Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 68

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2009

CONTENTS

Reviews

267

Layered double hydroxides: A review




P Nalawade, B Aware, V J Kadam &
R S Hirlekar*


Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy
Sec-8, C B D Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, India

Combination of two-dimensional layered materials and intercalation technique offers a new area for developing nanohybrids with desired functionality. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are mineral and synthetic materials with positively charged brucite type layers of mixed metal hydroxides. Exchangeable anions located in interlayer spaces compensate for positive charge of brucite type layer. Since most biomolecules are negatively charged, can be incorporated between LDHs. A number of cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory agents are either carboxylic acids or carboxylic derivatives and could be ion exchanged with LDHs to have controlled release. LDHs have technological importance in catalysis, separation technology, medical science and nanocomposite material engineering.

273

Bioemulsifiers from marine microorganisms






Anuradha S Nerurkar*, Krushi S Hingurao & Harish G Suthar



Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, Faculty of Science, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India

This review highlights bioemulsifier-producing marine microorganisms, which are capable of producing unique metabolites having industrial applications. High molecular weight biosurfactants (bioemulsifiers) produce stable emulsions, which allow bacteria to adhere strongly to hydrophobic surfaces and then degrade large biological complexes. Bioemulsifiers are classified according to their hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB); those having a low HLB are strong lipophiles and used as water-in-oil emulsifiers, whereas those having a high HLB are strong hydrophiles and used as oil-in-water emulsifiers. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is the most promising marine microorganism used in diverse applications. In A. calcoaceticus RAG-1, emulsification is brought about by production of an extracellular, polymeric bioemulsifier termed emulsan. Tropical marine yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589, produces emulsifier in the presence of alkanes or crude oil. Bioemulsifier potential is mainly dependent on its chemical nature and hence its activity can be enhanced by simple media modification or mutagenesis.

Management & Information Technology

278

Heuristic search by guided enforced hill climbing in fast forward automated planning



Seyed Ali Akramifar* &
Gholamreza Ghasem-Sani


Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P O Box 11365-9517, Tehran, Iran

Enforced hill climbing (EHC), a heuristicaa search method, has been frequently used in a number of AI planning systems. This paper presents a new form of EHC, guided enforced hill climbing (GEHC), to enhance EHC efficiency. Main feature in GEHC is an adaptive ordering function. GEHC has shown a significant improvement in EHC efficiency, especially when applied to larger problems.

285

Free vibration analysis of elastically supported Timoshenko columns with attached masses using fuzzy neural network




























Oktay Demirdağ* & Yetiş Şazi Murat




Pamukkale University, Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey

This study presents elastically supported Timoshenko column with attached masses for free vibration analysis using fuzzy neural network. Neuro fuzzy frequency estimation (NFEE) models were developed to compute vibration frequencies using fuzzy logic toolbox of software Matlab 7.0. Gaussian membership functions and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were used in NFFE model. Hybrid learning rule was applied for quantifying output variables in NFFE model. Frequency values of column with 1, 5 and 10 attached masses were computed. Training sets for NFFE models used transfer matrix method (TMM). During testing of NFFE model, good agreement was observed with results obtained using TMM as reduction in computation effort.

292

Prediction of ground vibrations and frequency in opencast mine using neuro-fuzzy technique





Y Seetharama Rao1* & K Mallikarjuna Rao2



1
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering, GITAM,
Visakhapatnam 530 045, India


2JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada, India

Present work proposes a methodology to predict ground vibrations induced by blast in opencast mine. Proposed methodology showed substantial improvement over artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression.

S & T and Industrial Research

296

Application of Taguchi method to determine hybrid welding conditions of aluminum alloy







Hang Rae Kim1 & Kang Yong Lee2*




1
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., ltd.,
Ulsan, 682-792, South Korea


School of Mechanical Engineering,
Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea

This paper presents a systematic approach to determine optimal process parameters (welding direction, laser power, laser focus, voltage, wire feed rate, root opening tolerance, and traveling speed) associated with hybrid welding (Nd: YAG-GMA) of aluminum alloy (AA5052-H32) using Taguchi method. Optimum welding parameters determined by Taguchi method improved welding performance as compared to those from preliminary set of experimental parameters.

301

Design and implementation of touch sensing technique for respiratory parameters of an anaesthesia ventilator



Jaspreet Kaur* & Jagdish Kumar


Central Scientific Instruments Organization (CSIO), Sector 30 C, Chandigarh 160 030

This paper reports touch sensing technique of acquiring input control data from front panel knobs of ventilator using microcontroller 89C51, besides design and implementation of hardware and embedded system software associated with touch sense technique for respiratory parameters. Touch sense module developed is successfully tested and implemented in indigenously developed CSIO anaesthesia ventilator.

307

Proposed hybrid method of partial extraction















Ashok Jaiswal & B K Shrivastva*




Department of Mining Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221 005, India

This paper introduces a hybrid method of partial extraction by combining widely used methods, wide stall method for big pillar and pillar splitting method for small pillar. Stability criteria for proposed method ensures stability and non-violent failure condition of pillar. Numerical simulation of underground coalmine was carried out by finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). Coal pillars were simulated by FEM to determine stress-strain behaviour. Coal panel was simulated by BEM to determine local mine stiffness and superimposed load on simulated coal pillars.

312

Synthesis, characterization and proton transport property of crystalline - zirconium titanium phosphate, a tetravalent bimetallic acid salt





























Rakesh Thakkar & Uma Chudasama*





Applied Chemistry Department,
Faculty of Technology and Engineering,
The M S University of Baroda,
Vadodara 390 001, India

An advanced inorganic material of the class of tetravalent bimetallic acid (TBMA) salt - zirconium titanium phosphate (ZTP) has been synthesized by sol gel route. ZTP has been characterized for elemental analysis by ICP-AES, FTIR, TGA and X-ray diffraction studies. Ion exchange capacity (IEC) of material was determined and effect of calcination (373-773 K) on IEC studied. Chemical resistivity of material was assessed in acids, bases and organic solvents. Protons present in structural hydroxyl groups in ZTP indicate good potential to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. Proton transport property of ZTP was explored by measuring specific conductance at different temperatures (303-423 K) at 10 K intervals, over a frequency range (1-32 MHz) at a signal level below 1 V. Proton transport properties of zirconium phosphate and titanium phosphate, synthesized and characterized under identical conditions, have been investigated for comparative studies. In all cases, conductivity decreases with increasing temperature. ZTP exhibits enhanced conductance and mechanism of transportation is proposed to be Grotthuss type.

319

Optimization of solvent requirement for refining of karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil by liquid- liquid extraction



B K De* & Jignesh Dahyabhai Patel



Department of Industrial Chemistry,
Division of Oils, Fats & Waxes, Institute of Science & Technology for Advanced Studies & Research (ISTAR), Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, India

An improved detoxification method using liquid-liquid extraction of karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil is developed. Only 2 stage extractions [using oil and HCl (1:0.35 w/v)] followed by 3 extractions [using oil and alkaline MeOH (1:2 w/v)] can completely detoxify oil. After HCl extraction, if alkaline isopropanol (IPA), dimethylformamide (DMF) and acetonitrile are used for extraction, total HCl and corresponding solvent requirement would be (w/v) 1:1.0, 1:6.0; 1:0.2, 1:1.2; and 1:0.4, 1:1.6 respectively. When only acetonitrile is used, 5 stage extraction using oil: acetonitrile (1:0.5, w/v) per batch makes total acetonitrile requirement 2.5 times (v/w) of oil for complete detoxification. Physicochemical characteristics of refined oils are acceptable. Overall oil yield (75-80% w/w) is obtained when alkaline MeOH, IPA and DMF are used, but higher yield (85-88%, w/w) is obtained when acetonitrile is used.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

325

Microbial decolourization of textile dyes through isolates obtained from contaminated sites













Prachi Kaushik & Anushree Malik*




Centre for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110 016, India

This study presents microbial decolourization of textile dyes through 3 bacterial isolates [CPE (bacterial isolate from Pali effluent), CPS (bacterial isolate from Pali soil) and CBE (bacterial isolate from Baddi effluent)] and a fungal isolate [FBE (fungal isolate from Baddi effluent)] obtained from effluent and effluent contaminated sites in Pali (Rajasthan, India) and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh, India). Removal of Acid Sulphone Blue dye (initial conc. 100 mg/l) after 50 h was: FBE (97.67%) > CBE (82.83%) > CPS (60%) > CPE (51.8%). Isolates (CBE and FBE) that displayed good decolourization of Acid Sulphone Blue could decolourize Acid Navy Blue (75.85%-100%) and Fast Red A (46.42%-99.33%) well but Acid Magenta was removed with lesser efficiency (51.57%-69.93%). FBE could hold a good potential for removal of toxic azo dyes from industrial effluents.

332

Evaluation of distillery effluent for crop irrigation













Madhumita Das1*, R B Singhandhupe1,
S D Muduli2, H Chakrabarty1 & Ashwani Kumar1



1
Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751 023, Orissa, India


2F M University, Balasore, India

This study evaluates irrigation use of highly saline cane molasses post methanated distillery effluent in crop production, and crop and soil quality maintenance during fresh water scarcity. Effluent could be used for irrigating crops, preferably grown in neutral soils. In a pot experiment, application of distillery effluent through irrigation was found useful at 50% dilution with water 50(E)/50(W), without impairing groundnut (biomass) yield, nutrient concentration and soil properties. In a field trial on non-saline, acidic, red and laterite soil, alternate supply of effluent with water or 50(E)/50(W) blending proved appropriate for irrigating groundnut in sequence with paddy during monsoon. Salt accumulated through effluent irrigation didn’t retain in soil after paddy in monsoon. A sizeable portion of distillery effluent could reliably be used for crop irrigation.

Author-Reader Platform

338

Instructions to contributors

 
               
 
               Author Index


Akramifar S Ali

278

Aware B

267

 

 

Chakrabarty H

332

Chudasama U

312

 

 

Das M

332

De B K

319

Demirdağ O

285

 

 

Ghasem-Sani G

278

 

 

Hingurao K S

273

Hirlekar R S

267

 

 

Jaiswal A

307

 

 

Kadam V J

267

Kaur J

301

Kaushik P

325

Kim H R

296

Kumar A

332

Kumar J

301

 

 

Lee K Y

296

 

 

Malik A

325

Muduli S D

332

Murat Y Ş

285

 

 

Nalawade P

267

Nerurkar A S

273

 

 

Patel J D

319

 

 

Rao K M

292

Rao Y S

292

 

 

Shrivastva B K

307

Singhandhupe R B

332

Suthar H G

273

 

 

Thakkar R

312


          Keyword Index