Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 66

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2007

CONTENTS

Reviews

701

Production and storage of hydrogen: Present scenario and future perspective



















Kaushik Nath & Debabrata Das

 
Hydrogen (H2), an environmentally clean energy-carrier gas, is produced mainly from fossil fuel, biomass and water. H2 (90%) is produced at high temperature by the reactions of natural gas or light oil fractions with steam, besides coal gasification and electrolysis of water. Among biological production of H2, direct and indirect biophotolysis, fermentation, photosynthetic production and in vitro enzymatic conversion of biomass are important. Current H2 storage approaches involve compressed H2 gas tanks, liquid H2 tanks, metal hydrides, carbon-based materials/high surface area sorbents, and chemical H2 storage. This paper reviews various production and storage strategies of H2.

  



 

710

Industrial applications of keratins – A review







R Karthikeyan, S Balaji & P K Sehgal

Keratin, a fibrous protein forming main structural constituent of feather, hair, wool, horn, hoof etc., is abundantly available as a by-product from poultry, slaughterhouse, tanning and fur processing industry. Keratins though find applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fertilizer industry, considerable amount of these products is wasted repeatedly. Keratins are difficult to degradation and their disposal leads to environmental problems. Research is being done globally to utilize these wastes. Keratin hydrolysates find potential application in leather tanning industry.

Management & Information Technology

716

Ordering decision-making under two-level trade credit policy for a retailer with a powerful position






Yung-Fu Huang, Gili Yen & Kuang-Hua Hsu

This paper investigates retailer’s inventory policy under two-level trade credit to reflect the supply chain management situation. It is assumed that retailer maintains a powerful position and can obtain full trade credit offered by supplier yet retailer just offers the partial trade credit to customers. Under these conditions, retailer can obtain the most benefits. Study also investigates retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine retailer’s optimal inventory policy under supply chain management. One ease-to-use theorem is developed to efficiently determine optimal inventory policy for retailer. Study demonstrates results of previous studies that can be treated as special cases.

Management & Information Technology

724

Determining a production run time for an imperfect production-inventory system with scrap







Gary C Lin
& Hong-Dar Lin

A production-inventory model is proposed for a manufacturing process used to produce a single product in batches to meet a deterministic demand. The process is assumed to be in-control at the start of a production run. Then, the process may shift to an out-of-control state at a random point in time, and a fixed portion of items produced is defective, which cannot be repaired or reworked and must be scrapped with an additional cost. Models are proposed to deal with situations regarding whether and when a screening process is implemented. The objective is to determine an optimal production run time that minimizes expected (long-run) average cost per unit of time including setup, production, inventory holding, screening, and defective costs. A numerical approach is developed for finding an optimal solution.

736

Modeling of vehicle delays at signalized intersection with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS)





































Mahir Gokdag, A Samet Hasiloglu,
Neslihan Karsli, Ahmet Atalay &
Ahmet Akbas

An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference based delay estimation system is proposed. The system is compared with other delay estimation models, and tested through simulation and observation values. Rules, fuzzification and inference are modeled by neuro-fuzzy. Hybrid algorithm has been used for training and tests. The rule base of the delay estimation system is constructed either following a mathematical model or from real-time traffic operational data. This study has shown that adaptive neuro-fuzzy technique, a method to predict vehicle delays at signalized junctions, can be successfully applied to modeling of traffic systems.

IPC Code: G06N5/00

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


S & T and Industrial Research

741

Performance characteristic of indigenously developed 24-bit seismic data recorder for earthquake seismology





This paper describes long term performance of CSIO developed seismic data acquisition tested on local, regional and distant earthquakes in comparison with imported data acquisition system. Waveform data is cross-correlated to test the similarity and validate the results. Two major earthquakes have been considered for cross-correlation procedure and the results have been analyzed and explained. CSIO developed 24-bit seismic data recorder has been explained.

IPC Code: G01V1/24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Vishnu Kumar Pandey, Satish Kumar,
B K Sharma & M A Shamshi

748

Effect of glass fibers on restrained plastic shrinkage cracking of HPC with silica fume









R Malathy, K Subramanian &
M Rameshkumar

This paper presents effect of silica fume on plastic shrinkage cracking (PSC) of high performance concrete (HPC). Test specimens of fresh concrete were subjected to a simulated hot dry environmental conditions (temp., 45°C & 52°C; relative humidity, 40±5%; wind velocity, 2.8 m/s) immediately after casting. After studying the crack patterns, glass fibers (length, 12 mm; diam, 0.014 mm; volume fractions, 0.05-0.3% at increment of 0.05%) were added. In a new technique, fiber reinforced concrete to be tested was laid on top of a fully hardened base concrete, which provides the bottom restraint resulting in cracking in the freshly placed overlay. It was observed that 0.3% volume fraction fibers are required for 10% silica fume replaced concrete.

IPC Code: B32B13/02

S & T and Industrial Research

752

Influence of dispersion states of carbon nanotubes on mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites








Smrutisikha Bal

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/ epoxy resin composites have been fabricated by dispersing very low content (0.2%) of MWCNTs in the epoxy matrix using ethanol. To analyze dispersion of CNTs, optical microscope is used. Further ductile nanocomposites (NCs) are prepared by setting samples at low temperature. With a little wt% of CNTs, composite samples yield higher mechanical and electrical properties than pure resin samples. Improvement in flexural modulus and electrical conductivity are observed in NCs containing well dispersed CNTs than the ones with poorly dispersed CNTs. Moreover, ductile samples having better dispersion state exhibit significant improvement in mechanical and electrical properties.

IPC Code: C08G59/00

757

 
Physical and sensory characteristics of low fat dairy dessert (Rasogolla) fortified with natural source of β- carotene










Rasogolla (a white color ping pong like juicy ball prepared by boiling mashed fresh cheese or cottage cheese ball in concentrated sugar syrup) fortified with carrot paste (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels named as sample CRA, CRB, CRC, CRD and CRE respectively), were developed and then compared to conventional Rasogolla taken as control by both sensory and instrumental analysis. All 5-type carrot Rasogolla were similar to control in respect of moisture, sucrose and ash but differed in fat and protein content. Textures of carrot Rasogolla were similar to control in terms of elasticity and cohesiveness. Carrot Rasogolla CRC possesses highest β-carotene level. Rasogolla fortified with carrot could be a valuable addition to indigenous dairy products.

IPC Code: C07C403/24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 





 

Mahuya Bandyopadhyay, Runu Chakraborty
& Utpal Raychaudhuri

Energy and Environment

764

Modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of sour cherry in a solar dryer and under open Sun









E Kavak Akpinar & Y Bicer

Drying kinetics of sour cherry is investigated in solar dryer with forced convection and under open Sun with natural convection. Drying data were fitted to different mathematical models, whose performance was investigated by comparing coefficient (R), reduced chi-square (χ2) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Among these models, drying model developed by Midilli and Kucuk model showed good agreement with the data obtained from the experiments in the solar dryer with forced convection drying mode. Logarithmic model has shown a better fit to the experimental sour cherries data for open Sun drying with natural convection mode than the other models.

IPC Code: F26B3/28; G09B23/00

772

Optimization of restaurant waste oil methyl ester yield










M C Math & G Irfan

Biodiesel may be cost effective if produced from low cost oils (animal fats, restaurant waste oil and frying oil), which, however, contain high amount of free fatty acids (FFA). In the present study, different amounts of methanol (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45%), catalyst concentrations (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 % NaOH), reaction temperature (30, 45 and 55°C) and different reaction times (60, 90 and 120 min) were selected for transesterification of restaurant waste oil in order to optimize experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. Methyl ester yield (65.50-85.50 %) in the laboratory scale biodiesel reactor was obtained maximum (85.50 %) at the optimized process parameters such as methanol (35% by vol), NaOH (0.3 g), reaction temperature (55°C) and reaction time (90 min).

IPC Code: C11B7/00

Waste Treatment and Utilization

777

Impact of continuous mining on water and soil of Wani region










S R Warhate, M K N Yenkie & W K Pokale

Physico-chemical properties of 25 water and 19 soil samples (includes one overburden) from coalmines in Wardha river valley located at Wani (Dist. Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India) were studied to assess the impact of mining activities on the surroundings. Out of 25 water samples, 7 samples contained slightly higher concentrations of measured contaminants and fall into the category of marginally safe sources for human consumption as per the standard BIS classification. Soil samples indicate adverse influence of mining activities on the soil quality. Overburden sample showed high acidic pH and exceptionally high TDS, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, magnesium, iron, nickel, copper, manganese and zinc, which contribute extensively to the contamination of surface waters.

IPC Code: E21C41/18

Author-Reader Platform

785

Announcements

787

Instructions to contributors






 


Author Index

 


Akbas A

736

Akpinar E K

764

Atalay A

736

Bal S

752

Balaji S

710

Bandyopadhyay M

757

Bicer Y

764

Chakraborty R

757

Das D

701

Gokdag M

736

Hasiloglu A S

736

Hsu K-H

716

Huang Y-F

716

Irfan G

777

Karsli N

736

Karthikeyan R

710

Kumar S

741

Lin G C

724

Lin H-D

724

Malathy R

748

Math M C

772

Nath K

701

Pandey V K

741

Pokale W K

777

Rameshkumar M

748

Raychaudhuri U

757

Sehgal P K

710

Shamshi M A

741

Sharma B K

741

Subramanian K

748

Warhate S R

777

Yen G

716

Yenkie M K N

777



Keyword Index

 


β-Carotene

757

Biodiesel

772

Biomass

701

Carbon nanotubes

752

Carrot

757

Coal mining

777

Delay estimation

736

Dispersion

752

Earthquake

741

Electrical properties

752

Environmental parameters

777

EOQ

716

Epoxy nanocomposites

752

Esters

772

Fibrous protein

710

Forced drying

764

Free fatty acids (FFA)

772

Glass fibers

748

High performance concrete

748

Hybrid algorithm

736

Hydrogen production and storage

701

Impact assessment

777

Inventory

710, 724

Keratin

710

Leather tanning industry

710

Mechanical properties

752

Neuro fuzzy

736

Overburden

777

Plastic shrinkage cracking

748

Rasogolla

757

Restaurant waste oil methyl esters

772

Seismic data recorder

741

Sensory evaluation

757

Signalized junction

736

Silica fume

748

Soil pollution

777

Solar drying

764

Sour cherry

764

Stochastic processes

724

Sugar syrup

757

Supply chain

710

Thin layer drying models

764

Transesterification

772

Two-level trade credit

710

Water pollution

777

Waveform data

741