high FFA content, base catalyzed transesterification process is not an appropriate method for production of biodiesel. This study reports two-stage formulation process (sterification followed by transesterification) to convert industrial grade RBO into biodiesel, physio-chemical characterization of biodiesel and run a small capacity, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine on biodiesel .The performance and emission results of biodiesel are compared with diesel.

403

Methane emission in landfill gas at two closed waste disposal site in Istanbul


H Kurtulus Ozcan, Semih Nemlioglu,
Goksel Demir, Emine Elmaslar Ozbas & Mehmet Borat

In this study, methane emission was measured using micro gas chromatographic methods in Hasdal and Yakacik sanitary landfill areas in Istanbul city. Methane levels were found as 21.76-36.90% in Hasdal and 13.52-51.78% in Yakacik. Methane effects on environmental and public health were discussed.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

407

Development of steel primer from spent black liquor and short oil alkyd resin




S A Mandavgane, S N Rokde, B B Gogte &
D Subramanian

Primer paint has been developed based on lignin obtained from black liquor as a partial replacement (40%) for conventional alkyd resin. Efforts were made to prepare a novel alkyd resin with short oil length (20%) using chain stopper. Overall consumption of petroleum solvent (25%) in primer is lesser than conventional primer (40% solvent). The cost of present product is less than the conventional product.

IPC Code: C09F
CONTENTS
Waste Treatment and Utilization

411

Biodegradation of synthetic textile dyes reactive red 195 and reactive green 11 by Aspergillus niger grp: An alternative approach



























Varsha Zope, Mohan Kulkarni &
Maya Chavan

Textile dyes (reactive red 195 and reactive green 11) were selected for biodegradation studies by Aspergillus niger grp using synthetic wastewater. Addition of glucose (1 g % w/v), ammonium sulphate (0.2 g % and 0.3 g % respectively for reactive red 195 and reactive green 11) favoured degradation. Optimum inoculum (size 1 g %, pH 7.0 and temp. 30 C) was prepared for degradation of both the dyes. Static conditions favoured dye decolarization than shaking conditions. Under optimized conditions, degradation by Aspergillus niger grp was found to be: reactive red 195, 93.0; and reactive green 11, 80 %. Degradation of dyes was confirmed by UV- Spectrophotometric and TLC analysis. This indigenous isolate could be a potential organism for developing an efficient and effective technology for bioremediation of textile wastewater effluents carrying these dyes.

IPC Code: C02F103/30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author-Reader Platform

415

Instructions to contributors
















 

 


 

Author Index

 


 

Borat M

403

Chauhan R D

394

Chavan M

411

Demir G

403

Dwivedi A K

371

Garg R K

367

Gogte B B

407

Kannan L

388

Karaor A G

363

Kulkarni M

411

Kumar N

399

Madan J

371

Mandavgane S A

407

Mavani S I

377

Mehta N M

377

Mittal S K

367

Murugan M

388

Nemlioglu S

403

Ozbas E E

403

Ozcan H K

403

Parsania P H

377

Patel K

385

Rokde S N

407

Sahu M K

388

Saini R P

394

Shamshi M A

367

Sharma B K

367

Sharma M P

394

Singal S K

394

Singh S

371

Sivakumar K

388

Sivri N

363

Srinivasan M

388

Subramanian D

407

Thakkar V

371

Toliwal S D

385

Uan O N

363

Zope V

411


 


Keyword Index

 


 

Alkyd resin

407

Artificial neural network

363

Aspergillus niger grp

411

Biodegradation

411

Biodiesel

394, 399

Bioremediation

411

Black liquor

407

Black Sea

363

Cardo polyester polyol

377

Chemical resistance

377

CMC-Cellulase

388

Copolyurethane

377

Decolourisation

411

Degirmendere River

363

Density

377

Deoiled cake

385

Diethanolamide

385

Electrical properties

377

Energy

403

HPLC assay method

371

Hypolipidemic agent

371

IR probe

367

Jatropha

394

Lignin

407

Linseed oil

407

Mechanical properties

377

Methane

403

Mugil cephalus

388

Primer

407

Protein isolate

385

Rice bran oil

399

SDS-PAGE

388

Simvastatin

371

Snow surface temperature

367

Sodium lauryl sulfate

385

Solid waste

403

Stream temperature

363

Streptomyces actuosus

388

Synthetic dyes

411

Thermal analysis

377

Transesterification

394, 399

Transport fuel

394

 

 

 
Design & development of infrared technique based snow surface temperature measurement probe






















S K Mittal, M A Shamshi, R K Garg &
B K Sharma

This paper presents design and development of IR probe, developed first time in India , which is used to measure snow surface temperature without contact with snow. The design can operate round the clock in harsh weather conditions in snow bound areas (40 C to +50 C) with high relative humidity and wind speed (200 km/h). This instrument has been installed in Siachen region, J & K region and interfaced with Data Collection Platform. The recorded temperature data is being transmitted hourly through satellite from Siachen and J & K region to central base station at SASE, Chandigarh . This instrument can measure temperature ( 40 C to +100 C) with the resolution of 0.1 C and consumes low power. This paper mainly describes the characteristics of IR rays, basic principle involved in designing and principle of operation.

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

S & T and Industrial Research

371

Ion pairing RP-HPLC analytical methods for simultaneous estimation of simvastatin and its β-hydroxy acid


















Jitender Madan, Vikrant Thakkar,
Anil Kumar Dwivedi & Satyawan Singh

Sensitive HPLC assay methods for Simvastatin (SV), a hypolipidemic agent, and its corresponding β-hydroxy acid (SVA), were developed and validated for their simultaneous estimation in solutions of various studies. HPLC separations were achieved on (i) C8 Lichrocart Lichrosphere (ii) CN Lichrocart Lichrosphere and (iii) C18 Phenomenex columns. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 240 nm. Retention times were: SV, 8-9; and SVA, 5.5-6 min. The lower limit of detection of both SV and SVA on C18 column was 0.05 g/ml and on C8 and CN columns was 0.1 g/ml. Reproducibility of the method were determined by inter and intra assay precision (< 6%).

IPC Code: A61K

377

Synthesis and physico-chemical study of polyester polyol of epoxy resin of 1, 1-bis (3-methyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) cyclohexane and ricinoleic acid and its polyurethanes with polyethylene glycol
























S I Mavani, N M Mehta & P H Parsania

Cardo polyester polyol (acid value, 2.14; hydroxyl value, 911 mg KOH/g) has been synthesized by reacting epoxy resin of 1,1-bis (3-methyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) cyclohexane (EE = 436) and ricinoleic acid (8.94 g) by using triethyl amine (0.5 g) as a catalyst and 1,4-dioxane as a solvent at reflux temperature for 6h. Cardo polyester polyol-TDI based copolyurethanes have been synthesized by reacting polyol (3.0 g) and TDI (0.9 g) in MEK at room temperature by using 20% and 30% PEG-400 on the basis of polyol weight. PU-20 and PU-30 films were cast by controlled evaporation of MEK. The formation of polyol and copolyurethanes are supported by FTIR spectral data. Densities of PU-20 (1.2379 g/cm3) and PU-30 (1.2016 g/cm3) are determined by floatation method at room temperature by using CCl4- n- hexane system. Density decreased with PEG-400 concentration due to increase in intrinsic volume of the repeating unit. Tensile strength, electric strength and volume resistivity of both co polyurethanes decreased with increasing concentration of PEG-400 due to presence of soft and hard segments in polymer chain. PU-20 and PU-30 remained unaffected in pure water and 10% NaCl solution and showed moisture uptake tendency in acidic and alkaline atmosphere. Max. moisture uptake, observed within 24-48h, is 4.7-15% in 10% each of HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 and 8.7-14.2 % in 10% each of NaOH and KOH solutions. PU-30 has much low water absorption tendency as compared to PU-20 due to increasing PEG-400 concentration. PU-20 and PU-30 are thermally stable up to about 190-198C and involved three-step degradation kinetics. No effect of PFG-400 was observed on thermal properties of co polyurethanes. For PU-20, T0, T10 and T50 are 190, 225.1 and 362.6C, while for PU-30 they are 198, 235.5 and 369.0C, respectively. The decomposition ranges are 190-304, 342-440,472-540 and 198-307, 350-430, and 448-5900C, respectively for PU-20 and PU-30. The excellent hydrolytic stability and fairly good thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of PU-20 and PU-30 signify their industrial importance as coating and adhesive materials.

CONTENTS

S & T and Industrial Research

385

Preparation and surfactant properties of diethanolamides of rice bran, soybean and rapeseed proteins







S D Toliwal & Kalpen Patel

Diethanolamides of proteins were prepared by cleavage of protein isolates of rice bran, soybean, and rapeseed deoiled cakes with diethanolamine and evaluated for their surfactant properties and compared with those of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Wetting, foaming, and emulsification abilities of products were inferior and surface tension lowering and detersive power were superior to those of SLS. Critical micelle concentration values were low though higher than for SLS. These surfactants could have commercial potential since they are obtained from proteins of deoiled cakes and do not require fats or fatty acids which are in short supply.

IPC Code: C11B

388

Characterization of an actinomycete isolated from the estuarine finfish, Mugil cephalus Lin. (1758) and its optimization for cellulase production




















M Murugan, M Srinivasan, K Sivakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu & L Kannan

Actinomycetes (35 strains), isolated from the gut of estuarine finfish Mugil cephalus collected from the Vellar estuary, were examined for cellulase activity. Strain CL-30, tentatively identified as Streptomyces actuosus, showed maximum cellulase activity at: pH 7, temperature 35C, NaCl concentration 1-2%, carbon source sucrose and without addition of any amino acids. Molecular weight of cellulase determined by SDS-PAGE was 110 kDa. The study indicates the scope for the use of S. actuosus as an ideal organism for the industrial production of extracellular cellulase enzyme.

Energy and Environment

394

Biodiesel from Jatropha as transport fuel ― A case study of UP State, India








R D Chauhan, M P Sharma, R P Saini &
S K Singal

In Uttar Pradesh (UP) state of India, during 2003-04, transport sector has consumed about 2150 million liters [ML] diesel while the projected demand for the same alone may be 2987 ML by 2020. Considering 20% blend of biodiesel in diesel, requirement of UP would be about 596 ML of biodiesel, which could be produced from non-edible oil resources especially Jatropha. This will save foreign exchange and reduce CO2 emission. Paper presents potential of Jatropha cultivation on the available wastelands in UP and techno-economic study of biodiesel production and utilization for transport sector of the state with particular reference to Uttar Pradesh State Roadways Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).

IPC Code: C10L1/02

CONTENTS
Energy and Environment

399

Production of biodiesel from high FFA rice bran oil and its utilization in a small capacity diesel engine






























Naveen Kumar

Biodiesel is gaining momentum in India and rice bran oil (RBO) could be utilized as a possible source of biodiesel. Since industrial grade RBO has high FFA content, base catalyzed transesterification process is not an appropriate method for production of biodiesel. This study reports two-stage formulation process (sterification followed by transesterification) to convert industrial grade RBO into biodiesel, physio-chemical characterization of biodiesel and run a small capacity, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine on biodiesel .The performance and emission results of biodiesel are compared with diesel.

403

Methane emission in landfill gas at two closed waste disposal site in Istanbul


H Kurtulus Ozcan, Semih Nemlioglu,
Goksel Demir, Emine Elmaslar Ozbas & Mehmet Borat

In this study, methane emission was measured using micro gas chromatographic methods in Hasdal and Yakacik sanitary landfill areas in Istanbul city. Methane levels were found as 21.76-36.90% in Hasdal and 13.52-51.78% in Yakacik. Methane effects on environmental and public health were discussed.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

407

Development of steel primer from spent black liquor and short oil alkyd resin




S A Mandavgane, S N Rokde, B B Gogte &
D Subramanian

Primer paint has been developed based on lignin obtained from black liquor as a partial replacement (40%) for conventional alkyd resin. Efforts were made to prepare a novel alkyd resin with short oil length (20%) using chain stopper. Overall consumption of petroleum solvent (25%) in primer is lesser than conventional primer (40% solvent). The cost of present product is less than the conventional product.

IPC Code: C09F
CONTENTS
Waste Treatment and Utilization

411

Biodegradation of synthetic textile dyes reactive red 195 and reactive green 11 by Aspergillus niger grp: An alternative approach



























Varsha Zope, Mohan Kulkarni &
Maya Chavan

Textile dyes (reactive red 195 and reactive green 11) were selected for biodegradation studies by Aspergillus niger grp using synthetic wastewater. Addition of glucose (1 g % w/v), ammonium sulphate (0.2 g % and 0.3 g % respectively for reactive red 195 and reactive green 11) favoured degradation. Optimum inoculum (size 1 g %, pH 7.0 and temp. 30 C) was prepared for degradation of both the dyes. Static conditions favoured dye decolarization than shaking conditions. Under optimized conditions, degradation by Aspergillus niger grp was found to be: reactive red 195, 93.0; and reactive green 11, 80 %. Degradation of dyes was confirmed by UV- Spectrophotometric and TLC analysis. This indigenous isolate could be a potential organism for developing an efficient and effective technology for bioremediation of textile wastewater effluents carrying these dyes.

IPC Code: C02F103/30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author-Reader Platform

415

Instructions to contributors
















 

 

Author Index

 


Borat M

403

Chauhan R D

394

Chavan M

411

Demir G

403

Dwivedi A K

371

Garg R K

367

Gogte B B

407

Kannan L

388

Karaor A G

363

Kulkarni M

411

Kumar N

399

Madan J

371

Mandavgane S A

407

Mavani S I

377

Mehta N M

377

Mittal S K

367

Murugan M

388

Nemlioglu S

403

Ozbas E E

403

Ozcan H K

403

Parsania P H

377

Patel K

385

Rokde S N

407

Sahu M K

388

Saini R P

394

Shamshi M A

367

Sharma B K

367

Sharma M P

394

Singal S K

394

Singh S

371

Sivakumar K

388

Sivri N

363

Srinivasan M

388

Subramanian D

407

Thakkar V

371

Toliwal S D

385

Uan O N

363

Zope V

411



Keyword Index

 


Alkyd resin

407

Artificial neural network

363

Aspergillus niger grp

411

Biodegradation

411

Biodiesel

394, 399

Bioremediation

411

Black liquor

407

Black Sea

363

Cardo polyester polyol

377

Chemical resistance

377

CMC-Cellulase

388

Copolyurethane

377

Decolourisation

411

Degirmendere River

363

Density

377

Deoiled cake

385

Diethanolamide

385

Electrical properties

377

Energy

403

HPLC assay method

371

Hypolipidemic agent

371

IR probe

367

Jatropha

394

Lignin

407

Linseed oil

407

Mechanical properties

377

Methane

403

Mugil cephalus

388

Primer

407

Protein isolate

385

Rice bran oil

399

SDS-PAGE

388

Simvastatin

371

Snow surface temperature

367

Sodium lauryl sulfate

385

Solid waste

403

Stream temperature

363

Streptomyces actuosus

388

Synthetic dyes

411

Thermal analysis

377

Transesterification

394, 399

Transport fuel

394


 

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