Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2007

CONTENTS

Review

797

Biomass pyrolysis for liquid fuels and chemicals: A review


M Fatih Demirbas& Mustafa Balat

Biomass pyrolysis produces fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis (conventional, fast and flash) can produce solid (charcoal), liquid (tar and other organics), and gaseous products (H2, CO2, CO) between 625 and 775 K. Charcoal yield decreases as temperature increases. Production of liquid products is maximum between 625-725 K.

Management & Information Technology

805

Interval estimates of bullwhip effect based on bootstrapping technique


Kun-Lin Hsieh, Yan-Kwang Chen &
Ching-Cheng Shen

This paper presents a simulation study on the behavior of 95% bootstrap confidence interval for estimating bullwhip effect. Effects of sample size, autocorrelation coefficient of customer demand, lead-time, and bootstrap methods on 95% bootstrap confidence interval of bullwhip effect are presented and discussed.

811

 
Improvement of accuracy level using process failure mode and effect analysis and control plan techniques for automotive fender shield assembly




This paper reports Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA) and control plan (CP) techniques used as preventive tools to ensure products being produced are of high quality. Data analysis based on parts’ coordinate in X, Y and Z positions are performed to determine the root cause of failures. Data in prototype (P0 and P1) stage are used to prove effectiveness of PFMEA and CP techniques prior to and after both techniques have been applied in the product development process for Front Fender Shield Assembly Left Hand. Integration between PFMEA and CP and minimum target of accuracy level (85%) has been successfully achieved.

 

 

 














K N M Tohit, S Sulaiman, N Ismail,
M Y Ismail & S M Sapuan


Management & Information Technology

819

Estimation of magnetic field distributions in substation centers using artificial neural networks
















İlhami Çolak, İlhan Koşalay & Aslan İnan

Magnetic fields at different operation conditions, in and out of the measurement points, were estimated and visualized by the developed visual software, which has 3D screening unit, based on artificial neural networks and grid data. Software enables users to estimate electromagnetic field distributions in and out of the measurement points.

 
IPC Code: G06N3/02; G01R; H02B

 

 

 

828

Balancing of raw washability data using spreadsheet optimization routine




Satyabrata Mohanta

A technique for balancing raw washability data utilizing spreadsheet program is proposed and demonstrated by a working example. The sum of squares of the relative errors between raw and estimated data is minimized. The generated balanced data satisfy mass and ash balance conditions.

IPC Code: C04B18/28

S & T and Industrial Research

830

Preparation and evaluation of inclusion complexes of carvedilol




















Saurabh Bhutani, S N Hiremath,
P V Swamy & S A Raju

 
Inclusion behaviour of hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) was studied towards carvedilol, an antihypertensive agent, in order to develop a new oral dosage form with enhanced dissolution rate and bioavailability, following cyclodextrin complexation. Phase solubility studies indicated formation of 1:1 M complex for HPβ-CD. Apparent stability constant (Kc) was found to be 582.78 M-1 for HPβ-CD complexes. DSC studies indicated formation of solid inclusion complexes of carvedilol–HPβ-CD at 1:2 M ratio prepared by kneading method. Solid complexes of carvedilol-HPβ-CD at 1:2 M prepared by physical and kneading method exhibited higher dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency values than pure drug and other complexes.

 

 

 

S & T and Industrial Research

835

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by cetyl compounds







R S Chaudhary, D K Tyagi &Atul Kumar

Inhibiting effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTMAC) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution have been studied using three different techniques (weight loss, electrochemical polarization studies and surface study by SEM). Inhibitor efficiency (IE) increases with increase in inhibitor concentrations (50-250 ppm) at a given temperature and time. IE was found to vary with concentration, temperature and immersion time. Electrochemical polarization result revealed that CTMAC and CTMAB were mixed type inhibitors.

841

Effect of temperature on ultrasonic velocity and thermodynamic parameters of cardo aromatic polysulfonate solutions







P J Vasoya, N M Mehta, V A Patel &
P H Parsania

Density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic (U) velocity (2 MHz) of pure solvents (1,2-dichloro ethane, chloroform, THF and 1,4-dioxane) and solutions of polysulfonate (PANDPE) in these solvents have been investigated at 303, 308 and 313 K. Acoustical parameters [specific acoustical impedance (Z), isentropic compressibility (k )s, Rao’s molar sound function(R), Van der Waals constant (b), internal pressure (p ), free volume (Vf), intermolecular free path length (Lf), classical absorption coefficient (a /f2)cl  and viscous relaxation time (t )] have been determined from ρ, η and U data and correlated with concentration at 303, 308 and 313 K. A fairly good to excellent correlation between a given parameter and concentration is observed at all temperatures and solvent systems studied.

849

 

 
Removal of endosulfan residues from vegetables by household processing





Effect of washing, peeling and cooking on endosulfan residue (ER) levels was determined in winter (spinach, cauliflower, potato) and summer vegetables (brinjal, tomato, okra) grown under controlled supervised field trials. Highest ER was found at raw stage in brinjal (2.43 mg/kg) followed by okra (1.83 mg/kg) and spinach (1.25 mg/kg) and lowest in potato (0.177 mg/kg). ER in vegetables was found to be reduced as follows: washing, 15-30; peeling, 60-67; and cooking, 13-35%.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

M Atif Randhawa, F Muhammad Anjum,
M Rafique Asi, M Sadiq Butt, Anwaar Ahmed
& M Saqib Randhawa

 

S & T and Industrial Research

853

Evaluation of cooking processes for Trema orientalis pulping











M Sarwar Jahan, A Rubaiyat & R Sabina

Chemical and morphological properties support Trema orientalis as a new source for pulping (yield, 46-52%). Using soda, soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft, alkaline-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM), acetic acid (AA) and formic acid (FA) pulping processes, ASAM pulp (yield, 51.7 %; kappa number, 13.4) showed excellent initial brightness (53.2 %), which indicated better bleachability. Prebleaching of pulps by oxygen, peroxyaid and xylanase treatments, indicated O2-prebleaching reduced kappa number (44-53%). ASAM and kraft pulps exhibited better brightness than soda-AQ pulp. Viscosity of bleached pulp from kraft process was lower than that of soda-AQ and ASAM processes. Strength properties of pulps from soda, soda-AQ, kraft and ASAM processes were acceptable. The a -cellulose (> 94 %) in FA pulp suggests further study for dissolving pulp.

IPC Code: D21D1/00

Energy and Environment

860

Performance assessment and optimization of thermal power plants by DEA BCC and multivariate analysis









This study presents an integrated Data Envelopement Analysis (DEA) methodology using Banker Charnes Cooper (BCC) input oriented model for assessment and optimization of conventional thermal power plants (gas, steam and combined cycles). Installed capacity, fuel consumption, labor cost, internal power, forced outage hours and operating hours are used as input parameters whereas total power generation is used as output parameter. Moreover, 40 power plants in Iran were used as decision-making units and DEA-BCC model was used to assess their efficiency and rank during 1997-2000. In addition, all regional power plants have been ranked, assessed and optimized in comparison with all thermal power plants.

IPC Code: H02B5/00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Azadeh, F Ghaderi, M Anvari,
H Izadbakhsh & S Dehghan

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

871

Electrical properties of biological wastes used as effective soil conditioners for electrical earthing







Resistivity of cow waste, chicken waste, ashes, decayed sawdust, garden soil or earth and laterite soil is determined in perspective of improving electrical conductivity of the earth. Effect of moisture on resistivity of samples is considered. Using soil Box method, study revealed that ashes have the lowest resistivity (1.04 W -m), followed by chicken waste (5.84 W -m) and cow waste (9.88 W -m). Present study recommends these biological wastes as cheap sources of reducing soil resistivity of earth around embedded electrodes for electrical earthing.

IPC Code: H04Q1/06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis I Anyasi & Edwin C Obinabo

Author-Reader Platform

 

Announcement

 

Instructions to contributors












 

 

Author Index

 


Ahmed A

849

Anjum F M

849

Anvari M

860

Anyasi F I

873

Asi M R

849

Azadeh A

860

Balat M

804

Bhutani S

830

Butt M S

849

Chaudhary R S

835

Chen Y-K

805

Çolak İ

819

Dehghan S

860

Demirbas M F

797

Ghaderi F

860

Hiremath S N

830

Hsieh K-L

805

İnan A

819

Ismail M Y

811

Ismail N

811

Izadbakhsh H

860

 

 

Jahan M S

853

Koşalay İ

819

Kumar A

835

Mehta N M

841

Mohanta S

828

Obinabo E C

873

Parsania P H

841

Patel V A

841

Raju S A

830

Randhawa M A

849

Randhawa M S

849

Rubaiyat A

853

Sabina R

853

Sapuan S M

811

Shen C-C

805

Sulaiman S

811

Swamy P V

830

Tohit K N M

811

Tyagi D K

835

Vasoya P J

841



Keyword Index

 


Acoustical parameters

841

ANN

819

ASAM process

853

Autocorrelation

805

Automotive industry

811

Biological wastes

873

Biomass

797

Bleachability

853

Bootstrap

805

Bullwhip effect

805

Carvedilol

830

Cetyl compounds

835

Coal preparation

828

Control plan

811

Cooking

849

Corrosion inhibition

835

Data envelopment analysis

860

Delignification

853

Density

841

Electrical earthing

873

Electrochemical polarization

835

Endosulfan

849

Fast growing wood

853

Hydroxypropyl b -cyclodextrin

830

Kinetics of pyrolysis

797

Kneading method

830

Liquid fuels

797

Magnetic field

819

Mild steel

835

Mineral processing

828

Molecular interactions

841

PFMEA

811

Physical mixture

830

Pulp yield

853

Pyrolysis

797

Quality level

811

Soil conditioner

873

Solvation number

841

Spreadsheet tools

828

Supervised field trial

849

Supply chain

805

Thermal degradation

797

Thermal power plants

860

Transformer substation

819

Trema orientalis

853

Ultrasonic velocity

841

Vegetables

849

Viscosity

841

Visualization

819

Washability data balancing

828

Washing

849